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Unit 15. Content Pre-reading questions Pre-reading questions Pre-reading questions Pre-reading questions Background information Background information.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 15. Content Pre-reading questions Pre-reading questions Pre-reading questions Pre-reading questions Background information Background information."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 15

2 Content Pre-reading questions Pre-reading questions Pre-reading questions Pre-reading questions Background information Background information Background information Background information Structure analysis Structure analysis Structure analysis Structure analysis Comprehension questions Comprehension questions Comprehension questions Comprehension questions Language points of Text I Language points of Text I Language points of Text I Language points of Text I Grammatical items Grammatical items Grammatical items Grammatical items Exercises Exercises Exercises Comprehension questions of Text II Comprehension questions of Text II Comprehension questions of Text II Comprehension questions of Text II Oral activities Oral activities Oral activities Oral activities Writing practice Writing practice Writing practice Writing practice

3 Text I The Roots of Happiness: An Empirical Analysis Pre-reading questions Pre-reading questions 1. What is happiness? List some popular saying on the definition of happiness. 1. What is happiness? List some popular saying on the definition of happiness. 2. What do you think are the ingredients of happiness? Make a list of the determination of happiness. 2. What do you think are the ingredients of happiness? Make a list of the determination of happiness.

4 Background information (1) Happiness Quotes: Happiness Quotes: ALBERT CAMUS: ALBERT CAMUS: ALBERT CAMUS ALBERT CAMUS You will never be happy if you continue to search for what happiness consists of. You will never live if you are looking for the meaning of life. You will never be happy if you continue to search for what happiness consists of. You will never live if you are looking for the meaning of life. ALBERT SCHWEITZER: ALBERT SCHWEITZER: ALBERT SCHWEITZER ALBERT SCHWEITZER Success is not the key to happiness. Happiness is the key to success. If you love what you are doing, you will be successful. Success is not the key to happiness. Happiness is the key to success. If you love what you are doing, you will be successful.

5 Background information (2) ALBERT SCHWEITZER: ALBERT SCHWEITZER: ALBERT SCHWEITZER ALBERT SCHWEITZER Happiness is nothing more than good health and a bad memory. Happiness is nothing more than good health and a bad memory. ALLAN K. CHALMERS: ALLAN K. CHALMERS: ALLAN K. CHALMERS ALLAN K. CHALMERS The Grand essentials of happiness are: something to do, something to love, and something to hope for. The Grand essentials of happiness are: something to do, something to love, and something to hope for.

6 Background information (3) AMY LOWELL: AMY LOWELL: AMY LOWELL AMY LOWELL Happiness: We rarely feel it. I would buy it, beg it, steal it, Pay in coins of dripping blood For this one transcendent good. Happiness: We rarely feel it. I would buy it, beg it, steal it, Pay in coins of dripping blood For this one transcendent good. ANNE FRANK: ANNE FRANK: ANNE FRANK ANNE FRANK We all live with the objective of being happy; our lives are all different and yet the same. We all live with the objective of being happy; our lives are all different and yet the same.

7 Background information (4) ARISTOTLE: ARISTOTLE: ARISTOTLE Happiness belongs to the self-sufficient Happiness belongs to the self-sufficient BENJAMIN DISRAELI: BENJAMIN DISRAELI: BENJAMIN DISRAELI BENJAMIN DISRAELI Action may not always bring happiness, but there is no happiness without action. Action may not always bring happiness, but there is no happiness without action. BERTRAND RUSSELL: BERTRAND RUSSELL: BERTRAND RUSSELL BERTRAND RUSSELL The happiness that is genuinely satisfying is accompanied by the fullest exercise of our faculties and the fullest realization of the world in which we live. The happiness that is genuinely satisfying is accompanied by the fullest exercise of our faculties and the fullest realization of the world in which we live.

8 Background information (5) BUDDHA: BUDDHA: BUDDHA Happiness comes when your work and words are of benefit to yourself and others. Happiness comes when your work and words are of benefit to yourself and others. HELEN KELLER: HELEN KELLER: HELEN KELLER HELEN KELLER Happiness cannot come from without. It must come from within. It is not what we see and touch or that which others do for us which makes us happy; it is that which we think and feel and do, first for the other fellow and then for ourselves. Happiness cannot come from without. It must come from within. It is not what we see and touch or that which others do for us which makes us happy; it is that which we think and feel and do, first for the other fellow and then for ourselves.

