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Including Children with Disabilities in Child Care: Red Flags, Rights, & Resources Presented by the NJ Inclusive Child Care Project @ the Statewide Parent.

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Presentation on theme: "Including Children with Disabilities in Child Care: Red Flags, Rights, & Resources Presented by the NJ Inclusive Child Care Project @ the Statewide Parent."— Presentation transcript:

1 Including Children with Disabilities in Child Care: Red Flags, Rights, & Resources
Presented by the NJ Inclusive Child Care the Statewide Parent Advocacy Network © 2005

2 Goals of the Project To increase the quality of early care and education for children with special needs To increase the number of child care providers that offer inclusive child care To increase awareness among parents, childcare providers, and resource and referral agencies of the services available for children with special needs To improve the delivery of services for children with special needs through collaboration among providers of child care services and special needs services

3 Programs and services offered by the New Jersey Incisive Child Care Project
Free information (in Spanish and English) about the laws affecting and influencing inclusion and child care Free information about available services and resources in New Jersey for children with special needs in childcare Free workshops on inclusion awareness as well as “how to” workshops for parents and service providers Free telephone technical assistance regarding early childhood and school-age inclusion Free on-site consultation support services

4 Workshop offerings Inclusion Awareness: It’s the Law and It’s Doable
Red Flags for Child Development Observing & Recording Behavior Addressing Challenging Behaviors Making inclusion happen


6 RED FLAGS: Cause for Action, Not Alarm
Developmental milestones give a general idea of the changes you can expect as a child gets older. Each child develops in his or her own particular manner, so it is impossible to predict exactly when or how a given skill will be mastered. Parents and caregivers should not be alarmed if a child’s development takes a slightly different course.

7 RED FLAGS: Cause for Action, Not Alarm
The presence of a “red flag” or the inability to do something most children already can should not incite panic. Parents should alert the parent and pediatrician immediately if their child displays any of the “red flag” signs of possible developmental delay for her or his age. Signs can be related to physical development or motor skills, vision and hearing, emotional reactions, and other issues.

8 RED FLAGS What are developmental progress indicators?
What are “red flags” that should alert parents & professionals that there may be a developmental delay or disability?

9 Early Indicators 2 weeks: moves both arms & both legs fairly evenly
6 weeks: Looks at you, at least for a few moments, with both eyes, and follows with his eyes if you move your face slowly from side to side 10 weeks: Smiles in response to your smile

10 Developmental Benchmarks 1-3 Months
Respond to loud noise Smile Follow objects with eyes Reach & grasp toys Support head by 3 months

11 Developmental Benchmarks 4-7 Months
Roll Over Respond to sounds Sit with help Laugh or make squealing sounds Holds head steady for few moments when someone sits her/him up Grasps a rattle put in her/his hand

12 Red 7 months Seems either very stiff physically or very floppy like a rag doll. Does not roll over in either direction (front to back or back to front). Cannot sit with help or hold his or her head up when the body is put in a sitting position. Does not bear some weight on the legs. Reaches with one hand only, has difficulty getting objects to the mouth, or does not reach for objects at all. Refuses to cuddle, seems inconsolable at night, or shows no affection for the primary caregiver.

13 Red 7 months Shows specific eye problems (persistent tearing, eye drainage or sensitivity to light) or vision impairments (inability to follow objects with both eyes at near and far ranges). Does not respond to sounds or turn her or his head to locate sounds. Does not laugh, make squealing sounds, smile spontaneously, babble, try to attract attention, or show interest in peek-a-boo.

14 Developmental Benchmarks 8 months-1 year
Crawl Stand when supported Search for hidden objects Say single words (“mama,” “papa”) & makes interesting noises Learn to wave or shake head Sit steadily; sits on floor without support

15 Developmental Benchmarks Year 1
Gaze Vocalization Motor Control: can pick up pea-sized object using thumb & forefinger Coordination of reach and touch Examination of Objects Mobility

16 Red Flags @ 1 year Does not crawl or drags one side while crawling.
Cannot stand when supported. Does not point to objects or pictures or search for objects that are hidden while he or she watches. Says no single words. Does not learn to use gestures, such as waving or head shaking.

