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Research on child migrants: Perspectives from the ILO programme to eliminate child labour Yoshie Noguchi ILO-IPEC Geneva 1 General Discussion on the role.

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Presentation on theme: "Research on child migrants: Perspectives from the ILO programme to eliminate child labour Yoshie Noguchi ILO-IPEC Geneva 1 General Discussion on the role."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research on child migrants: Perspectives from the ILO programme to eliminate child labour Yoshie Noguchi ILO-IPEC Geneva 1 General Discussion on the role of migration statistics for treaty reporting and migration policies 22 April 2013

2 ILO standards cover: Child Labour, Migrant Workers, Labour Statistics, etc Reporting obligations on ratified Conventions, including statistics Experience of child labour statistics Various ways of data collection and researches Ethical considerations for research on children 2 Outline

3 ILO Conventions cover various themes, including : Child Labour (C138 & C182) Migrant Workers (C97 & C143) Labour Statistics (C63 & C160) For more information: ILO Standards 3

4 Obligation to report periodically (every 3 years or 5 years) On the ratified Conventions (under the ILO Constitution, article 22) Report forms on each Convention (adopted by the Governing Body) Not only on laws but also on practice, including Statistics! Reporting on ILO Standards 4

5 Framework: ILO Conventions Nos 138 and 182 & UN CRC defining “child labour” / “economic exploitation” The child is too young to work (below the minimum age), and should be in school The work/activity is among worst forms of child labour (WFCL) not permissible for under-18: trafficking, forced labour; sexual exploitation; illicit activities; hazardous work; C182, Art.7(2) (d) requiring measures to: identify and reach out to children at special risk Roadmap for achieving the elimination of the WFCL by 2016, clause 5: ‘Governments should consider ways to address the potential vulnerability of children to, in particular, the worst forms of child labour in the context of migratory flows’. Child Labour and Migration 5

6 Report forms ask for STATISTICS also for C138/C182 : “In so far as the information in question has not already been supplied in connection with other questions in this form – please supply copies or extracts from official documents including inspection reports, studies and inquiries, and, where such statistics exist, information on the nature, extent and trends of the worst forms of child labour, the number of children covered by the measures giving effect to the Convention, the number and nature of infringements reported, penal sanctions applied, etc. To the extent possible, all information provided should be disaggregated by sex.” : Part V of the C182 Report Form “(1) Detailed information and statistical data on the nature and extent of CL should be compiled and kept up to date to serve as basis for determining priorities for national action against CL, in particular WFCL. (2) As far as possible, such information and statistical data should include data disaggregated by sex, age group, occupation, branch of economic activity, status in employment, school attendance and geographical location. The importance of an effective system of birth registration, including issuance of birth certificates, should be taken into account.” : ILO Recommendation 190, Para. 5: Child Labour and Statistics 6

7 Statistical Information and Monitoring Programme on Child Labour (SIMPOC) Help collecting and generating comprehensive and comparable quantitative and qualitative DATA: developing methodologies and concepts (e.g. ICLS Resolution, 2008) The data and qualitative information form essential inputs to child labour policies and programmes Their availability promotes further research and raises awareness of the problem of child labour. For more information: Child Labour Statistics as action against child labour 7

8 Global Estimates on child labour “215 mio in child labour, 115 mio in hazardous work” 2002, 2006, 2010 – forthcoming later in 2013 = media attention; trend analyses Some challenges: New techniques needed for investigating the more hidden forms of child labour, e.g. domestic work Hard to capture, elusive populations: e.g. street children (Capture-recapture methodology) Some child labour, esp WFCL involving illicit or criminal activities Child Labour Statistics (cont’d) 8

9 Rapid Assessment methodology, -for qualitative information -collaboration between ILO and UNICEF Understanding Children's Work (UCW) project -among ILO, UNICEF and World Bank -research activities designed to inform policies where child labour is prominent -a common understanding of child labour, and a common basis for action against it Child Labour Statistics - Inter-agency cooperation 9