9 Background information (6) HELEN KELLER: HELEN KELLER: HELEN KELLER HELEN KELLER When one door of happiness closes, another opens; but often we look so long at the closed door that we do not see the one which has been opened for us. When one door of happiness closes, another opens; but often we look so long at the closed door that we do not see the one which has been opened for us. HENRY DAVID THOREAU: HENRY DAVID THOREAU: HENRY DAVID THOREAU HENRY DAVID THOREAU That man is richest whose pleasures are cheapest. That man is richest whose pleasures are cheapest.

10 Background information (7) MARK TWAIN: MARK TWAIN: MARK TWAIN MARK TWAIN Whoever is happy will make others happy, too. Whoever is happy will make others happy, too. MARK TWAIN: MARK TWAIN: MARK TWAIN MARK TWAIN Sanity and happiness are an impossible combination. Sanity and happiness are an impossible combination. MARK TWAIN: MARK TWAIN: MARK TWAIN MARK TWAIN Happiness is a Swedish sunset -- it is there for all, but most of us look the other way and lose it. Happiness is a Swedish sunset -- it is there for all, but most of us look the other way and lose it. MARTHA WASHINGTON: MARTHA WASHINGTON: MARTHA WASHINGTON MARTHA WASHINGTON The greatest part of our happiness depends on our dispositions, not our circumstances. The greatest part of our happiness depends on our dispositions, not our circumstances.

11 Structure analysis of Text I (1) The writer organizes the findings in a logical order, according to the degree of importance. He starts with those factors that have little impact on happiness, goes on with those that are moderately important and ends with those very important factors. The writer organizes the findings in a logical order, according to the degree of importance. He starts with those factors that have little impact on happiness, goes on with those that are moderately important and ends with those very important factors.

12 Structure analysis of Text I (2) Paragraph 1 Paragraph 1 This is an introductory paragraph. This is an introductory paragraph. Paragraphs 2-18 Paragraphs 2-18 In this part, the author discusses the determinants of happiness. In this part, the author discusses the determinants of happiness. Paragraphs Paragraphs This is the concluding part. This is the concluding part.

13 Comprehension questions of Text I (1) 1. What kind of society, according to the definitions of individualism and collectivism, do the Chinese live in? What is one of the key determinants of happiness for people living in such a society? 1. What kind of society, according to the definitions of individualism and collectivism, do the Chinese live in? What is one of the key determinants of happiness for people living in such a society? 2. What is the relationship between work and happiness? 2. What is the relationship between work and happiness? 3. What plays a more decisive role in happiness, external circumstances or one ’ s interpretation of the external circumstances? 3. What plays a more decisive role in happiness, external circumstances or one ’ s interpretation of the external circumstances?

14 Comprehension questions of Text I (1) 4. Have a reality check based on what you have read from the text. Work out a similar list of the determinants of happiness for contemporary Chinese, from the least important to somewhat important, then, the most important, is there any difference between your list and the list in the text? How true if you list and to what extent is the author ’ s list reliable? Is there any cultural difference in the understanding of happiness between two lists? 4. Have a reality check based on what you have read from the text. Work out a similar list of the determinants of happiness for contemporary Chinese, from the least important to somewhat important, then, the most important, is there any difference between your list and the list in the text? How true if you list and to what extent is the author ’ s list reliable? Is there any cultural difference in the understanding of happiness between two lists?

15 Language points of Text I (1) 1. much of speculation: mostly a conjecture without firm evidence 1. much of speculation: mostly a conjecture without firm evidence Speculation: the act of guessing without knowing all the facts about something, or the guesses that you make. Speculation: the act of guessing without knowing all the facts about something, or the guesses that you make. Their speculations are still far from the truth. Their speculations are still far from the truth. Former speculations about life on other planets were mere guesses. Former speculations about life on other planets were mere guesses.

16 Language points of Text I (2) 2. hypothesis: 2. hypothesis: plural hypotheses plural hypotheses [countable] an idea that is suggested as an explanation for something, but that has not yet been proved to be true [countable] an idea that is suggested as an explanation for something, but that has not yet been proved to be true synonym theory synonym theory One hypothesis is that the victim fell asleep while driving. One hypothesis is that the victim fell asleep while driving.

17 Language points of Text I (3) prove/test/support etc a hypothesis prove/test/support etc a hypothesis We hope that further research will confirm our hypothesis. We hope that further research will confirm our hypothesis. hypothesis about hypothesis about The authors reject the hypothesis about unemployment contributing to crime. The authors reject the hypothesis about unemployment contributing to crime.

