Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 УСКОРИТЕЛИ В ФИЗИКЕ ВЫСОКИХ ЭНЕРГИЙ И.Н.Мешков VI-я Зимняя школа по Теоретической Физике "Введение в Теорию Фундаментальных Взаимодействий" Дубна, 26.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 УСКОРИТЕЛИ В ФИЗИКЕ ВЫСОКИХ ЭНЕРГИЙ И.Н.Мешков VI-я Зимняя школа по Теоретической Физике "Введение в Теорию Фундаментальных Взаимодействий" Дубна, 26."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 УСКОРИТЕЛИ В ФИЗИКЕ ВЫСОКИХ ЭНЕРГИЙ И.Н.Мешков VI-я Зимняя школа по Теоретической Физике "Введение в Теорию Фундаментальных Взаимодействий" Дубна, 26 января – 5 февраля 2008 г. Лекция III

2 2 Содержание 12. Физика спина 13. “Confinement” и “comressed barion matter” 14. Масса нейтрино 15. Перспективы развития ускорительной техники и “Новая физика” 16. И ещё раз о космических лучах Заключение 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

3 3 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna 10. The remaining problems and accelerators SPS, Main Injector (Fermilab), J-PARC LHC, ILC, muon collider, “plasma wake field accelerators”

4 4 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna 12. Spin Physics Hadron-Electron Ring Accumulator (HERA) Parameters: Circumference 6336 m Energy 30 GeV (e + or e - ) x 820(p) GeV Luminosity 3.8  cm -2  s -1 HERA: The first "hint" on quark-gluon structure of nucleon spin The HERA facility will be shut down this year (?)

5 5 12. Spin Physics Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (Jefferson National Laboratory) Electrons of 12 GeV energy are used as an electromagnetic/weak interacting probe of nucleon structure 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna Fixed target experiment

6 6 12. Spin Physics 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna Nuclotron (JINR) d  4 (6 - project) GeV/amu

7 7 12. Spin Physics 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna Cooler-Synchrotron (COSY) Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany d  2 GeV/amu electron cooling stochastic cooling

8 8 12. Spin Physics 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna U70 (Protvino) p , d  35 GeV/amu (concept)

9 9 12. Spin Physics 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (BNL) pp 2x250 GeV, 1  cm -2  s -1 pp  2x250 GeV, 1  cm -2  s -1 ? ii 2x100 GeV/u, 3.2  cm -2  s - 1

10 “Confinement” & “compressed barion matter” 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna Experiment NA Pb GeV/u 208 Pb fixed target Search for quark-gluon plasma

11 11 Electron cooling  9  cm -2  s January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna 13. “Confinement” & “compressed barion matter” RHIC in Ion Mode 197 Au 79+ x 197 Au GeV/u   s = 202 GeV/u L peak = 3.2  cm -2  s -1 _

12 12 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna 13. “Confinement” & “compressed barion matter” Novel Ideas from Dubna A.Sisakian, A.Sorin, V.Toneev: Search for The Mixed Phase

13 13 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna 13. “Confinement” & “compressed barion matter” Evolution of collision region in Nucleus-Nucleus Interaction QGP and hydrodynamic expansion Hadronisation, hadronic phase & chemical freeze-out “Chemical freeze-out” – finish of inelastic interactions; “Kinetic freeze-out” – finish of elastic interactions. _______________________________________________________ *) freeze-out – here means “to get rid” (отделаться, англ. слэнг) Start of the collision pre-equilibrium Hadronic phase & kinetic freeze-out

14 14 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna 13. “Confinement” & “compressed barion matter” Novel Ideas from Dubna: _ The Mixed Phase can be formed in collisions of heavy and neutron rich ions at  s ~ 7  10 GeV/u. The project of ion collider in this energy range

15 15 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna 13. “Confinement” & “compressed barion matter” The second possible detector Nuclotron Krion & Linac Booster Collider C = m Averaged luminosity 1.3  cm -2  s -1 ( 238 U 92+ x 238 U 92+ ) Existing beam lines (solid target exp-s) Project of Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility  s ~ 4  10 GeV/u _

16 16 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna 13. “Confinement” & “compressed barion matter” What do think others? Reacted immediately!