10 Unclear definitions and insensitivity to age groups; CL research often misses those forms which are illegal and invisible; Badly chosen samples; Single-method studies without triangulation; Insufficient attention to context and local realities; Poor use of time and other resources; Numbers only tell part of the story. 10 Often seen limitations of research with children Adapted from: Action oriented research on the WFCL including child trafficking, RWG-CL

11 HH, establishment or point of transit based surveys Ensure migration angle is part of the measurement objectives and included from the survey design; Ensure sample captures (concentrated) migrant populations Work towards standardization of Qs for improved comparability (while being sensitive to context); 11 Sample surveys on child labour as opportunity

12 Variables to include: Internal versus cross border dimension Family versus intermediary versus independent migration Legal status (and birth registration) Age and sex Considerations: Location: sending, transit or destination area Timing: sensitivity to harvest, rainy season, migration season etc. 12 Sample surveys on child labour as opportunity (2)

13 The power of secondary sources Review administrative data bases – e.g. criminal statistics, venereal diseases dept, police reports, social services, successful court cases, NGOs, hotlines, trade unions, centers for detention, rescue, rehabilitation; Example: Access to recorded case records by Child Helpline International recorded child labour cases in 3 countries where analyzed for migration status; - enabled us to compare the work situation of migrant children in child labour with local children in child labour; - Conclusion: migrant children are worse off in child labour compared to local children… 13 Beyond sample surveys...

14 Analyze context within which one gathers data and information on children Review of migration and child labour legislation and enforcement; Analysis of policies and programmes; Budget and resource review at various levels; Analysis of attitudes, beliefs and practices; 14 Beyond sample surveys...

15 Direct observations Places of interest: Work sites Encampments Communities Schools Labour markets Ports Bus stops and train stations Border crossings Slums 15...AND indirect observations... Beyond sample surveys...

16 Participatory research with children (1) Appropriate methods: Drawings and other visual methods Drama and role play Recall methods Essay writing Interviews Focus group discussions 16 Para. 2 of Recommendation 190 to Convention 182: ‘taking into consideration the views of children’ (also Clause 2 of Roadmap against WFCL) UN CRC (Art. 12): ‘Views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child’ Beyond sample surveys...

17 Access to children: Fear of reprisals - best interest of the child Geographical isolation Timing Building rapport: Make time! Seek informed consent Safe and secure place Employer not present Intermediaries or go-betweens Language, age, sex... Leave the most sensitive Qs for last 17 Participatory research with children (2) Beyond sample surveys...

18 Protect all participants from harm; All research participation must be voluntary; Ensure the safety of researchers; Respect cultural traditions, knowledge and customs; Minimize the power imbalance; Avoid raising unrealistic expectations; Respect privacy; Ensure confidentiality and anonymity; 18 8 ethical rules for research with children From: Action oriented research on the WFCL including child trafficking, RWG-CL

19 Future research on social issues (including child labour) should systematically include attention to child migrants; Promotion of pro-active policies that are partly based on forecasting (child/youth) migration flows; Improved birth registration to make all children visible; ILO member States, in their reporting under ratified ILO child labour Conventions (and the UN CRC) should include attention to child migrants in/from/through/to their territory; Link up with academic networks to include a focus on child migrants in future research work; Develop standards and tools (indicators, methodologies) for labour migration statistics, anchored on concepts in treaties. Recommendations and ways forward

20 Hard to see, harder to count; Survey guideline to estimate forced labour of adults and children (ILO), 2012 Training manual to fight trafficking in children for labour, sexual and other forms of exploitation – Textbook 1, section 1.7 on research (ILO, UNICEF, UN.GIFT), 2009 Training Modules on Child Labour Data Collection, Processing, Analysis and Reporting (ILO SIMPOC), 2004 Handbook for action-oriented research on the WFCL including trafficking in children (RWG-CL), 2003 Forthcoming – Manual on sampling elusive population in CL Relevant resources 20 For more:


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