17 Developmental Benchmarks 1-2 years
1st word by 15 months Walk a few steps w/out holding on Speak at least 6 words, points to what s/he wants, by 18 months Develop heel-toe walking after several months of walking Use 2 words sentences by age 2

18 Development Benchmarks: Year 2
Words Word combinations Pretend Play Interest in other children Smooth walking, climbing stairs, beginning ball skills Can leave caregiver Scribbles, uses spoon, removes socks and shoes Knows 1-2 body parts Points to pictures in books when asked “Where’s the doggie?”

19 Red months Does not walk by 18 months or walks exclusively on the toes. Does not speak at least 15 words and begin to use two-word sentences. Does not seem to know the function of common household objects like telephones and eating utensils. Does not imitate actions or words or follow simple instructions. Cannot push a wheeled toy.

20 Development Benchmarks: 24-36 months (2-3 years)
Understand simple instructions Get involved in simple pretend/make-believe play (feeds doll imaginary food, makes truck sounds for toy truck) Copy a circle by age 3 Communicate in short phrases Asks questions Manipulate small objects

21 Red Flags @ 3 years Falls frequently or has difficulty using stairs.
Cannot build a tower of more than four blocks, has difficulty manipulating small objects, or cannot copy a circle. Is unable to communicate in short phrases or understand simple instructions. Is not interested in “pretend” play or other children. Has extreme difficulty separating from his or her mother.

22 Developmental Benchmarks: 3-4 years
Jump in place Ride a trike Stack 4 blocks Engage in fantasy play Use sentences of more than 3 words Have some self-control You can understand most of what s/he says at 4 years

23 Red 4 years Cannot throw a ball overhand, jump in place, ride a tricycle, grasp a crayon with the thumb and fingers, stack four blocks, or scribble easily. Ignores or does not respond to children or people outside the family. Is unable to communicate in sentences of more than three words or use “you” or “me” appropriately. Shows no interest in interactive games or fantasy play. Resists dressing, sleeping, or using the toilet. Lashes out with no self-control when angry or upset.

24 Benchmarks for Preschool
Pretend play sequences Sentences Sequencing of ideas Conversations Interest in stories Categorization Playground use Uses variety of art and drawing tools Increased independence and self-help

25 Developmental Benchmarks: 4-5 years
Able to separate from parents Able to concentrate on an activity for more than 5 minutes Respond to people in general Express a wide range of emotions Give first and last name Build a tower of 6-8 blocks Brush teeth Wash and dry hands Can tell a simple story; use past, present & future tenses; knows singular and plural words

26 Red Flags @ 5 years Is extremely fearful, timid or aggressive.
Cannot separate from her or his parents without major protest. Shows little interest in playing with other children or using fantasy or imitation in play Refuses to respond to people or responds only superficially. Cannot understand two-part commands using prepositions, such as “put the toy in the chest.” Is unable to concentrate on any single activity for more than five minutes. .

27 Red 5 years Seems unhappy, sad, or unusually passive much of the time or alternately, does not express a wide range of emotions. Does not use plurals or the past tense properly, correctly give his or her first and last name, or talk about daily activities and experiences. Cannot build a tower of six to eight blocks, hold a crayon comfortably, undress, brush her teeth, or wash and dry his hands. Cannot differentiate between fantasy and reality.

28 Red any age Slipping backwards in almost any area is of major concern. Loss of language skills and/or social skills at any age is a significant red flag. Children who are no longer able to communicate or interact socially at levels they once could should be evaluated immediately by a health professional. An important note: children may exhibit regressive behavior due to upheaval in their lives, such as divorce, separation, illness, or death.

29 Brigance Inventory (Brigance IED-II Criterion-Referenced Assessments)
Developmental Sections with Comprehensive Skills Sequences: Preambulatory Motor Skills and Behaviors Gross-Motor Skills and Behaviors Fine-Motor Skills and Behaviors Self-help Skills Speech and Language Skills General Knowledge and Comprehension Social-Emotional Development

30 Red Flags Difficulty in: Communicating Sequencing Pretend Play
Development of play plans with others Avoids activities or areas Is fearful of certain activities or areas Difficulty remaining focused Limited play repertoire (repetitive play) Tires more easily than others

31 Red Flags for Preschoolers
Additional ‘red flag’ behaviors include: Lack of pretend play Rote language Lack of vocabulary growth Lack of language comprehension Difficulty remaining focused

32 Suggestions for aggressive behaviors
May demonstrate same developmental sequence as a younger typical child May have reduced language during play More isolated play Less associative and cooperative play Difficulties entering a group play Difficulty coordinating roles and pretending Difficulty maintaining play focus and attention during play Lack of problem solving skills during play Lack of curiosity in play Difficulty taking turns Lack of social rules through peer confrontation

33 Early Play Stages The cognitive thread goes through many changes in the period from two to five years. An overview of the changes would be as follows: Presymbolic – children use objects for their intended purpose -rolls a truck, drinks from a bottle. Beginning symbolic – children pretend briefly and only on themselves -throws liquid out to a bottle and then pretends to drink from it Says nigh-nigh and laughs because it is daytime.