17 17 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna 13. “Confinement” & “compressed barion matter” RHIC – reflecting of collision energy decreasy What is the FAIR? U-70 – considering ion acceleration CERN… too busy with LHC, but… FAIR…

18 “Confinement” & “compressed barion matter” _ 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) SIS100, SIS300 – superconducting proton (ion) synchrotrons CR – Cooler storage Ring RESR – cooler storage ring NESR – “New ESR” HESR – High Energy Storage Ring FLAIR - Facility for Low- energy Antiproton and Ion Research E [GeV/u]  0.3· (Z/A)·(B  ) [T·m]

19 “Confinement” & “compressed barion matter” 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research Compressed Barion Matter experiment at FAIR Fixed target experiment complimentary to NICA/MPD

20 “Confinement” & “compressed barion matter” 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna TerraWatt Accumulator Facility at ITEP (Moscow) Fixed target experiment complimentary to FAIR and NICA/MPD

21 “Confinement” & “compressed barion matter” 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna TerraWatt Accumulator Facility at ITEP (Moscow) Two-ring accelerator complex: The goal => accumulation of 1  C 6+ ions The ion beam energy 3.8 kJ/pulse Beam pulse duration 50 ns Beam power 77 GW Acceleration up to 700 MeV gives 270 GW The goal: inertial fusion U10 UK Booster

22 Neutrino Mass First experimental observation: 1998, The Super-Kamiokande Collaboration The detector, named KamiokaNDE for Kamioka Nucleon Decay Experiment, was a tank 16.0m in height and 15.6m in width, containing 3,000 tons of pure water and about 1,000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Super-Kamiokande: 15 timeslarger the water volume and 10 times as many PMTs as Kamiokande. Bruno Pontecorovo: neutrino oscillations Is neutrino massless particle? If not First evidence: cosmic neutrinos from Supernova SN 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

23 23 CERN Accelerator Chain 25 July – 5 August 2005 The VIIIth International School-Seminar at "Golden Sands“, Gomel 14. Neutrino Mass (Contnd)

24 24 25 July – 5 August 2005 The VIIIth International School-Seminar at "Golden Sands“, Gomel CNGS 730 km 14. Neutrino Mass (Contnd) SPS (CERN) CNGS1 (OPERA) A search for   -  oscillations in the CNGS beam; CNGS2 (ICARUS) A search of -oscillations with the ICARUS detector CNGS: CERN Neutrino to Grand Sasso 730 km

25 Neutrino Mass (Contnd) Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) 25 July – 5 August 2005 The VIIIth International School-Seminar at "Golden Sands“, Gomel

26 Neutrino Mass (Contnd) K2K and J-PARC J-PARC Tokyo K-to-K: KEK to Kamiokande K2K - Long-baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna J-PARC: Japaneze Proton AcceleRator Complex Linac: H -, 600 (400) MeV RCS 3 GeV proton synchrotron, 25 Hz repetition rate MR (Main Ring) 50 Gev, = 15  A  0.93  p/s, = 750 kW, repetition rate 0.3 Hz

27 Neutrino Mass Accelerators and neutrino oscillations Neutrino Generators SPS (CERN) 450 GeV, 2  p/s Main Injector (Fermilab) 120 GeV, 1.3  p/s J-PARC (Japan) 50 Gev, 9.3  p/s U-70 (Russia) 70 GeV, 1.5  p/s and 3 experiments: OPERA (CERN) 730 km MINOS (Fermilab) 730 km K2K (KEK, Japan) ~ 300 km 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

28 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna 1.International (e + e - ) Linear Collider (ILC - “TESLA technology”) 2. CERN (e+ e-) Linear Collider (CLIC –"CLIC technology”) 3. Muon Collider 4. Plasma & Wake-field accelerators

29 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna First idea – VLEPP: Встречные Линейные Электрон-Позитронные Пучки i.e. e + e - Linear Collider V.E.Balakin, G.I.Budker, A.N.Skrinsky INP Novosibirsk 1978

30 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna First idea Why should they be linear? To avoid SR problem!

31 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna First proposal Layout of the VLEPP facility ( )

32 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna ILC Scheme ~30 km e+ 150 GeV (~1.2km) x2 R = 955m E = 5 GeV RTML ~1.6km ML ~10km (G = 31.5MV/m) 20mr 2mr BDS 5km 2 х 250 GeV, km

33 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna “TESLA Technology” 35 MV/m  60 MeV / m ILC Tunnel 2 x 250 GeV 15 x 15 km ILC

34 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna International Linear Collider (ILC) – A Fabric of Higgs Bosons Main advantage of a e + e - collider e-e- e+e+ H Z0Z0 LHC pp collisions: ILC e + e - collisions: Z0Z0 H

35 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna LHC will allow to find Higgs-boson and "roughly" defind its mass ILC will make possible high precision measurements of Higgs-boson parameters ILC

36 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna International Linear Collider (ILC) – A Fabric of Higgs Bosons «Three elefants of» ILC Energy 2x250  2x500 GeV Polarization P  0.8 Luminosity 500 fb -1 /4 years 2  cm -2  s -1 ILC

37 37 GDE Structure and Organization 15. Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna Global Design Effort – - Всемирное Усилие по Созданию Проекта Executive Committee for Baseline Configuration – GDE Director B.Barish (SLAC) – Regional Directors G. Dugan – Americas (Cornell Univ.) B. Foster – Europe (Oxford Univ.,RAL) Takasaki – Asia (KEK) – Accelerator Leaders Raubenheimer – Americas (?) N. Walker – Europe (?) K. Yokoya – Asia (KEK) GDE Executive Committee G.Shirkov (JINR) ILC

38 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna Почём хиггсы для народа? ILC ILC = $ 6.5  6.7 Billion (15?)

