3 Introductions Name Agency / position A positive trait that you learned or developed from your family
4 Goals for Today An Overview of a child protective system Key principles and beliefsTheoretical underpinningsFocus on initial components of a child protection systemIdentification of Children at RiskFamily PreservationKinship Care
5 Building A Learning Community Start & end on timeAsk questionsShare expertiseSafe environmentOthers?
6 Case Study: The Bahailu Family What are the family’s strengths?What are the family’s needs?What more do you want to know about the family?
7 Foundations for our discussion Systems theoryEcological perspectiveStrengths baseMaslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsDevelopmental perspective
8 Systems Theory Whole / parts Movement in one impacts movement in others / all.BoundariesMultifinalityEquifinality
21 COMMUNITYFAMILYTHE CHILD PROTECTION SYSTEMPreventionIdentificationof Children at RiskInstitutionalCareChildFamilyPreservationIntercountryAdoptionReunificationDomestic AdoptionKinship CareFoster CareIndependent LivingGOVERNMENT AGENCIESNGO’s
22 Guiding PrinciplesEvery child has the right to be protected. (Convention on the Rights of the Child)Children do better in families.Children should be in the least restrictive most home-like environment , as close to the child’s own home as possible in which they can be safe.The child welfare system must promote permanence for all children
23 Guiding PrinciplesChildren have a right to remain connected to their family, their community, their culture & their heritage.Solutions to the challenges facing children are best developed within the community with assistance from those outside.The child welfare system must be culturally competent.People can and do change.Change happens in the context of relationships
24 DISCUSSIONThink about the Child Protection Model and Your Agency / ProgramWhere does your program fit?;What level of Maslow’s needs do you meet?
25 Today’s Focus Identification of Vulnerable Children Family Preservation & SupportKinship CareTools for Assessment
26 COMMUNITYFAMILYTHE CHILD PROTECTION SYSTEMPreventionIdentificationof Children at RiskInstitutionalCareChildFamilyPreservationIntercountryAdoptionReunificationDomestic AdoptionKinship CareFoster CareIndependent LivingGOVERNMENT AGENCIESNGO’s
27 Risks to Orphaned, Abandoned and Homeless Children HealthEducational failure/lack of achievementMental Health & Substance AbuseIncarceration/Criminal Involvement
28 HealthMiller and Hendrie (2000) evaluated 452 children (443 girls) adopted from Chinese institutions.The duration of orphanage confinement was inversely proportional to the linear height lag (r = .9), with a loss of 1 month of height age for every 2.86 months in the orphanage. Seventy five percent of the children had a significant developmental delay in at least 1 domain: gross motor in 55%, fine motor in 49%, cognitive in 32%, language in 43%, social-emotional in 28%, activities of daily living in 30%, and global delays in 44%.Overall, elevated lead levels were found in 14%, anemia in 35%, abnormal thyroid function tests in 10%, hepatitis B surface antigen in 6%, hepatitis B surface antibody in 22%, intestinal parasites (usually Giardia) in 9%, and positive skin test results for tuberculosis in 3.5%.PEDIATRICS Vol. 105 No. 6 June 2000, p. e76
29 Educational FailureCase, Paxson, & Ableidinger in 2004 compared educational outcomes for children in 10 Subsahara (African) countries and found children orphaned due to HIV/AIDS are less likely to be enrolled than are nonorphans with whom they live, even when controlling for poverty.Demography, 2004; 41(3):
30 Mental HealthPapageorgiou, Frangou-Garunovic, Iordanidou, Yule, Smith, & Vostanis (2000) in a sample of 95 children of 8-13 years, who had experienced war in Bosnia, were assessed with a battery of standardised measures. They children either came from refugee families (44%), meaning they had experienced homelessness, or had suffered significant family loss (a parent had been killed in 28% and the father was injured or absent in 27% of cases). Forty five children (47%) scored within the clinical range of the depression, 28 (23%) on anxiety, and 65 (28%) on a scale measuring PTSD reactions.Imagine the mental health consequences for children without a family.European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 9(2):84-90.