34 Early Play Stages Pretend play involving other things – children play on objects for short periods of time feed the doll Beginning sequenced play – child links two play actions involving other things together. Feeds the doll and wipes the doll’s mouth after the doll is done. Planned play – child knows what objects he needs for play sequence before he begins. Looks for a dress to put on doll, discards it and puts on another dress, because the first dress didn’t fit the plan.

35 Cognitive play stages These cognitive play levels include the child’s:
Placing himself in simple sequences as he reenacts past events Using miniatures to reenact these past events Having miniatures talk to each other as they reenact past events – assigning roles to the miniatures Placing past events in a sequence with a beginning, middle, and end Coordinating sequenced events with the sequenced events provided by other children

36 Cognitive Levels We can practice identifying some cognitive levels:
Child rolling a car Child feeding a stuffed giraffe Child making pizza and serving it to a group of pretend friends Child going to the moon in a cardboard rocket ship Child looking for the props he needs to enact a beach scene and then acting it out using a school bus and a group of toy miniatures to do so. Child assigning roles to a group of miniatures in a toy house; having them act out long convoluted scenes.

37 Social readiness skills
These levels include: Unoccupied play –play limited to one’s own body twirls hair - claps hands repeatedly Onlooker – child watches play of others Solitary play - child plays alone (usually at the functional or beginning pretend play levels we just discussed) Plays with a car or blocks, b but leaves if another child enters play Parallel play –child plays alongside another but does not share materials and does not engage with the other child

38 Social readiness skills
Associative play – Child plays in a group activity but without coordinating his ideas with the ideas of others. For example, (e.g., a group of children are using blocks but if you ask them what they are doing, they each respond with a different answer. A group of children are making a house out of a refrigerator box but they have not coordinated a plan for how they will do it).

39 Social readiness skills
Cooperative play – Children play in an interactive way with other children; they verbalize their plans and carry them out. This kind of play requires symbolic and social sophistication. They know about taking turns developing plans jointly pulling their ideas apart and integrating them with the ideas of other children and assigning roles to each other as well as to miniatures. Such play also usually requires a great deal of language competency since ideas are usually shared and joined as children talk about them.

40 If there is a concern… The parent should raise their concern with their child’s pediatrician/family care practitioner Research shows that parent concerns are a good gauge of their child’s development For a child aged 0-3 years, the parent should contact early intervention (county Special Child Health Services Case Management Unit) For a child aged 3 years and older, the parent should contact their local school district

41 If there is a concern… Possible screening/evaluation/assessment:
Hearing & vision screening (all babies should be screened for hearing & vision prior to leaving the hospital); if the parent has a concern about their child’s vision or hearing, SCHS can provide an appropriate referral Physical evaluation Evaluation re: cognitive development Pediatric & developmental assessment Social-emotional evaluation Speech/language evaluation

42 Legal Rights of Families & Children with Special Needs
Americans with Disabilities Act (public accommodations) Early Intervention Preschool Special education

43 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Prohibits discrimination based on disability in employment, education and “public accommodations,” including child care providers Requires “reasonable accommodations” to be provided at no cost to the person with a disability Requires child care providers to accept and serve children with disabilities if they can do so without substantively altering their program and without incurring “excessive cost” Enforced by U.S. Department of Justice

44 Who is covered by ADA? Almost all privately-run child care centers (including small, home-based centers, even those that are not licensed by the state) -All child care services provided by government agencies (like Head Start, summer programs, and extended school day programs) -Private child care centers that are operating on the premises of a religious organization

45 -Only centers that are controlled or operated by a religious organization do not have to comply with the ADA. -Even those centers may have to comply if they have agreed to comply through contract with a federal, state, regional, or local government agency (Section 504 of Vocational Rehabilitation Act).

