Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Investigating Child Sexual Abuse

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Investigating Child Sexual Abuse"— Presentation transcript:

1 Investigating Child Sexual Abuse
Christine E. Barron, MD Assistant Professor, Pediatrics Warren Alpert Medical School at Brown University

2 Objectives National Data Physical Examination “Red Flag” Behaviors
Disclosures and Forensic Interviewing Multidisciplinary Team Prevention

3 2008 National Data ~ 3.3 million reports involving ~6 million children
772,000 children were found to be victims of maltreatment 70% Neglect 15% Physical Abuse <10% Sexual Abuse <10% Psychological maltreatment Child Maltreatment 2008

4 Each year ~1% of children are victims of CSA
Sexual abuse is common National survey of US adults Childhood sexual abuse reported by 27% of women 16% of men1 Each year ~1% of children are victims of CSA Adolescents: highest rates for sexual assaults 1Finkelhor et al. Child Abuse & Neglect 1990;14:19-28.

5 Risk Factors CSA occurs across all socioecomonic and ethnic groups
Race and ethnicity have NOT been identified as risk factors Disabilities are a risk factor Family Constellations Putnam. J. AM. ACAD. CHILD ADOLESC. PSYCHIATRY, 42:3, MARCH 2003

6 Myths of Sexual Abuse Perpetrators are strangers
Perpetrators who touch boys don’t touch girls Children tell about the abuse immediately Children tell fantasies Any child victim with penetration will have an abnormal examination Disclosures in custody issues are all false allegations

7 Pedophiles Can have normal peer sexual relationships
Can be sexually oriented only to children Can be abuse reactive Child-on-Child Often someone family knows

8 Sexual abuse – RI laws Age <=13 14 15 16 17 >=18
Unable to consent <=13 Child molestation 14 Third degree 15 16 Consensual sex 17 >=18 Mark Massi

9 Physical Examinations
Evaluations for the Diagnosis & Treatment of Child Sexual Abuse

10 American Academy of Pediatrics
Developmentally appropriate interview Complete examination to include growth, development, social, and emotional state Directed genital examination for specific signs or physical indicators Laboratory evaluation, cultures for STI’s -- as indicated by history or physical Culture versus NAAT testing

11 Physical Examination Provides reassurance
Examine for treatable conditions, STIs Collect legal evidence Chronic sequelae Assists in the protection of the child

12 Triage Nonurgent (within few weeks) Urgent (within a few days)
Vaginal discharge, odor, possible pregnancy Emergent (within 24 hours) Vaginal, rectal bleeding Psychological crisis Safety concerns Forensic Evidence Collection

13 Examination When possible examinations should be completed by specially trained physicians to ensure that the examination is not more traumatizing then the incidences of abuse.

14 General Physical Examination
Head to toe physical examination Attention to: Abdominal Exam Skin- appropriate UV light source Bruising Ligature/control marks Oral Sign of penetration Sexually transmitted diseases

15 Physical Examination Genitals
Completed in a non-traumatic manner External inspection A speculum is infrequently used in adolescents and rarely used in pre-pubertal children Colposcope Tool for magnification and photo-documentation Does not see what is not there

16 Estrogen Effect on Hymen
Circulating maternal hormones causes estrogenization of hymen Hormonal influences decrease in childhood Hormonal influences become obvious once again during puberty Estrogen- Thickened, redundant and pale.

17 Physical Signs and Symptoms
Bruises, scratches, bites Abdominal pain Genital bleeding – “blood on underwear” Genital discharge, sexually transmitted disease Genital or Anal Pain Genital Skin Lesions Genital/Urethral/Anal Trauma Enuresis, Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Encopresis, Anal Fissures

18 Diagnosing Sexual Abuse
Can the doctor tell? Can any doctor complete these evaluations?

19 Physicians Not trained Feel uncomfortable
Call normal findings abnormal Call abnormal findings normal

20 Do Physician’s Recognize Sexual Abuse?
More than half could not recognize clear evidence of chronic sexual trauma More than half of primary care physicians could not identify major parts of a female child’s genital anatomy Ladson et al AJDC l987

21 Physical Examination Findings
Untrained physicians are more likely to over-diagnosis -- meaning calling normal variations evidence of abuse when they are not… Or miss chronic findings of abuse and call the examination normal when it is not!