31 Incarceration/Criminal Involvement Huang, Barreda, Mendoza, Guzman and Gilbert in 2004 compared abandoned street children and formerly abandoned street children in La Paz, BoliviaSome findings:higher risk of police abuse (95% versus 38%)Higher engagement in robbery (26% versus 4%)Archives of Disease in Childhood 2004;89:
32 Social Service Response Must be collaborativeMedical Community and social servicesNGO and public/government servicesFaith-based community and secular community
33 Social Service Response There must a continuum of services, focusing on permanency, safety & well-beingThe continuum must be community and family basedIt must incorporate our knowledge of child development as well as family and community development
34 A Permanency Priority: Strengthen & Preserve Families Unless there is compelling evidence otherwise, initial efforts must focus on strengthening and preserving familiesAbandonment Prevention for infantsAbandonment Prevention for children on the streets (children with families, children connected to families and children on their own)
35 Strengthen & Preserve Families Requires workers who can assess, intervene and advocate on behalf of vulnerable and at-risk familiesA systemic and ecological frameworkFocus on strengths as well as problems and deficitsCase managementCrisis interventionImmediate and long-term responseAny solution or intervention has to take account the historical and cultural context of the family being served
36 Identification of Children at Risk Requires community standards about the level of need which triggers a need for intervention.Determined by communities taking into consideration culture and resources.What level(s) of Maslow’s hierarchy must be met in order for children to be free of risk?
37 DiscussionWhat are the legal definitions? Are legal definitions needed?What mechanisms/ systems are in place to identify children at risk?Do some components of your system focus more on some categories to the exclusion of others?How well do the identification systems work together?Are there gaps ?
38 Family PreservationIntervention and supportive services provided to allow the child to remain with his family.These services can address: basic needs, development, mental health, abuse/neglect, trauma, violence, and natural disasters.
39 Family Preservationtarget population includes families who are at imminent risk of having a child placed outside the home or have been the subject of an indicated maltreatment reportin-home service provision
40 Family Preservation Crisis oriented and/or long term Case Management Empowerment & strength based
41 Examples of Family Preservation Programs Emergency referralsFood & economic supportJob trainingPrenatal careHome visits for mothers & young childrenHealth & developmental assessmentParenting classesAfter school & youth development programs
42 DiscussionWhat family preservation programs currently exist in your community?What level of Maslow’s hierarchy do they address?How well do these programs coordinate their services / collaborate?What are the gaps?What additional services need to be developed?
43 Examples of Family Preservation Programs CounselingChild careMentoringSupport groupsFamily activitiesLife skillsPersonal safety, and community awareness
44 Kinship CareIs family preservation and is a very good permanency optionInvolves identifying appropriate family members or fictive kinAssessing their willingness and ability to provide safety, permanency & well being to a child.Providing ongoing support.