46 WHAT DOES ADA REQUIRE? -Child care providers may not discriminate against children or persons with disabilities. -They must provide children and parents with disabilities with an equal opportunity to participate in their programs and services. -Centers and providers cannot exclude children with disabilities from their programs unless their presence would pose a direct threat to the health or safety of others or require a fundamental alteration of their program.

47 WHAT DOES ADA REQUIRE? -Centers and providers must make reasonable modifications to their policies and practices to include children, parents, and guardians with disabilities in their programs. -Centers and providers must provide appropriate auxiliary aids and services needed for effective communication with children or adults with disabilities, unless doing so would be an undue burden (significant difficulty or expense, relative to the childcare provider’s resources or the resources of the “parent” company.)

48 WHAT DOES ADA REQUIRE? -Centers and providers must make their facilities accessible to people with disabilities. -Existing facilities must remove any readily achievable barriers. -Newly constructed facilities and any altered portions of existing facilities must be fully accessible. -If existing barriers can be removed without much difficulty or expense, childcare providers must remove those barriers now even if there are no children or adults with disabilities using the program.

49 WHAT DOES ADA REQUIRE? - Installing offset hinges to widen a door opening, installing grab bars in toilet stalls, or rearranging tables, are examples of readily achievable barrier removal. -Centers run by government agencies must ensure that their programs are accessible unless making changes would impose an undue burden; this sometimes includes changes to facilities. -To demonstrate “reasonable efforts,” childcare providers must attempt to access available resources outside of their programs.

50 Decision-Making Process: -Providers must make individualized assessments about whether they can meet the particular needs of each child with a disability who seeks services from their program, without fundamentally altering their program. -Providers must talk with the parents or guardians & other professionals who work with the child. -Child care & other providers are not required to accept children who would pose a direct threat or whose presence would fundamentally alter the nature of their program.

51 Unacceptable reasons to exclude: -Higher insurance rates: If any extra cost is incurred, it should be treated as overhead and divided equally among all paying families. -The need of a child with a disability for individualized attention, unless the extent of the need would fundamentally alter the program or the cost would be an undue burden.

52 Unacceptable reasons to exclude: -The need for a child with a disability to bring a service animal, such as seeing eye dog, to the center, even if the center has a “no pets” policy. Services animals are not “pets.” -The need for a child to receive medication while at the program. If reasonable care is used in following the written instructions about administering medication, centers are generally not liable for any resulting problems.

53 Unacceptable reasons to exclude: -The fact that a child has allergies, even severe, life-threatening allergies to bee stings or certain foods: Providers need to be prepared to take appropriate steps in the event of an allergic reaction, such as administering “epinephrine” that will be provided in advance by the child’s parents. Non-medical personnel may administer “epi-pens.”

54 Unacceptable reasons to exclude: -Delayed speech or developmental delays: Under most circumstances, children with disabilities must be placed in age-appropriate classrooms. -Mobility impairments/need for assistance in taking off and putting on leg or foot braces during the day: As long as other children wouldn’t have to be left unattended, or so complicated that it can only be done by licensed health care professionals.

55 Unacceptable reasons to exclude: -The need for toileting, even if the provider has a general rule about excluding children over a certain age unless they are toilet-trained. Under state regulations, the childcare provider must have an approved toileting area if toileting services are provided for any child, regardless of age. Universal precautions, such as wearing latex gloves, should be used whenever caregivers come into contact with children’s blood or bodily fluids.

56 Lawful reasons to exclude: -Children who pose a direct threat – a substantial risk of serious harm to the health and safety of others – do not have to be admitted into a program. -This determination may not be made on generalizations or stereotypes; it must be based on an individualized assessment that considers the particular activity and the actual abilities and disabilities of the child.

57 What questions can be asked: -Childcare providers may ask all applicants whether a child has any diseases that are communicable through the types of incidental contact expected to occur in child care settings or specific conditions, like active infectious tuberculosis, that in face pose a direct threat. -Providers may not inquire about conditions such as AIDS or HIV infection that have not been demonstrated to pose a direct threat.

58 Lawful reasons to remove post-admission: -If a childcare provider has made reasonable efforts to meet the needs of a child with disabilities already in their program, but the child’s needs can’t be met, or the child continues to pose a direct threat to the health or safety of others, the child may be removed from the program. -This decision must be made on an individual basis.