22 Makoroff et al Child Abuse Negl 2002
“Genital Examinations for Alleged Sexual Abuse of Prepubertal Girls: Findings by Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physicians Compared With Child Abuse Trained Physicians” ER Physician: Diagnosed patients with non-acute genital findings indicative of sexual abuse Child Abuse Physicians: 32 (70%) normal 4 (9%) nonspecific 2 (4%) concerning Makoroff et al Child Abuse Negl 2002

23 Physical Exam Adams approach to interpretation of medical findings in suspected child sexual abuse Adams et al. Guidelines for medical care of children evaluated for suspected sexual abuse: an update for Current opinion in obstetrics and gynecology 2008;20(5):

24 Physical Exam Findings commonly seen in non abused children
Ex: periurethral bands Findings commonly caused by other medical conditions Ex: erythema of the vestibule Indeterminate findings (conflicting data from research, requires further evaluation to determine significance) ex: deep notch in hymen

25 Physical Exam Findings diagnostic of trauma and/or sexual contact
Examples: Lacerations or bruising Hymenal transection (area of hymen torn through or nearly through the base) Infection such as chlamydia > 3years old Pregnancy Sperm on sample taken from child’s body

26 Examination Techniques

27 Physical Findings 5-10% of children have physical findings
Genital (female) Bruising Transections Absent hymenal tissue Abrasions Sexually Transmitted Diseases

28 Physical Findings Genital (Male) Penile Abrasions Bites, Bruises
Urethral/Anal Discharge Sexually Transmitted Infections Scars

29 “It’s normal to be normal.”
Joyce Adams, MD

30 Kellogg N et al Pediatrics 2004
“Genital Anatomy in Pregnant Adolescents: “Normal” Does Not Mean “Nothing Happened”; 36 pregnant adolescents seen for sexual abuse evaluations 2/36 (6%) had definitive findings of penetration (cleft to base of hymen) 4/36 (8%) had suggestive findings of penetration (deep notches or clearly visible scars) Kellogg N et al Pediatrics 2004

31 Repetitive Penetration
Study 506 girls 5-17 with reported penile-vaginal penetration 85% of victims reporting > 10 penetrative events had no definitive findings on exam This was true even if this occurred over a long period of time. Anderst Pediatrics 2009: 124-;e403-e409

32 Physical Exam A normal exam does not exclude the possibility of sexual abuse or prior penetration

33 “The genital examination of the abused child rarely differs from that of the nonabused child. Thus legal experts should focus on the child’s history as the primary evidence of abuse.” Berenson, A. Am J. OB/Gyn 2000

34 Heger et al Child Abuse & Neglect 2000
“Children Referred for Possible Sexual Abuse: Medical Findings in 2384 Children” Referrals based on disclosure, behavior changes, medical findings Overall 96% had normal exams 5.5% abnormal when disclosed penetration 1.7% abnormal without history penetration 8% exams abnormal when had medical findings STIs, acute genital trauma, healed hymenal trauma, transections Heger et al Child Abuse & Neglect 2000

35 Why are exams normal? Nature of assault may not be damaging
Perception of “penetration” Disclosures often delayed Complete healing can occur The hymen changes with puberty

36 Physical Exam 2 year old female living in home with father after 9 year old half sister disclosed sexual abuse by him. brought 2 year old to the pediatrician for a genital “rash” but did not report history of half-siblings disclosure. When the pediatrician said everything “looked fine” mother concluded that 2 year old was not sexually abused and could continue living with father

37 Evidence based medicine, experience and reason support that a normal exam does not rule out sexual abuse or prior penetration This may contradict beliefs of families (and jurors, some law enforcement workers) Try to understand families’ perceptions and explain significance of exam findings

38 Additional Exam Findings

39 Stay Moral, Go Oral Adolescents do not consider oral sex to be sexual activity. Need to ask if anything has been in the mouth!

40 Mimickers of Sexual Abuse
Medical Conditions Accidental Trauma

41 Vaginal Bleeding

42 Case

43 Physiologic Endometrial Shedding
Vaginal bleeding is occasionally observed in female infants during the first few weeks of life. The condition results from the reduction in high level of placentally acquired maternal estrogens that takes place after birth. The bleeding occurs as the stimulated endometrial lining is shed, usually ceases within 7-10 days.