45 Phases of Family Intervention EvaluationImplementingPlanningAssessmentJoining
47 Professional conversations and personal conversations: What are the differences?
48 Personal conversations Often spontaneousUnstructured or semistructuredSubject to interruptionsCan be terminated abruptlyDo not need to reach resolutionCan tolerate a range of informalities – humour, touching, provocation, challenge, ignoring etc.Are influenced by diversity – age, language, class, culture, ethnicity, politics, religionOften are not strictly time limitedCan often be overheard by othersAre much influenced by the nature and history of the the relationship – power differentials, empathy/conflict etc
49 Professional conversations More formal/constrained in language and styleGenerally not accompanied by physical contact often structured or semi-structuredTime limitedGoal directedPower differentials play a major roleAgency influencedContext dependentVoluntary or involuntary
50 Interview VS Conversation Interaction designed to achieve a selected purpose & content is chosen to facilitate achievement of that purposeOne person takes responsibility for directing interaction and relationship is nonreciprocalActions are planned, deliberate, consciously selected; Interview requires attention to the interaction, is formally arranged, & unpleasant feelings & facts are not avoidedConcern with interface between clients and their social environment
52 Creating a rapport and establishing a relationship A harmonious working relationship (Barker, 1995)Rapport means “close and sympathetic”Social workers place great value on the quality of the helping relationship (Coulshed, 1991)“The relationship is the communication bridge between people”(Kadushin,1990)Feminists have seen building relationships as central to empowerment and growth (Stone, 1991)Cited in Trevithick (2000)
53 Features of an effective helping relationship Concern for service user’s self-determinationDisplaying interest, warmth and trustRespect for individualityAcceptanceEmpathic understandingGenuineness and authenticityEstablishing ground rules regarding confidentialityAdapted from Kadushin (1990)
54 DiscussionIdentify things that interfere with a worker’s ability to join with his or her clients.Identify strategies that help to join with the individuals & families with whom you work.
56 AssessmentIs the process of gathering information that will support service planning and decision making regarding the safety, permanence and well-being of children and families.Assessments are based on the assumption that for service to be relevant and effective, workers must systematically gather information and continuously evaluate the needs of children and families as well as the ability of family members to use their strengths to address their problems.
57 Assessment is…..Gathering information and formulating a coherent picture (hypothesis) of the client, their environment and their circumstancesThe beginning of the working relationshipThe basis for the rest of our work with the client: goals, interventions and progressConstantALWAYS includes: 1) problems or concerns as seen by the client, 2) legal mandates, & 3) safety concerns
58 Assessment is a process Begins immediately when your client walks through the doorChanges from moment to momentIs based on both your and your client’s viewsInfluenced by your interviewing skillsInvolves the process of gathering information from client, reading documents, observing client, engaging collateral sources of information…Is accomplished through EXPLORING
59 Assessment is a product (e.g., A Written Document) Provides guidelines for organizing informationIncludes assessment of the problem, person and environmentProblem assessment is not always as easy as it seemsNew problems emerge as work continuesUnderlying issues not showing on the surface (e.g., Truancy)Written in a clear, concise & relevant mannerIs strengths-basedOngoing tool for work together
60 In the Child Welfare System Assessment Cornerstone of family-centered child welfare practiceCan be very simple, can be very complexMust be based on thorough, accurate, relevant and current information
61 Assessment of Child Maltreatment Psycho-Social FactorsChild CharacteristicsEnvironmental FactorsFamily CharacteristicsParental Conditions that Impair Parenting
63 List all the itemsyou observedin the previous slide
64 Information Processing What do we notice?What happens right in front of us that we don’t notice?What leads us to notice some things over others?What barriers that prevent us from noticing what matters most?
65 Salience depends on: Strength Repetition Strangeness Movement and changeEmotional reaction
66 Our assessments are ineffective if we: So what’s the point?Our assessments are ineffective if we:Draw conclusions with insufficient or erroneous informationDo not have relevant informationSpeed up the processDon’t know the area being assessedDraw conclusions from only part of the information and allow . . .
67 Personal Factors that Cloud Assessments: Cultural aspects of the worker or familyBias of previous informationConfirmation biasLimited available information
68 Personal Factors that Cloud Assessments: Emotional condition of the assessorPersonal involvement in the situationEnvironmental conditions
70 Safety Assessment Imminent threats to safety “if I walk out of here right now without intervention, will the child be safe?”
71 Best Practice in Safety Assessment Use open ended questions to build rapport.Talk to them at their level, from their starting place (cognitively and emotionally)Interview the child in a neutral placeTalk to everyone in the family as well as others who may have knowledge of the conditionTalk to the parents of caregiversAsk consistent questionsGet an understanding of the family’s perception of the current situation
72 Risk Assessment Future focused Risk factors Protective factors Leads to a hypothesis of the likelihood of future harm.