59 Costs of Special Services -Childcare providers may not charge parents of children with special needs additional fees to provide services required by the ADA. -Providers must spread the cost across all participating families. -For example, if a center is asked to do simple procedures that are required by the ADA, like finger-prick blood glucose tests for children with diabetes, it can’t charge the parents extra.

60 Parent Responsibilities: -The parents must provide all appropriate testing equipment, training, and special food for the child. -If the childcare provider is providing services beyond those required by ADA, like hiring licensed medical personnel to conduct complicated medical procedures, it may charge the child’s family.

61 ADA Information Line -To help offset the cost of actions or services that are required by the ADA, such as architectural barrier removal, providing sign language interpreters, or purchasing adaptive equipment, some tax credits and deductions may be available. -Contact the ADA Information Line at for more details.

62 Early Intervention The mission of the New Jersey Early Intervention System (NJEIS) is to provide quality early support and services to enhance the capacity of families to meet the developmental and health-related needs of children, birth to age three, who have delays or disabilities.

63 Referral There is a single point of entry for early intervention in each NJ county. Primary referral sources are required to refer a child to Early Intervention within 2 days of identification. Those sources include hospitals, physicians, parents, child care programs, local educational agencies, public health facilities, other social service agencies, and health care providers.

64 Service Coordination Service coordination assists and enables eligible children and families to receive the rights, procedural safeguards, and services within NJEIS. Service coordinators are also a single point of contact in helping families to obtain community services and assistance that they might need for themselves and their child.

65 Service Coordination Every county has a Special Child Health Services Service Coordination unit. Parents call the county SCHS unit, share their concerns about their child, and are assigned a Service Coordinator who coordinates evaluation & assessment and services.

66 Evaluation & Assessment
An early intervention evaluation will gather information about the child to see how he or she is developing. It is used to determine eligibility for early intervention services. Assessment helps to define the types and levels of services needed by the child and family. It will be completed within 45 days.

67 Eligibility for EI A child between birth and 3 years of age is eligible with at least a 33% delay in one and/or a 25% delay in two or more developmental areas. Those areas include: -physical -cognitive -communicative -social/emotional, and -adaptive.

68 IFSP Following the evaluation and assessment, an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) is developed to describe the services that are needed by the child and family and how they will be implemented. The IFSP is both a plan and a process. The plan is a written document and the process is an ongoing sharing of information between the family and early intervention to meet the developmental needs of the child and the resource needs of the family. It must be developed within 45 days of referral.

69 IFSP Meeting The IFSP is developed at a meeting with the family, service coordinator, and at least one member of the evaluation team. It is based on information collected from the family and the evaluation/assessment. The meeting is held at a time and location convenient to the family and in the language or method of communication that is used at home, within 45 days of referral.

70 EI Services Early Intervention services are designed to address a problem or delay in development as early as possible. They are provided by qualified personnel in natural environments: settings in which children without special needs ordinarily participate and that are most comfortable and convenient for the family, consistent with family routines.

71 EI Services In addition to services to infants & toddlers, the IFSP will contain services to help the family learn how to help their child develop and learn. These services may include respite, family training, family support, or parent to parent support.

72 Cost of EI Services Federal law requires that specific services be provided to eligible children and families at public expense. These services include Child Find and Referral; Evaluation and Assessment; Service Coordination; IFSP Development and Review; and Procedural Safeguards (family rights).

73 Cost of EI Services Beyond these, a family may have to assume some or all of the costs, depending on resources available and families’ ability to pay. Family cost share is based on a sliding fee scale that determines the cost by a family’s income and size. Families with income up to 350% of poverty do not pay for any services.

74 IFSP Reviews The IFSP is reviewed every 6 months, or more frequently as appropriate, to ensure the plan continues to meet the needs of the child and family. At IFSP meetings, the IFSP team, which includes family members, reviews the current outcomes and early intervention services to update as needed. A new IFSP is written at least once per year at an annual review.

75 Transition at age 3 The goal of all transitions is to assist children and families to move from one phase to another in the most helpful way possible. Transitions can occur at any time a child and family are receiving early intervention services. When a child is 2 years old, a transition information meeting will be held with the parents, service coordinator, and others who have worked with the child to begin planning services and support that might be needed when the child turns three and leaves early intervention.

76 Transition at age 3 This process contains several steps to transition from early intervention to other early childhood settings and support services that the child and family may need at age three. Between 120 and 90 days before the child turns three, there is a transition meeting that includes EI and the school district.