44 Prepubertal Vaginal Bleeding
Endometrial Shedding Endocrine- Hypothyroidism Liver Cirrhosis Coagulopathy Precocious puberty McCune-Albright Syndrome Ovarian Cyst

45 Case # 2

46 Urethral Prolapse Exam- annular mass from urethral meatus
Urethral mucosa is friable- bleeding, pain and dysuria. Prolapse can be more pronounced with Valsalva maneuver Not associated with child abuse More prevalent in African-American females Tx: Nonsurgical unless Urinary retention, or lesion is necrotic

47 Case

48 Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus
Hypopigmented, well-circumscribed areas of atrophic skin around genital and/or anus. “Figure-of-eight” Subepithelial hemorrhages Frequently mistaken for bruising or bleeding caused by trauma from SA

49 Straddle Injuries Site of impact often anterior External to hymen
Unilateral Painful Bleeding may be significant Occasional penetrating trauma to hymen with external to internal injury

50 Case

51 Vaginal Foreign Body Intermittent bloody discharge.
Toilet paper is the most common foreign body Not indicative of abuse

52 Summary Differential Dx for Vaginal Bleeding Sexual Abuse
Physiologic Endometrial Shedding Urethral Prolapse Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus Labial Agglutination Foreign body Accidental trauma

53 Continued Tumors Urinary Tract Clear Cell Carcinoma Rhadomyosarcoma
Ovarian Adrenal Urinary Tract Urethral Prolapse Hemorrhagic cystitis Urate Crystals Hematuria UTI

54 Continued GI Tract Dermatology Hematochezia Anal Fissure
Lichen Sclerosis et Atrophicus

55 Forensic Evidence Collection
Sexual Assault has occurred within 72-hours Disclosure Witnessed Confession Contact could have resulted in transfer of bodily fluids

56 “Forensic Evidence Findings in Prepubertal Victims of Sexual Assault”
Christian et al Pediatrics 2000 90% of children with positive kits were seen within 24 hours of assault 64% evidence found on clothing and linens (Only 35% children had clothing/linens collected) No swab positive for semen/sperm after 9 hrs

57 Forensic Evidence Collected on Examination
Conclusions: Forensic evidence collections from body sites in child and adolescent rape patients are unlikely to yield positive results for semen: more than 24 hours after the event and when taken from prepubertal patients. Young. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160: Consideration should be given to amending guidelines regarding forensic evidence collections in child and adolescent sexual abuse or assault victims.

58 “Date Rape” Drugs (Alcohol)
Not typically screened for in routine toxicology screen Specifically must request urine screen Found in urine up to 24 hours after ingestion

59 “Date Rape” Drugs GHB and metabolites
Loss of consciousness, hypothermia, clonic jerking Effects begin after minutes Peak within minutes Persists up to 5 hours

60 “Date Rape” Drugs Rohypnol- Flunitrazepam Benzodiazepine
Sedation, loss of consciousness Effects begin after 30 minutes Peak within 2 hours Persist up to 8-12 hours

61 Physical Examination The health and welfare of the child take precedence over legal and investigative needs

62 Sexually Transmitted Infections
How often do STI’s help to make the diagnosis of Child Sexual Abuse?

63 Symptoms Burning Discharge Itching Bleeding Anogenital Pain
Pubertal- may have no symptoms Anogenital

64 Sexually Transmitted Diseases
2973 Children evaluated for sexual abuse: 1.7% Gonorrhea 1.3% Chlamydia 0.2% Syphilis <1% Trichomonas 1.7% Condyloma acuminata (warts) 0.3% Herpes Simplex Virus

65 Who do we test? Age of child
High risk of STI in assailant (incarceration) Household member with STI Type of sexual abuse Symptoms (vaginal discharge) Acuity of abuse Patient/family concern High incidence in community Multiple/unknown offenders Testing

66 STDs for the Diagnosis of CSA
Gonorrhea* Diagnostic† Syphilis* Diagnostic HIV § Diagnostic C trachomatis* Diagnostic† T vaginalis Highly suspicious HPV *Suspicious (Indeterminate) Herpes simplex Virus (HSV) *Suspicious (Probable, Indeterminate) Bacterial vaginosis Inconclusive Kellogg, The Evaluation of Sexual Abuse in Children. Pediatrics 2005;116; *Reading. Arch Dis Child 2007;92:608–613. doi: /adc *Adams. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology 2008, 20:435–441 2nd Citation identified a study in UK where HSV was really only probable and did not meet the level of Suspicious Adams lastest information- Inderterminate

67 Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Infections (STI)
HPV- Human Papilloma Virus Sinclair Study- Anogenital and Oral Pharyngeal Warts 31% likelihood of Sexual Abuse No actual “cut off-age” Sinclair KJ, et al. Pediatrics 2005; 116:815–825.

68 HIV Risk factors Type of sexual contact Unknown Assailant
Known HIV status Multiple sexual partners IVDU Incarceration

69 Physical Examination In only a very small percentage will it help to make the diagnosis of child sexual abuse by itself.

