2Objectives Participants will be able to: Use the COR to identify what children are learning through their play.Use the COR to identify the developmental levels in children’s anecdotes.Score the COR on a child.
3Assessing Jesse Watch the video clip of Jesse. Assess his development. Share your assessment results.
5Getting to know you….In your group, you will be assigned 2 categories of the COR:Initiative, Language and LiteracyCreative Representation, Math and ScienceSocial Relations, Movement and MusicLearn as much as you can about your assigned section – page 13 of your participant guide.Concentrate on content, don’t worry too much about the format of the COR.
6Getting to know all about you… In your new groups, take turns teaching/summarizing what you learned about your section. Listen while others share their sections with you.Use page 14 to jot down your notes.
7Child Observation Record (COR): Authentic Assessment Measures the full developmental range of school readiness skills children needInitiativeSocial RelationsCreative RepresentationMovement and MusicLanguage and LiteracyMathematics and Science
8COR: Authentic Assessment Observation-basedPreschool edition looks at children 2 ½ - 6 years of ageInfant/Toddler looks at children 6 weeks to 2 ½ years of ageProfiles 32 aspects of learning organized in 6 broad content categories
9COR: Developmentally Appropriate Process involves observations that occur in the normal course of a child’s day.Content looks beyond a narrow traditional skill set to assess all aspects of young children’s development: social, emotional, cognitive, physical
10COR: User-FriendlyPresented in clear, easy-to-understand language, no technical jargonDoes not require a specialized degree to useWorks within a program’s daily routine, without disrupting it
11COR: Universally Applicable Designed for use in any early childhood setting including:State-funded classroomsChild care centersPublic and private preschoolsHead Start and Early Head Start programsFamily child care homesWorks with any early childhood curriculum including HighScopeUsed throughout the United States and InternationallyTaking an anecdote inSouth Africa
12COR: Research Validated ReliabilityInter-Observer Agreement: The extent to which COR users agree on scoring.73 for COR total scorefor subscalesInternal consistency: The extent to which COR items within a subscale go together (similar, but distinct).91 and .94 for COR total scorefor subscales
13COR: Research Validated ValidityConstruct Validity: The extent to which the relationship between COR items indicate that groups of COR items work together to form distinct subscalesAssessed using confirmatory factor analysisConcurrent Validity: Extent to which results from different measures say similar things to COR resultsCOR total score correlations with the Cognitive Skills Assessment Battery (CSAB).46 with Basic Information.57 with Cognitive Skills.62 with Response During Assessment
14Goals of the COR To assess the whole child. To provide teachers with strategies and activities to support the continued growth and development of children in their classroom.To provide parents with information about their child’s growth and development.To share information with administrators about the growth of children in their programs.
15Steps for Using the COR Observe children Record anecdotes and collect other informationUse the anecdotes as evidence to score the COR (identify a level)Periodically, review your anecdotesCompile outcome dataUse the data for program planning
16The best evidence we have of whether we are succeeding as educators comes from observing children’s behavior.Alfie Kohn, “Grading: The Issue is Not How but Why,” Educational Leadership, 52, 2 October 1994, p. 40.
17Relating Anecdotes to COR Categories & Items Now, you’ll learn more about the COR categories and items.
18COR Elements The COR has 6 broad categories. Each category has 3-9 specific items.Each item has 5 developmental levels.This week we are working with the categories and items.
19COR Categories Initiative Social Relations Creative Representation Movement and MusicLanguage and LiteracyMathematics and Science
20COR Observation Items Book In your COR Observation Items book, turn to page 25 and then page 33 to see how the book is organized to help you.
21Each section starts with a rich overview of the category. Stop and read the overviews for each of the six categories:Initiative – p. 3Social Relations – p. 9Creative Rep. – p. 15Movement & Music – p. 19Language & Lit. – p. 25Math & Science – p. 35Observation Items, page 25
22Each COR Item has it’s own page, as seen here. COR COR Category Item Observation Items,page 33Each COR Item hasit’s own page,as seen here.COR CategoryCORItemMoreabout thisItemOther itemsin this categoryItem levelsOthercategories
23Relating an Anecdote to a COR Category and Item Carefully read your anecdote.Use your COR Observation Items to choose the category that you feel is related to the anecdote.Read through the items in that category and select the one that your anecdote illustrates.NOTE: If it’s not a good “fit”, keep looking. Don’t force an anecdote into an item!