77 Transition at age 3 If the parent and the school district disagree on the services or placement when a child turns 3, the child continues to receive all existing EI services at district expense if the parent requests mediation or due process.

78 More Info on EI For more information, go to or call

79 Accessing Special Ed   If you are concerned about a preschool child or student (age three through twenty-one) who may be developing or learning differently, you can call the school district in which the child resides. District phone numbers and addresses are available at or

80 Referral A referral is a written request for an evaluation that is given to the school district when it seems possible that a child may have a disability and might need special education and related services. Parents, school personnel and agencies concerned with the welfare of students may make a referral to the school district where the student resides.

81 Identification meeting
Within 20 calendar days of receiving a referral, the school district must hold a meeting to decide whether an evaluation will be conducted. The meeting must be conducted in the parent’s language and materials must be provided in the parent’s language. If the school district decides to conduct an evaluation the group will select the types of testing and other procedures that will be used to determine if the child needs special education services.

82 Evaluation An evaluation is the process used to determine whether a child is eligible for special education and related services. The process includes a review of any relevant data, and the individual administration of any tests, assessments and observations of the child. Every district has a “child study team,” which includes a social worker, psychologist, & learning disabilities teacher consultant. For preschoolers, the CST must include a speech-language specialist.

83 Evaluation At least two child study team members must participate in the initial evaluation along with any other specialists whose observations are necessary for a meaningful assessment of the child's needs. The evaluation must be conducted in the language commonly used by the family and the child.

84 Eligibility Meeting When the evaluation is completed, the school district holds a collaborative meeting to determine if the child is eligible for special education and related services. Prior to the meeting, the school district must give the parent a copy of the evaluation reports(s) and other documents and information that will be used to determine the child's eligibility. The parent must receive this information no less than 10 calendar days before the meeting.

85 Eligibility Criteria To be eligible for special education and related services: §  A student must have a disability according to one of the eligibility categories; § The disability must adversely affect the student's educational performance; and The student must be in need of special education and related services.

86 Eligibility Criteria Types of disabilities that may lead a preschooler to be eligible as “preschool disabled”: Autism/autism spectrum (pervasive developmental delay, Apsergers, etc.), communication impairment, specific learning disability, cognitive disability, blind/visually impaired, deaf/hearing impaired, blind & deaf, orthopedic disability, other health impaired (ADHD, Tourette Syndrome, etc.), serious emotional disturbance, traumatic brain injury, multiple disabilities

87 IEP Meeting After it is determined that a child is eligible for special education and related services, a meeting is held to develop the child's IEP. The IEP is both a plan and a process. The plan is a written document that describes in detail a child's special education program. The process is the ongoing sharing of information between the family and school district to meet the child's developmental and educational needs.

88 IEP Development The IEP should describe how the individual child currently performs and the child's specific instructional strengths & needs. The IEP must include measurable annual goals and short term objectives or benchmarks; services to be provided; responsible parties; & where services will be provided (placement). When parental consent is granted, the IEP is implemented as soon as possible following the IEP meeting and within 90 calendar days of the school’s receipt of parental consent for the first evaluation.

89 Child’s strengths & needs For every identified need:
Placement: where will services be provided Ongoing monitoring & report to parents Annual Goal & short-term bench-marks Services to be provided to reach goal: service, who provides, frequency, duration, group size Least restrictive environment; interact with non-disabled peers How will progress be measured; participation in tests w/ accommoda-tions; report to parents

90 IEP Development The IEP includes:
-How the child will learn the core curriculum content standards (CCCS) -How the child will be assessed (tested) on state and district-wide assessments -How the child will be educated in the “least restrictive environment” with opportunities to interact with non-disabled peers -How the child will receive positive behavior supports to address challenging behaviors -How the parent will receive information about their child’s progress toward CCCS & goals

91 IEP Development . For resources on creating meaningful IEP's see Tools for Teachers at or contact the NJ Council on Developmental Disabilities at

92 Accessing Special Ed To the maximum extent appropriate, preschoolers and students with disabilities are educated with their typically developing peers. Placement in a typical classroom is the first consideration. For a preschool child this may be a school district general education preschool program or a nonsectarian early childhood preschool/child care program licensed or approved by a government agency. For further information:

93 Annual review . Annually, or more often if necessary, the IEP team will meet to review and revise the IEP and determine placement. A parent or teacher may request a review of the IEP whenever they feel it is needed or appropriate.