70 Corroboration: Evidence exists more often than you think
Physical evidence (FEK) Behavioral symptoms Adult witnesses and suspects Medical evidence (exam) Other victims Child witnesses Child pornography Computers Cell Phones Photos Text Messages Perpetrator confessions

71 Sexualized Behaviors Can the diagnosis of sexual abuse be made based on sexualized behaviors?

72 Behavioral Signs Is that a red flag being waved?

73 Infants (0-18 months) Rarely show symptoms
Fussy, diaper change reluctance Fearful of offender Imitate sexual acts

74 Toddlers (18-36 months) All of the above plus:
Difficulty toilet training, sleep disturbances Minimal embarassment Masturbation common (normal)

75 Preschool (3-5 years) All of the above plus:
Sexualized play, perpetration Headaches, abdominal pain, painful urination, genital discomfort Nightmares Regression Anger, aggression, mood swings

76 School Age (6-9 years) Any of the above plus: Confusion, guilt
Withdrawn, depression, nightmares Poor school performance, lying, stealing Sexualized behavior, somatic complaints Enuresis, encopresis, dysuria

77 Puberty (9-12 years) Feel responsible, overwhelming guilt/shame
Shoplifting, substance abuse Sexual identity crisis Uncomfortable with body and disclosure

78 Adolescents (13 years +) Defiance, aggression, truancy, school failure, promiscuity, suicidal ideations, self-mutilation, runaway behavior Somatic complaints Peer Sexual Contact

79 Behaviors Parents are not always good historians regarding stress.
Exposure to adult sexual information Pornography Cable Internet Adult interpretation of sexualized play.

80 Normative Sexual Behavior in Children
Friedrich, W. Pediatrics and again in 1998 Questionnaire-demographic information, Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), and the Problem Behavior portion of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)

81 Friedrich – Normative Sexual Behavior in Children
Children ages 2-12 Children ages 2-12 Administered specialized surveys Excluded those with concerns sexual abuse “There is a broad range of sexual behaviors exhibited by children who there is no reason to believe have been sexually abused”

82 Friedrich’s Top 10 (most common)
10. Dresses like opposite sex 9. Hugs adults not known well 8. Shows sex parts to adults 7. Masturbates with hand 6. Very interested in opposite sex (**10-12yo)

83 Friedrich’s Top 10 (most common)
5. Touches sex parts in public 4. Tries to look at people when they are nude 3. Stands too close 2. Touches breasts 1. Touches sex parts at home

84 Least common behaviors…
Makes sexual sounds, asks others to do sex acts Masturbates with or puts objects in vagina/rectum Pretends toys are having sex Undresses other children Tries to have intercourse Puts mouth on sex parts Touches animal’s sex parts Draws sex parts

85 Normal Sexual Behaviors
A Child’s sexual behaviors are influenced by: Age Family Stress and Violence Family Sexuality Culture/Religion Surroundings, exposure to age-inappropriate information and materials

86 Concerning Sexual Behaviors
Influenced by: Media (television, internet, videos, magazines) Decreased parental supervision Decreased boundaries Overt exposure Sexually Abused Sexualized input from many different areas can confuse kids and push them to act out in order to understand the developmentally inappropriate input Parents who are more and more not available to kids because of their own psychological issues-or because they are left with caretakers who expose them to sex Boudaries difffer around sex- some parents discuss their sex lives and problems with children And in some cultures children’s genitals are inspected and their physical development is discussed making kids more aware of their own sexuality. *child whose mother and father talked about having sex, had sex in the shower when the child was in the other room watching t.v. etc

87 When to be concerned? Sexual expression is more adult than childlike
Other children complain Continues despite requests to stop Children sexualize nonsexual things Genitals are persistent and prominent in drawings

88 Disclosure of CSA in Art and Play
Specific Concerns with playing Sand-Tray Therapy Therapy not Diagnostic Assessment Art- should not have to be interpreted “ I know he was sexually abuse because he is drawing sharks” Examples

89 Interactive Session Normal Aberrant Concerning
Sexualized behavior does not mean that a child is a victim Developmental component Toddler/Preschooler? School Age? Assessment component Normal Aberrant Concerning

90 Playing Doctor Plays doctor/inspects others’ bodies
Normal Plays doctor/inspects others’ bodies Frequently plays doctor even after getting caught and reprimanded Forces others to play doctor and/or to remove clothes, touching privates Concerning Aberrant

