2ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY DefinitionAnatomy- deals with structure of human body parts.Definition:Physiology- Considers the functions of those body parts.
3Types of Anatomy Gross Anatomy? The study of large body structures visible to the naked eye such as heart, lungs, and kidneys.Regional anatomy- all the structures (muscle, bone, etc) in a particular area.Systemic anatomy- studied system by systemSurface anatomy-study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface.
4Types of AnatomyMicroscopic Anatomy- study that deals with the structures too small to be seen with the naked eye.Cytology-study cells of the bodyHistology –the study of tissue
5Types of AnatomyDevelopmental anatomy- traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span.Embryology-concerns developmental changes that occur before birth
6Level of Complexity. Atom Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Systems OrganismsPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiosphere
7CHARACTERISTIC OF ANIMAL LIFE Maintaining BalanceMovementResponsivenessDigestionMetabolismExcretionGrowthReproduction
8Requirements of Organisms WaterNutrients (Food)OxygenHeat (Temperature)Pressure
9HOMEOSTASIS Homeostasis- the maintenance of a stable environment. Most of our metabolic energy is spent on maintaining itSet Point F (37 C)A Homeostasis mechanism that regulates humans is in the center of the brain and is called hypothalamus.
10HOMEOSTASISSome organisms (single cells)..the outside world/environment supports its requirements.Humans have about 70 Trillion cells, it our internal environment that keeps everything constant.Communication within the body is essential for homeostasis.
11Homeostatic Control Mechanisms Regardless of the factor or event being regulated (which is called the variable) all homeostatic control mechanisms have at least three interdependent components.
12The Receptor The Receptor The first component, the receptor, is some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes.It will send information to the second component which is the control center.
13The Control CenterThe control center, which determines the set point (range at which a variable is to be maintained), analyzes the input it receives and then determines the appropriate response or course of action.
14The EffectorThe third component is called the effector, it will provide the means for the control center’s response to the stimulus.The results of the response then feedback to influence the stimulus positively or negatively.
15Which is Which???The homeostasis concept is very much like the heat pump at your house?ThermometerHeaterThermostat
16Which is which? Which is Which??? The Thermometer is the Receptor The Effector is the HeaterControl Center is the Thermostat
17HOMEOSTASISTemperature, Blood pressure, and glucose levels all contribute to maintaining homeostasis within the body.These are all regulated by a process called..Negative Feedback- response to return to normal homeostasis.Most body process are controlled in this manner.
18you have to add this to you r notes HOMEOSTASISHOMEOSTASIS..you have to add this to you r notesSome processes that cause movement away from the normal state are more rare and are called Positive Feedback.Here are 3 great examples of Positive Feedback:Oxytocin is a hormone that intensifies labor contractions during birth of a baby. They become more frequent and more powerful which then causes more oxytocin. This continues until the baby is born.Blood clotting—chemical present in a clot promote still more clotting.Breast feeding, the more the baby eats and with greater force the mammary glands respond by making more milk.
21Axial Portion- The head, neck, and trunk BODY CAVITIESBODY CAVITIESAxial Portion- The head, neck, and trunkAppendicular Portion- upper and lower limbs
22Axial-Dorsal BODY CAVITY The Dorsal cavity lies within the skull and vertebral column and has two subdivisions: the Cranial cavity and the Spinal cavity (Vertebral canal). As the names suggest, the cranial cavity hosts the brain and the spinal cord is found within the spinal cavity.
23Axial-Ventral BODY CAVITY The ventral cavity also has two main subdivisions, the Thoracic Cavity and the Abdominaopelvic (abdominal and pelvic cavity.)These two cavities have an obvious division separating them; The large, dome shaped Diaphragm muscle that sits below the lungs and above the stomach.
24Thoracic Cavity THORACIC CAVITY The Thoracic cavity is divided into right and left, lung containing sides by a medial partition called the Mediastinum, which contains the heart, trachea and esophagus.
25Thoracic Cavity THORACIC CAVITY . The lungs are separated from each other and the heart into right and left Pleural cavities. Each cavity is lined by a membrane, the Parietal pleura, which is continuous and covers the lungs proper, forming the Visceral pleuraParietal layer-separates the lining of the wall from the layer covering the organ visceral layer.
27Thoracic Cavity THORACIC CAVITY A similar situation exists with the heart, which resides within the Pericardial cavity, which is lined by the Parietal Pericardium, a membrane which is continuous with the Visceral Pericardium, covering the heart.
28AbdominopelvicThe abdominopelvic cavity is subdivided in it's own right, although this division is not obvious as it's division with the thoracic cavity. The upper Abdominal cavity is divided from the lower Pelvic cavity by an imaginary line from the pubis up and back to the top of the sacrum.
29Abdominal Cavity Abdominal Cavity The abdominal cavity contains the stomach, intestines, liver, kidneys, spleen and pancreas. The pelvic cavity is a small space encased by the pelvic bones and contains the urinary bladder, the lower end of the colon, and the internal reproductive organs (primarily female).
30Abdominal Cavity Abdominal Cavity The abdominal cavity is lined by a membrane, the Parietal Peritoneal, which is continuous with the organs of the abdominal cavity. This membrane is called the Visceral Peritoneal. The space between these two is the Peritoneal cavity.
34Bones, ligaments, and cartilage Provides frameworks, protective shield for softer tissue, attachment for muscles, and act together with muscles for movementTissue within the bones produce blood cells, store inorganic salts.
38NERVOUS SYSTEM Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs. Nerve cells send nerve impulsesSpecialized sensory receptors.Some nerves receive/send impulsesSome carry impulses from the brain or spinal cord to muscles
40ENDOCRINE SYSTEMIncludes all the glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormonesSome hormones affect certain tissue- (target tissue)Alters metabolism of target tissueORGANS- Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, and thymus gland
42CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Includes heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and bloodHeart-pump that forces blood through blood vessels.Blood- carries oxygen from lungs and nutrients from digestive organs to all body cells
44Lymphatic SystemIncludes: lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, thymus gland, and spleen.Transports tissue fluid back to bloodstream and carries fatty substances away from digestive organs.Cells are called lymphocytes, which defends the body against infections by removing disease.
46Digestive SystemIncludes: Mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestineBreaks down food to similar forms that can pass through cell membranes to be absorbed..
47Digestive SystemMaterials not absorbed are transported back outside the body.Certain digestive organs produced hormones and function as part of the endocrine system.
51Urinary System Includes kidney, ureters, urinary bladder, and uretha Kidneys remove wastes from blood and assist in maintaining the body’s water and electrolyte balanceProduct is urine Sometimes called excretory system
53REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM FEMALE Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, vulvaProduce and maintain egg cells, receive sperm cells, support development of an embryo and function in birth process
54REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM MALE Scrotum, testes, epididymides, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urethra, and penisProduce and maintain sperm cells, transfer sperm cells into female reproductive organs.