24Entering An Anecdote: Manual COR Version Turn to the child’s individual Child Anecdotes booklet.Write the anecdote under the appropriate category.Circle the letter of the appropriate itemCircle the number of the appropriate score.(Don’t do this now. We will cover scoring later.)
26This is what an anecdote looks like in the Child Anecdotes booklet…
27Entering An Anecdote: COR CD-Rom or OnlineCOR.net Versions Click on the child’s name.Type in the anecdote.Select the appropriate category.Select the appropriate item.Select the appropriate score.(Don’t do this now. We will cover scoring later.)
28Cross-referencingIf you have an anecdote that fits under more than one category, you can cross-reference it!Cross-referencing saves time because you don’t have to re-write anecdotes.Cross-referencing helps you see the breadth of the anecdote.
29Cross-referencing: Manual COR Version Place the anecdote under one of the categories you are considering. For example, if it fits under both Creative Representation and Initiative, write the anecdote under only once category. Choose the item and score.At the end of the anecdote make a note to indicate that it also illustrates another item, for example, “X-Ref: Item W.”Circle the cross-reference note to make it readily identifiable.Then turn to the other COR category and circle the appropriate item. Instead of rewriting the anecdote, jot down the page and item where the anecdote can be found For example, “see page 19, item M.”
30Cross-referencing: COR CD-ROM or OnlineCOR.net Enter the anecdote and select your first category, item, and score as you normally would.For example, if you are considering items A and Q, it doesn’t matter which item you choose to do first.Then, select another category, item, and score for the same anecdote.The computer records the both scores for you!
31Let’s try it! Here’s your anecdote: 4-10 At work time, in the art area, Moya drew a recognizable picture with crayons. She climbed up in my lap and showed me her “sun, tree and the bush where the bunny hides.”
32Where does this anecdote go on the COR? Category: Social RelationsItem E: Relating to adultsandCategory: Creative RepresentationItem J: Drawing and painting
34What if an anecdote doesn’t seem to match any COR Item? You will occasionally have anecdotes that fall under one of the 6 COR categories, but don’t illustrate any of the items. If that’s the case,Simply record the anecdote under the category and stop there. Don’t record an item or score.Remember, the COR is a sampling of important child skills and abilities. “Unscored” anecdotes may still be useful in planning and in preparing family reports.
35Working with Latrice’s Anecdotes Use Latrice’s anecdotes and find the corresponding COR category and item for each (pages 22-23)
36Scoring AnecdotesYou’ll learn more about scoring your anecdotes.
37COR Developmental Levels Now that you’ve chosen a category and selected an appropriate item, it’s time to score the anecdote.Each COR item has 5 developmental levels:1 is the simpler level5 is the most complex
38COR Level Sample Anecdotes Sample Anecdotes Observation Items,page 33LevelExplanationEach Item has 5 Levels.Each Level has an explanation and sample anecdotes.
39Scoring GuidelinesTo score an anecdote, turn to the item you’ve selected.Read through all five levels, explanations, and sample anecdotes.Choose the level that your anecdote illustrates most clearly.If you’ve cross-referenced the anecdote, select the appropriate level for the cross-referenced item in the same manner.
40Scoring Conflicts Can’t decide between two levels? Don’t score the anecdote yet.Continue to collect anecdotes for this item. Additional anecdotes may show the child’s developmental level more clearly.Return to the un-scored anecdote. Score it based on what you now know about the child. Otherwise, score it at the lower level you’ve been considering.
41Scoring Example Here is an anecdote for item L: Use your Observation Items to score the examples.Here is an anecdote for item L:3/11 Outside, Vinnie ran around the tree house climber three times and then went up the steps, one foot after the other holding on to the railing.The score would be a 3: Child walks up or down stairs, alternating feet.
42Scoring: You Try It! Try scoring this anecdote for Item B: 03/19 During work time, at the water table, Liam wanted to make water come out of the tubing “like a fountain.” First he tried pouring water in one end of the tube and the water just poured out the other end. He then blew in the tube and the water did come shooting out in a blast.What score did you get?HINT: Use yourObservation Itemsto score!
44Scoring Answer You should have gotten a level 4. Liam tried two ways to solve a problem with materials: he tried pouring and then blowing to make a fountain.
45The newest HighScope game show… Name that Score!!!
469/27 WT, in the block area, Jason put the blocks into a heap 9/27 WT, in the block area, Jason put the blocks into a heap. He said, “Everyone get away from the dynamite, it’s gonna go up higher than a tree!Name this score:Item R9/27 WT, in the block area, Jason put the blocks in a heap. He said, “Everyone get away from the dynamite, it’s gonna blow up!”