18 Language points of Text I (4) abound: to exist in very large numbers or quantities abound: to exist in very large numbers or quantities These essays abound in wit These essays abound in wit I have visited several places abounding with deer. I have visited several places abounding with deer. 4. highlight: 4. highlight: to make a problem or subject easy to notice so that people pay attention to it to make a problem or subject easy to notice so that people pay attention to it Your resume should highlight your skills and achievements. Your resume should highlight your skills and achievements.

19 Language points of Text I (5) determinant: determinant: formal something that strongly influences what you do or how you behave formal something that strongly influences what you do or how you behave determinant of determinant of Social class is a major determinant of consumer spending patterns. Social class is a major determinant of consumer spending patterns. influential: influential: having a lot of influence and therefore changing the way people think and behave having a lot of influence and therefore changing the way people think and behave He had influential friends. He had influential friends.

20 Language points of Text I (6) influential in influential in Dewey was influential in shaping economic policy. Dewey was influential in shaping economic policy. a highly influential art magazine a highly influential art magazine

21 Language points of Text I (7) 7. voracious consumption : the state of using in large amounts 7. voracious consumption : the state of using in large amounts Voracious : eating or wanting large quantities of food; extremely eager to gain knowledge Voracious : eating or wanting large quantities of food; extremely eager to gain knowledge Marie is a voracious reader. She is eager to read all sorts of magazines and books. Marie is a voracious reader. She is eager to read all sorts of magazines and books. He has a voracious appetite. He has a voracious appetite. come our short: to end up lacking in money come our short: to end up lacking in money

22 Language points of Text I (8) affluent: having plenty of money affluent: having plenty of money they have a relatively affluent way of life. they have a relatively affluent way of life. shift some: to change by a small degree. shift some: to change by a small degree.

23 Language points of Text I (9) hassle: [uncountable and countable] spoken something that is annoying, because it causes problems or is difficult to do hassle: [uncountable and countable] spoken something that is annoying, because it causes problems or is difficult to do I don't feel like cooking tonight, it's too much hassle. It's such a hassle not having a washing machine. I don't feel like cooking tonight, it's too much hassle. It's such a hassle not having a washing machine. hassle v. to annoy someone, especially by asking them many times to do something hassle v. to annoy someone, especially by asking them many times to do something Stop hassling me! I said I'll call them tomorrow. Stop hassling me! I said I'll call them tomorrow.

24 Language points of Text I (10) balance … out: to become equal balance … out: to become equal negligible : too slight or unimportant to have any effect negligible : too slight or unimportant to have any effect His contribution to the effort was negligible. His contribution to the effort was negligible.

25 Language points of Text I (11) 14. stereotype: [countable] 14. stereotype: [countable] a belief or idea of what a particular type of person or thing is like. Stereotypes are often unfair or untrue a belief or idea of what a particular type of person or thing is like. Stereotypes are often unfair or untrue stereotype of stereotype of women who don't fit the stereotype of the good mother women who don't fit the stereotype of the good mother stereotype about stereotype about stereotypes about the elderly stereotypes about the elderly stereotypical adjective the stereotypical Californian - tall, fit, and tanned stereotypical adjective the stereotypical Californian - tall, fit, and tanned stereotypically adverb stereotypically adverb

26 Language points of Text I (12) 15. tranquil: pleasantly calm, quiet, and peaceful 15. tranquil: pleasantly calm, quiet, and peaceful a small tranquil village a small tranquil village tranquilly adverb tranquilly adverb tranquility British English tranquility American English noun tranquility British English tranquility American English noun [uncountable] the tranquility of the Tuscan countryside [uncountable] the tranquility of the Tuscan countryside

27 Language points of Text I (13) 16. pastoral: 16. pastoral: typical of the simple peaceful life in the country typical of the simple peaceful life in the country a charming pastoral scene a charming pastoral scene 17.adapt to : to gradually change one ’ s behavior or attitudes to that one gets used to a new situation and can deal with successfully 17.adapt to : to gradually change one ’ s behavior or attitudes to that one gets used to a new situation and can deal with successfully The shrewd politician adapts his speech to suit the interests of his audience. The shrewd politician adapts his speech to suit the interests of his audience. He was obliged to adapt himself to the situation. He was obliged to adapt himself to the situation.