91 Placing Objects in Genital Orifices
Tries to place objects in own genitalia/rectum one time – curious Places object in genitalia or rectum of self/others Uses coercion/pain in placing object in genitalia/rectum of self and others Normal Concerning Aberrant

92 Disclosures in Sexual Abuse
The most important piece of the puzzle This may make your diagnosis

93 Disclosures in Sexual Abuse
Can the diagnosis of sexual abuse be made based on a disclosure of sexual abuse?

94 YES A child’s disclosure alone CAN make the diagnosis of sexual abuse…

95 Disclosure is a Process
Children disclose gradually versus rapidly.

96 BUT… The disclosure needs to be obtained appropriately without direct and leading questions

97 Context of any Disclosure
Was this a spontaneous disclosure? Was the child asked multiple questions? Was the child asked leading questions?

98 Case

99 Case: Interview

100 Interviewing Trained Interviewers Limiting number of interviews
First responders need to learn how to obtain information

101 A Good Interview Should…
Assess competence Address context initial disclosure Avoid direct and leading questions Document body language Child’s language Remember children think concretely

102 Child’s History Build rapport Use open-ended questions
Use child’s language Reassurance

103 Questions used in Interviewing
General/Open: “How are you?” “Do you know why you’re here today?” “What happened next?” “ Tell me about that” Focused: “What did he poke you with?” Yes/no: “Were your clothes off?” Multiple choice: “Did he poke you with his finger, his private, or something else?” Kathleen Coulborn Faller

104 The Leading Question Pt complains of genital pain
“Did Uncle Joey put his pee-pee in your flower?

105 Why don’t all kids talk? Not developmentally ready, acts weren’t “bad”
Sworn to secrecy Trapped and Helpless Afraid to upset family Fears no one will believe May have disclosed and told “ She would never do that” Threats Feels responsible, overwhelming guilt/shame

106 “How Children Tell: The Process of Disclosure in Child Sexual Abuse”
Sorenson and Snow Child Welfare 1991 630 child victims ( ) (3-17 ages) 116 confirmed cases Confession (80%) Conviction (14%) Medical Findings (6%) Types of Disclosures – part of continuum

107 4 Steps of the Process Denial Disclosure Recant Reaffirm Tentative
Active Recant Reaffirm

108 Denial Child’s initial statement was that he/she was NOT a victim of sexual abuse Three-fourths of children denied when initially questioned

109 Disclosure Tentative (78%): child’s partial and vague acknowledgement of sexual abuse “It only happened once” “It happened to Joe” “He tried to touch me but I hit him” “I was only kidding” Minimizing, distancing, empowerment, discounting

110 Disclosure Active: a personal admission by the child of having experienced a specific sexually abusive activity 7% of initial denials move directly to active 96% of all eventually give active disclosure

111 Recant Refers to the child’s retraction of a previous allegation of abuse that was formally made and maintained over a period of time

112 Recantations Common, 22% of children in study
Often influenced by the perpetrator but more often influenced by the “non-offending” family members Intentionally Unintentionally

113 Reaffirm Defined as the child’s reassertion of the validity of a previous statement of sexual abuse that has been recanted Of those who recanted, 92% reaffirmed the allegations over time

114 Conclusion Only a small percentage of children will be in ACTIVE disclosure at the first interview Disclosure of sexual abuse is a process not an EVENT

115 Minimal Facts Interview
Where on the body touched Who touched him/her What did the touching Where did the touching occur When did this happen NOT WHY

116 Disclosures Suggestibility
Misleading questions, direct questions and negative feedback to answers can affect what is recalled and reported Children (especially younger children) are particularly vulnerable to suggestibility Depend on adults Defer to adults Aware of adult authority Tendency to want to please adults

117 Infants (0-18 months) NO DISCLOSURES Rarely show symptoms
By 18 months majority have only 10 words Confirmed only with sexually transmitted disease, semen, offender confession, eye witness, abnormal exam

118 Toddlers (18-36 months) 50-200 word vocabulary
Two word sentences start at 21 months “Daddy owie” “Papa down” Accidental disclosures Masturbation normal Substantiate with sexually transmitted disease, semen, offender confession, eye witness, abnormal exam

119 Preschool (3-5 years) Improved Vocabulary!! (2500-3000 words)
Partial disclosures Minimization, denial, irrelevant details Better at who, what, where (not when or number of times) History now more important Substantiation with HISTORY, STDs, semen, confession, eye witness, abnormal exam