47Level 3. Child uses vocabulary related to a particular subject. R. Using vocabulary1. Child talks about people or objects close at hand.2. Child talks about absent people or objects.3. Child uses vocabulary related to a particular subject.4. Child uses two or more descriptive words to describe something.5. Child asks about the meaning of a word.R. Using VocabularyLevel 3. Child uses vocabulary related to a particular subject.
48Name this score:11/02 At WT, in the house area, Deola, Aisha, and Jason, pretend to be “puppies,” crawling and sniffing around the table. “Pretend I’m sad `cuz my mom died,” Jason said. “She was killed by a hunter.”Item K.11/02 At WT, in the house area, Deola and Jason, pretend to be “puppies,” crawling and sniffing around the table. “Pretend I’m sad `cuz my mom died,” Jason said. “She was killed by a hunter.” And he pretended to cry.
49K. Pretending1. Child acts like an animal, object, or another person.2. Child uses one or more objects to stand for another object.3. Child uses both words and actions to portray a role, situation, or setting.4. Child engages in role-play with two or more children.5. Child steps out of a role-play situation to clarify it or give directions, then returns to the play.K. PretendingLevel 5. Child steps out of a role-play situation to clarify it or give directions.
503/11 At Snack, Andrew told Vinnie and Jordyn about a boy he knows named Randy. “I know,” he said, “Candy could be his sister and Fandy could be his brother!”Name this score:Item T.3/11 At snack, when Vinnie told Jordyn about his cousin Randy, she said,“I know-Candy could be his sister and Fandy could be his brother!”
51T. Showing awareness of sounds in words 1. During play, child makes an animal, vehicle, or other environmental sound.2. Child joins in saying or repeats a rhyme or a series of words that start with the same sound.3. Child rhymes one word with another or makes up a phrase or sentence that includes a rhyme.4. Child says that two words begin with the same sound.5. Child creates a pair or series of words that start with the same sound.T. Showing awareness of sounds in wordsLevel 3. Child rhymes one word with another or makes up a phrase or sentence that includes a rhyme.
5203/19 SGT, Hannah tries gluing popsicle sticks together side-by-side 03/19 SGT, Hannah tries gluing popsicle sticks together side-by-side. When they fall apart, she decides to tape them together. They still wobble, so she tapes the taped sticks to a piece of cardboard.Name this score:Item B03/19 SGT, Hannah tries gluing popsicle sticks together side-by-side. When they fall apart, she tries to tape them together and that works.
53B. Solving problems with materials 1. Child expresses frustration when encountering a problem with materials.2. Child identifies a problem with materials and asks for help.3. Child tries one way to solve a problem with materials.4. Child tries two ways to solve a problem with materials.5. Child tries three or more ways to solve a problem with materials.B. Solving problems with materialsLevel 4. Child tries two ways to solve a problem with materials.
54“It says, `Birthday, I’m having a party,’ she tells Sarah. 2/22 WT --- Della makes Sarah an invitation to her birthday party. On it she writes:BFD PT“It says, `Birthday, I’m having a party,’ she tells Sarah.Name this score:Item X.2/22 WT, block area, Della places the blocks to make a “D” and an “O.” She said, “The D is for me, and the O is for my brother,” (her brother’s name is Oscar).
55X. Writing1. Child writes using pictures, squiggles, or letter-like forms.2. Child makes a recognizable letter using clay, wire, or sticks.3. Child writes 2 or more recognizable letters.4. Child writes a string of letters and reads them or asks to have them read.5. Child writes a phrase or sentence of 2 or more words.X.WritingLevel 2. Child makes a recognizable letter using clay, wire, or sticks.
56Scoring Portfolio Objects Portfolio objects can also be evidence of a child’s level of development.Collect and label portfolio objects with the date and COR item.In place of an anecdote, put “see portfolio sample _____ ” on the COR.Record the score.
57Portfolio Scoring Example On back: 11/30 Item XEvelyn wrote her name several times on the wipe-off board. This photograph illustrates what she did and saves you from writing an anecdote.HINT: Be sure to record the date and COR item on the back or in the file name!
58Scoring Clarification Remember, score each anecdote individually. You do NOT need evidence of a level 1 before scoring an anecdote at a level 2, or evidence of a level 2 before scoring an anecdote at a level 3.Children come to us with varying abilities. When you start using the COR, some may be at a level 2 or 3 in some areas, others may be at a level 1. Score the anecdotes that you have!Do not expect every child to start the COR at a level 1.