28 Language points of Text I (14) 18. spectrum: 18. spectrum: a complete range of opinions, people, situations etc, going from one extreme to its opposite a complete range of opinions, people, situations etc, going from one extreme to its opposite spectrum of spectrum of the ethnic spectrum of America the ethnic spectrum of America across the spectrum across the spectrum The bill drew support from across the political spectrum. The bill drew support from across the political spectrum. broad/wide/full etc spectrum a broad spectrum of environmental groups broad/wide/full etc spectrum a broad spectrum of environmental groups The two articles here represent opposite ends of the spectrum. The two articles here represent opposite ends of the spectrum.

29 Language points of Text I (15) 19. religiosity: the state of being excessively religious. 19. religiosity: the state of being excessively religious. 20. foster: to help an idea to develop over a period of time 20. foster: to help an idea to develop over a period of time I ’ m trying to foster an interest in classic music in my children. I ’ m trying to foster an interest in classic music in my children. 21. attribute: a quality of feature, especially one that is considered to be good or useful 21. attribute: a quality of feature, especially one that is considered to be good or useful Generosity is but one of her many attributes. Generosity is but one of her many attributes. Language is a attribute of human beings. Language is a attribute of human beings.

30 Language points of Text I (16) 22. place a priority on: to deal with … first and give it preferential treatment 22. place a priority on: to deal with … first and give it preferential treatment 23. disparity: a difference between two or more things, especially an unfair one 23. disparity: a difference between two or more things, especially an unfair one There was such disparity in the standards of living between the rich and the poor. There was such disparity in the standards of living between the rich and the poor. 24. quadriplegic: a person who is permanently unable to move any part of their body below their work. 24. quadriplegic: a person who is permanently unable to move any part of their body below their work.

31 Language points of Text I (17) 25. extraversion (also spelled as extroversion) : the state of being outgoing and socially confident. 25. extraversion (also spelled as extroversion) : the state of being outgoing and socially confident. 26. glean: to find out facts and information slowly and with difficulty 26. glean: to find out facts and information slowly and with difficulty From what I ’ m able to glean, the news isn ’ t good. From what I ’ m able to glean, the news isn ’ t good.

32 Grammatical Items as … as ; not as … as ; not so … as as … as ; not as … as ; not so … as The negative form of “ as … as ” is “ not as … as ” or “ not so … as. ” But “ so ” may not be used (1) after the contracted form such as “ isn ’ t, ” “ don ’ t ” (2) when there are other lexical items in between the negative word and “ as … as ” construction. E.g. : Sue does not act as quickly as Sue. However, when adverbs with negative meanings are used directly before the comparative construction, “ so ” is usually acceptable. The negative form of “ as … as ” is “ not as … as ” or “ not so … as. ” But “ so ” may not be used (1) after the contracted form such as “ isn ’ t, ” “ don ’ t ” (2) when there are other lexical items in between the negative word and “ as … as ” construction. E.g. : Sue does not act as quickly as Sue. However, when adverbs with negative meanings are used directly before the comparative construction, “ so ” is usually acceptable.

33 Translation Exercises (1) 1. 张教授的发言强调英语学习中坚实基础 的重要性。( highlight ) 1. 张教授的发言强调英语学习中坚实基础 的重要性。( highlight ) The speech made by Professor Zhang highlighted the importance of the solid foundation in learning English. The speech made by Professor Zhang highlighted the importance of the solid foundation in learning English. 2. 人们认为,抽烟和肺癌之间有着相互联 系。( correlation ) 2. 人们认为,抽烟和肺癌之间有着相互联 系。( correlation ) It is believed that there is a correlation between smoking and lung cancer. It is believed that there is a correlation between smoking and lung cancer.

34 Translation Exercises (2) 3. 应该承认,他有着我们都没有的勇气和 毅力。( admittedly ) 3. 应该承认,他有着我们都没有的勇气和 毅力。( admittedly ) Admittedly, he has courage and stamina which we lack Admittedly, he has courage and stamina which we lack 4. 我们应该努力如实地来观察事物。 ( in … perspective ) 4. 我们应该努力如实地来观察事物。 ( in … perspective ) We should try to see things in their true perspective. We should try to see things in their true perspective.

35 Translation Exercises (3) 5. 我信任他,因为他总是言行一致。 ( consistent with ) 5. 我信任他,因为他总是言行一致。 ( consistent with ) I trust him, because what he says is always consistent with what he does I trust him, because what he says is always consistent with what he does 6. 尽管他们两人年龄悬殊,但是却非常融 洽。( disparity ) 6. 尽管他们两人年龄悬殊,但是却非常融 洽。( disparity ) Both of them are in perfect harmony despite the great disparity in age. Both of them are in perfect harmony despite the great disparity in age.