73 Comprehensive Family Assessment The following are characteristics or problem areas most commonly associated with families in the child welfare system:Problems in accepting responsibility, in the ability to recognize problems, or in motivation to change;Patterns of social interaction, including aggressiveness or passivity,the nature of contact and involvement with others, the presence or absence of social support networks and relationships;
74 Categories of Parental Assessment Parenting practices (methods of discipline, patterns of supervision, understanding of child development and/or of emotional needs of children);• Background and history of the parents or caregivers, including the history of abuse and neglect;• Problems in access to basic necessities such as income, employment, adequate housing, child care, transportation, and needed services and supports; and
75 Categories of Parental Assessment Behavior/conditions associated witho Domestic violenceo Mental illnesso Physical healtho Physical, intellectual, and cognitive disabilitieso Alcohol and drug use.
76 Elements of Child and Youth Assessment Physical health and motor skillsIntellectual ability and cognitive functioningAcademic achievementEmotional and social functioningVulnerability/ability to communicate or protect themselvesDevelopmental needsReadiness of youth to move toward independence
77 Elements of Child and Youth Assessment Readiness to live interdependentlyAbility to care for one’s own physical and mental health needsSelf-advocacy skillsFuture plans for academic achievementLife skills achievementEmployment /career developmentQuality of personal and community connections
78 Elements of Family Assessment Social networkRelationships among family members
79 Elements of Environmental Assessment Adequacy and safety of housingAccess to servicesPresence / absence of health hazardsExposure to violence
81 Definition GENOGRAM = GENETIC MAP Also known as family tree but has additional features.It visualizes hereditary patterns and psychological factors that punctuate relationships. It can be used to identify repetitive patterns of behavior and to recognize hereditary tendencies./ 13
89 Identifying information NamesNicknamesBirth dateMarriage datesDivorce datesSeparation datesSibling position (birth order—include siblings who died)Family comparisonsPersonal characteristics or characterizationsOccupations and job historiesIllnessesHobbies and other interestsDeath date (if appropriate) and cause of death
91 Three-Generation Genogram Name:Date:Grandparents Great Aunts and UnclesParents Aunts and UnclesPatient Siblings and Spouse(s)lumpChildren
92 Develop A GenogramYour own familyOROne of your client’s families
93 Discussion What can you learn from a genogram? How can you use this tool in your work?
94 Ecomap: What is it? A paper-and-pencil assessment tool The ecomap is a “snapshot” of the client within their family and social environment at a particular point in time.Used to assess specific needs and plan interventions for a client.
95 An Eco-map is a graphical representation that shows all of the systems at play in an individual's life.They can also be used to depict the flow of “energy” into and out of a system.Eco-maps are used in individual and family counseling within the helping professions.
96 Interaction With the Environment Systems theory and/or ecological perspective view of the client’s family life.Reveals the nature of the family’s relationships with the outside environment.
99 Connections to the Environment Connect the environment outside of the family with the family members.Where is energy being directed and what is the nature of that exchange?What is the quality of that exchange?
100 Interaction With Social Environment Identified Client
101 Commonly Used Symbols Stressful, conflictual +++++++ relationship Tenuous and/oruncertain relationshipPositive relationship _________or resourceThe direction of thegiving & receivingexchange or a relationship(also known as energy)
104 Discussion What can you learn from an ecomap? How can you use this tool in your work?
105 Strengthen communities to promote permanency and child well-being Families can only be a strong as the communities in which they liveWe need to understand community values, needs and problemsWe need to raise community consciousness about the problems being experience by their familiesWe need community workers who can promote social and economic development for vulnerable and at-risk communitiesMicro-enterprise & job developmentNeighborhood and housing developmentAny solution or intervention has to take account the historical and cultural context of the community being served
106 Move away for linear planning models Move towards concurrent planning for children rather than linear models of planning for children
107 The Social Service Response Needs to be both reactive and pro-activeIt is about programs but also about social policyIt is about services but it is also about advocacy