59Practicing ScoringWith a partner, practice scoring your anecdotes for Latrice.
60Scoring EllaWorking alone, use your Observation Items booklet to select the most appropriate level score Ella’s anecdotes (pp in your Participant Guide.)In groups, compare your scores, discussing any discrepancies. See if you can come to a consensus in your group.Share our results. Any questions?
62Compiling ScoresWith all your anecdotes collected and scored, now you are ready to compile individual and class COR data.
63Overview Most programs compile and report COR scores 2-3 times a year. First, scores are compiled for each individual child. Then they are compiled for the whole class.
64Manual COR UsersTo compile a child’s scores, look for the highest score for each item.Remember, this version of the COR was validated using one solid anecdote to determine the score. (The earlier version required two anecdotes.)
65Example 1 Item B. Solving Problems Micah has three anecdotes scored for this item:One anecdote scored 2One anecdote scored 3One anecdote scored 4We would record a score of 4 for Item B because 4 is her highest score.HINT: Remember – it’s the highest score, not the average score for the item!
66Example 2 Item K. Pretending Micah has three anecdotes scored for this item:Two anecdotes scored 3One anecdote scored 4We would record a score of 4 for Item K because 4 is her highest score.HINT: Although more anecdotes are scored 3, select the highest scored anecdote – in this case 4.
67Record Each Child’s Scores Use the “Child Information and Developmental Summary” sheet to record the scores.If you are a Head Start teacher, there’s a place to record the child’s English language information on the front of the sheet.
68Average the Category Scores First add together the scores for one category.Then, divide the category total by the number of items scored in that category.Category total = 15Divide by 4 items15 ÷ 4 = 3.75Category average = 3.75ItemScoreA5B3C4DTotal15HINT: Use your calculator for this section!!
69Record Category Averages Continue averaging the category scores.Put the average scores on the child’s Developmental Summary.Sample Child Developmental Summary
70Compiling Class DataComplete a Developmental Summary sheet for each child in your class.Transfer each child’s category averages to the Class Summary form.Class Summary Form
71Computer Versions of the COR If you use onlineCOR.net, the program does all these computations for you!You just have to select which report to print out!
72Filling in the GapsGaps are un-scored COR items. If you find you have gaps, thoughtful planning can help you gather the missing information.
73Gaps: Filling in Missing COR Information There are three types of gaps:Am I looking for this COR item?It could be that you haven’t paid attention to this COR item. Children might be doing it, but you just haven’t been collecting anecdotes on this item.Do I have materials in the classroom to support this COR item?Are there opportunities for children to use classroom materials to support this item in their spontaneous play?What can I do to support this COR item with all my children?You can take a proactive role in planning to support these missing COR items.
74Gap Idea: 1. Plan to Look for this COR Item Try the following to help you plan to look for children engaged in item-related play:Read over the item carefully. When and where might you see children spontaneously engaging in this type of play?Plan to collect anecdotes during these times.For example: Carla discovered she wasn’t looking for Item U. Demonstrating knowledge about books. She planned to collect anecdotes during greeting time, when children had 15 minutes to choose and look at books together with their parents and teachers.
75Gap Idea: 2. Add Item-Related Classroom Materials If you are missing item-related materials, try the following:Read over the item carefully. What materials would lend themselves to children engaging in this type of play?Look at your classroom, what item-related materials might you add to your environment?For example: When Jose walked through his classroom, he found he didn’t have materials to support children’s natural seriation – or graduated series (Item Z. Identifying patterns.) He and his co-teacher added the following to their classroom: a canister set and measuring cups to the house area, 4 sizes of pillows to the book area, and they rearranged the unit blocks so the blocks are seriated on the shelves: small blocks – medium blocks – large blocks.
76Gap Idea: 3. Plan Activities and Using Item-Related Language If you just aren’t seeing a particular item, try the following:Plan small-group and large-group activities that lend themselves to the missing COR item.When interacting with children, use item-related language yourself.For example: Shandra and Clarice saw they needed anecdotes for Item CC. Identifying position and direction. Together they made a plan to use position and direction words with children at work time. They also planned a movement activity that used position and direction words for large-group time.
77High/Scope Resource: What’s Next? Refer to What’s Next? Planning Children’s Activities Around Preschool COR Observations for additional ideas for lesson plans.What’s Next? contains a minimum of 2 activity ideas for each level of every COR item.You can order What’s Next? by calling PRESS or at
78Assessing Jesse Again Watch the second video clip of Jesse. Assess his development.Share your assessment results.What have you learned about appropriate assessment?