39 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna 1. Fermilab 2. Japan 3. CERN 4.DESY 5. Dubna Where to build ILC? ILC

40 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna ILC at Dubna Cosmic Communication Station ILC

41 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna ILC The GDE Plan and Schedule 2005 Global Design EffortProject globally coordinated Baseline configuration Reference Design ILC R&D Program Technical Design FALC International Mgmt expression of interest samples regionial coord-n ICFA / ILCSC Funding Hosting

42 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna ILC Recent disappointment: USA, GB shortened funding of the Project works! SSC, ILC,… what follows?

43 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna CERN (e + e - ) LInear Collider CLIC – Alternative Technology: “Two beam acceleration” Status: R & D 150 MV/m The Decision  “After LHC” (i.e. 2007) Now !

44 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) Muon Collider Proton Injector ~100 GeV targets      decay channels Ionization cooling and  -bunches formation   accelerator  +  - collider Principle limitation – ultrarelativistic energy :  life =  ,    2.2  s,   100 ++ -- Status: R & D 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

45 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) Muon Collider Key technology: “muon cooling” Initial idea  A.A.Kolomensky (1968): G.Budker & A.Skrinsky ( beginning of the 70 th )  muon cooling and  +  - collider concept Test facility under construction: Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment MICE at Rutherford Appleton Lab., UK 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

46 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) Muon Collider “muon cooling” Regions of ionization cooling no cooling  /mc d  /dx Good, but… … does not work for hadrons due to strong interaction with nuclei! 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

47 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna Plasma & Wake-field accelerators Status: R & D Acceleration rate ~ a few GeV/m Driver bunch “Witness bunch” Principle of “The Wake Field Acceleration”

48 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) Plasma & Wake-field accelerators The principle: A short ultrarelativistic electron bunch (or a few bunches), or short laser pulse passes through plasma and excites with its electric field plasma oscillations. Heavy ions remain to stay at their initial places, but light electrons begin to oscillate around equilibrium position. Separation of plasma charges produces electric field, which can accelerate particle coming into oscillating plasma at appropriate phase. Rough estimate: Phase velocity of the plasma wave coincides with the driver bunch velocity E ~ /2 Plasma oscillation 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna That is Plasma Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA) Typical parameters: Plasma density n p ~ cm -3 Plasma frequency  p = (4  n p e 2 /m) 1/2 ~ 2·10 12 s -1 Bunch size L b ~ p /4 ~ c/  p ~ 0.2 mm Electric field E  (4  n p mc 2 ) 1/2 =  p mc/e ~ 3 GV/m !

49 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) Plasma & Wake-field accelerators That is Plasma Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA) Typical parameters: Plasma density n p ~ cm -3 Plasma frequency  p = (4  n p e 2 /m) 1/2 ~ 2·10 12 s -1 Bunch size L b ~ p /4 ~ c/  p ~ 0.2 mm Electric field E  (4  n p mc 2 ) 1/2 =  p mc/e ~ 3 GV/m ! 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

50 Prospects of Accelerator Technologies and New Physics (Contnd) Plasma & Wake-field accelerators 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna List of Experiments on Wake Field Acceleration Laboratory Year Bunch Particle Energy Acceleration number energy gain rate MeV MeV MeV/m Argonne Nat. Lab … KEK Kharkov Inst. for Physics and Technique SLAC GeV 4 GeV 40 GeV/m BNL 2003-… LANL , MeV in gas jet

51 Cosmic Rays – once again 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna E primary  eV ! Energy limitation: GZK effect (Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin) Disadvantage: Poor intensity and no control! Main aplication (today): Astrophysics

52 52 For conclusion: What do and can we expect "soon"? 2008 (2009?)  LHC 2012 (?)  FAIR, NICA 2015 (??)  ILC 2025 (?)  Muon collider 2030 (?)  Wake Field Accelerator 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

53 53 The Goals: GUT (Grand Unification Theory) ~ eV Tevatron 1.8·10 12 eV LHC 1.4·10 13 eV Wake Field Collider 6·10 14 eV (2x100 km) The Hopes: For conclusion: What do and can we expect ? 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna

54 54 26 January – 5 February 2008 I.Meshkov Particle Acelerators in HEP The VIth Winter School of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna


Download ppt "1 УСКОРИТЕЛИ В ФИЗИКЕ ВЫСОКИХ ЭНЕРГИЙ И.Н.Мешков VI-я Зимняя школа по Теоретической Физике "Введение в Теорию Фундаментальных Взаимодействий" Дубна, 26."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google