94 Re-evaluation . A child must be re-evaluated every three years, or sooner if conditions warrant, or if the parent or the child's teacher requests it. Reevaluation is conducted when a change in eligibility is being considered. Parental consent is required for re-evaluation.

95 Parental Consent The school district must obtain parental consent:
-Before a child is evaluated for the first time to determine whether a child is eligible for special education; -Before a child's special education program begins for the first time; -Before a child is tested as part of a reevaluation; -Before a child's records are released to a person or organization that is not otherwise authorized to see them.

96 Resolving Disagreements in EI or Special Education
Parents have several options: -Mediation (conducted by state) -Request for complaint investigation -Request for due process: -Resolution session held at the district (special education only) -Due process hearing at Office of Administrative Law (special education) or before panel of parent, lawyer, & early childhood professional (early intervention)

97 Resources for Families of Children with Special Needs

98 Early Intervention Resources (Age 0-3)
NJ Department of Health & Senior Services Special Child Health Services “Single point of entry” Regional Early Intervention Collaboratives Early Intervention Programs State Interagency Coordinating Council (SICC): advises State on EI SPAN Early Intervention Procedural Safeguards Training Project

99 Preschool Resources (3-5)
NJ DOE OSEP 619 Coordinator (Barbara Tkach) Regional Learning Resource Centers Local school district Special Child Health Services Case Management Units (county-based) SPAN - NJ Inclusive Child Care Project Map to Inclusive Child Care Committee of NJ Department of Human Services County Unified Child Care Agencies

100 Special Education Resources
NJS DOE Office of Special Ed Programs SCHS Case Management Units (3-21) County Supervisor of Child Study SPAN NJ DD Council Education Subcommittee NJ Coalition for Inclusive Education Disability-specific organizations NJ Protection & Advocacy Education Law Center Association for Children of NJ

101 Health Resources Family Voices/Family to Family Health Information & Resource SPAN Arc Mainstreaming Medical Care Project Community Health Law Project University Center of Excellence American Academy of Pediatrics-NJ Chapter, Committee on Children with Disabilities Medicaid; Family Care; SSI Children’s Catastrophic Illness Program NJ Citizen Action Association for Children of NJ

102 Mental Health Resources
County-based Family Support Organizations County Care Management Organizations Federation of Families for Children’s Mental SPAN NJ Association for the Mentally Ill NJ Mental Health Association & county Mental Health Associations YCS Center for Infant-Toddler Mental Health

103 Family Support Resources
NJ Statewide Parent to Parent Family Support Center Family Support Councils NJ Developmental Disabilities Council NJ Self-Help Clearinghouse Disability-specific organizations Early intervention

104 Assistive Technology Resources
NJ Coalition for Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology United Cerebral Palsy Associations Technology Assistive Resource Program NJ Protection & Advocacy) The College of NJ “Back in Action” Assistive Devices Recycling Center

105 Recreation Resources NJ Special Olympics Very Special Arts-NJ
NJ Department of Community Affairs – Office of Recreation Municipal/Township Recreation Offices

106 Transportation Resources
NJ Transit Office of Special Services Access Link Reduced Fare Program County Para-Transportation Amtrak Office of Special Services Division of Motor Vehicles – Handicapped Placard or Plates

107 County Disability Resources
County Offices for the Disabled County Supervisor of Child Study (NJS Department of Education) Special Child Health Services Service Coordination (0-3) & Case Management (3-21) Units

108 Internet Resources Disability Central Disability Resources Monthly
Family & Disability News Family Village Health World OnLine Inclusion Network Institute for Community Inclusion Institute on Independent Living National Council on Disability Parents Place

109 Disability-Specific Resources
Arc of NJ Brain Injury Association CHARGE Syndrome Association Commission for the Blind & Visually Impaired COSAC (Autism) Epilepsy Foundation Learning Disabilities Association Mental Health Association National Alliance for the Mentally Ill-NJ

110 Disability-Specific Resources
National Federation for the Blind-NJ NJ Association of the Deaf NJ Association of the Deaf-Blind Parents of Blind Children Spina Bifida Association Tourette Syndrome Association Traumatic Brain Injury Association-NJ United Cerebral Palsy Associations

111 Disability Resources State Office on Disability Services:
Information & Referral Interagency Advocacy Personal Assistance Services Program Personal Preference Cash & Counseling Demonstration Project

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