120 School Age (6-9 years) More independent, learning boundaries
Tentative disclosures Build rapport Fear of jail Substantiate with HISTORY, labs/STDs, semen, confession, eye witness, abnormal exam

121 Puberty and Adolescents
Peers often more influential than family Family withdrawal Disclose due to peers, anger Uncomfortable with body and disclosure Reassurance of being normal important Substantiate with HISTORY, labs/STDs, semen, confession, eye witness, abnormal exam Peers pEErs PEERS

122 Delayed Disclosures “When children do disclose, it often takes them a long time to do so” (London, et al, 2005) Elliott & Briere (1994) found that 75% of children in substantiated cases had delayed over a year before telling anyone

123 Interview Stages Introduction
Rapport-building/Developmental Assessment/Narrative Practice Ground rules Substantive questions Closure

124 Use of Media Anatomical Dolls Anatomical Drawings
Gingerbread Drawings:

125 Language Considerations

126 Interview

127 Interview What next?

128 Interview

129 False Allegations Risk situations for false allegations by adults:
Divorce/Custody Disputes Disagreement re: motivation; Benedek & Schetky, 1985 said majority are calculated…Faller & DeVoe, 1995 said most falsely accusing parents genuinely believe child has been abused

130 Phases of disclosure I. Denial
Initial statement that he/she has not been abused Case example 9 4 year old female Neighbor in adjacent apartment witnessed patient’s adult male roommate sexually abusing her Witnessed filmed incident and called 911 Perpetrator confessed Patient denied sexual abuse

131 Parental response to disclosure
Response of the non-offending parent is associated with short and long-term psychological outcomes Lack of support / belief associated with Depression Anxiety Behavioral problems PTSD Provide this information to parents Rickerby et al. Family response to disclosure of childhood sexual abuse: Implications for secondary prevention. Mental Health Rhode Island 2003;86(12):

132 Parental Response Non offending parents experience emotional distress following their child’s sexual abuse disclosure Parental response impacts child Parental response influenced by: Prior history of depression History of sexual abuse Relationship to the perpetrator Social isolation Substance abuse

133 Parental Response Examples of information provided to supportive parents Emphasize importance of parents’ role in the healing process Encourage continued support, reassurance, affirmation that child is believed Do not repeatedly question child about disclosure Acknowledge parents’ emotional distress Recommend an outlet for parents’ distress separate from the children (ex. counseling, adult supports)

134 MDT Strengthens the investigative process
Expertise from Law Enforcement, Child Protective Services, Medical, Forensic Interviews, Prosecutors, and others

135 Don’t drop the ball Immediate response
During the Investigation by CPS and Law Enforcement Afterwards

136 MDT in Action

137 MDT in Action When each member is available and does their part, cases will go much smoother

138 PREVENTION School-based child education programs successful Negative:
teaching children CSA concepts and self-protection Negative: increased anxiety, feeling less in control for younger children, and feeling more discomfort with normal touch in older children Putnam. J. AM. ACAD. CHILD ADOLESC. PSYCHIATRY, 42:3, MARCH 2003

139 PREVENTION Parental Education Communication Judgment
Truth versus myths When to start- 10 yo is too late! How often Mental Health Care for parent’s prior abuse Communication Young children are concrete thinkers Judgment Caregivers

140 Myth Case

141 Alleged Perpetrators- Still allowed Access

142 Prevention Types: Education Home Visiting Programs Adult Focus

143 The Relationship of Adverse Childhood Experiences to Adult Health Status
ACE Child Maltreatment Physical Sexual Psychological Parental Etoh and Drug abuse Domestic Violence Incarceration

144 ACE Direct relationship between the number of ACE and adverse health outcomes Include Mental Health and Physical Health

145 ACE Long term physical health consequences ACE study Health problems
Abuse Neglect Household dysfunction Health problems Heart disease Liver disease Depression Substance abuse Lung disease Fetal death

146 Long term physical health consequences
The ACE score showed a graded relationship to the risk of liver disease that appears to be mediated substantially by behaviors that increase the risk of viral and alcohol-induced liver disease. Understanding the effect of ACEs on the risk of liver disease and development of these behaviors provides insight into causal pathways, which may prove useful in the prevention of liver disease. Dong et al. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163: 146

147 Take Home Points Child Sexual Abuse is prevalent
Diagnosis of CSA not usually by physical exam findings or behavior alone Many “sexual behaviors” are normal Disclosures -- most important and need to be obtained appropriately Think about any other possible evidence!

Download ppt "Investigating Child Sexual Abuse"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google