36 Translation Exercises (4) 7. 不管是什么年龄,什么性别,什么肤色, 每个人都有幸福的权利。( regardless of ) 7. 不管是什么年龄,什么性别,什么肤色, 每个人都有幸福的权利。( regardless of ) Everyone has the right to happiness regardless of their age, sex, or color Everyone has the right to happiness regardless of their age, sex, or color 8. 与纽约相比,这个海边城镇是很小的。 ( relative to ) 8. 与纽约相比,这个海边城镇是很小的。 ( relative to ) Relative to the city of New York, the town on the sea is very small. Relative to the city of New York, the town on the sea is very small.

37 Comprehension questions of Text II (1) Comprehension questions of Text II (1) 1. What three major possibilities of how happiness is acquired are mentioned in the beginning of the text? What do you think is the probability of happiness? 1. What three major possibilities of how happiness is acquired are mentioned in the beginning of the text? What do you think is the probability of happiness? 2. Why shouldn ’ t we call any beat, such as an ox or a horse happy? 2. Why shouldn ’ t we call any beat, such as an ox or a horse happy? 3. What are the essential constituents of happiness, and those of the negation of happiness? 3. What are the essential constituents of happiness, and those of the negation of happiness?

38 Comprehension questions of Text II (2) 4. Why can no happy man ever become miserable? 4. Why can no happy man ever become miserable? 5. If a happy man is a person who has lived honorably and dies in the same manner, then how should he be considered ? 5. If a happy man is a person who has lived honorably and dies in the same manner, then how should he be considered ?

39 Oral activities (1) 1. work in groups. Conduct a class survey on what happiness depends on. First compose a questionnaire based on the text and you personal understanding, then conduct the survey in class. Afterwards, report the survey to you r classmates and discuss the results of your surveys. 1. work in groups. Conduct a class survey on what happiness depends on. First compose a questionnaire based on the text and you personal understanding, then conduct the survey in class. Afterwards, report the survey to you r classmates and discuss the results of your surveys.

40 Oral activities (2) 2. What is money? Is it the root of all evil--- or what makes the world go round? Here are some quotations about money. See if you agree with them or not. Also discuss with your partner the questions below: 2. What is money? Is it the root of all evil--- or what makes the world go round? Here are some quotations about money. See if you agree with them or not. Also discuss with your partner the questions below: How important do you think money is for happiness? Why are so many people enslaved by money? What is the essence of work? How important do you think money is for happiness? Why are so many people enslaved by money? What is the essence of work?

41 Writing practice (1) Happiness Happiness Dr Wayne W.Dyer (affectionately called the "father of motivation" by his fans) wrote: ” There is no way to happiness. Happiness is the way." There is no use saying "some day when I achieve these goals, when I get this car, build this house and have this business... then I will be really happy." Life just doesn ’ t work that way. Dr Wayne W.Dyer (affectionately called the "father of motivation" by his fans) wrote: ” There is no way to happiness. Happiness is the way." There is no use saying "some day when I achieve these goals, when I get this car, build this house and have this business... then I will be really happy." Life just doesn ’ t work that way.

42 Writing practice (2) If you wait for certain things to happen and depend on external circumstances of life to make you happy,you will always feel unfulfilled. There will always be something missing.Long term happiness is based on honesty, self-esteem, productive work and contributions to other people ’ s happiness. Happiness is not an end ; it is a process. If you wait for certain things to happen and depend on external circumstances of life to make you happy,you will always feel unfulfilled. There will always be something missing.Long term happiness is based on honesty, self-esteem, productive work and contributions to other people ’ s happiness. Happiness is not an end ; it is a process.

43 Writing practice (3) Long term happiness is a process of moving towards worthwhile goals and contributing towards the welfare and happiness to others. It means continuously creating values for others through your own honest, productive work. It means doing what you love and loving what you do. It means achieving your goals and then challenging yourself to bigger and better things. Long term happiness is a process of moving towards worthwhile goals and contributing towards the welfare and happiness to others. It means continuously creating values for others through your own honest, productive work. It means doing what you love and loving what you do. It means achieving your goals and then challenging yourself to bigger and better things.

44 Writing practice (4) It means always striving for more, learning and growing. Work honestly and productively and contribute real values to other. In the long run, that ’ s all what it is all about. It means always striving for more, learning and growing. Work honestly and productively and contribute real values to other. In the long run, that ’ s all what it is all about.

45 Goodbye


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