Presentation on theme: "I. Lead-in Questions 1.What is your impression of the English language? 2.Can you give one example to illustrate the messiness of the English language?"— Presentation transcript:
1.What is your impression of the English language? 2.Can you give one example to illustrate the messiness of the English language? 3.Why does English today have a much larger vocabulary than any other living language?
II. Cultural Notes 1. The Roots of English 1. The Roots of English 2. The Roots of English 2. The Roots of English
The roots of English: The roots of English: English began as a west Germanic language which was brought to England by the Saxons around 400 A.D. Old English was the spoken and written language of England between 400 and 1100 A.D. Many words used today come from Old English, including man, woman, king, mother, etc. But Old English was very difficult from modern English and only a few words can be easily recognized. In the 9th and 10th centuries, when Vikings invaded England, Old Norse words, e.g. sky, take, get and many place names, entered the language
Winston Churchill A politician who is remembered as one of Britain’s greatest statesmen. Churchill became Prime Minister and Minister of Defense in 1940. His radio speeches during World War II gave the British people a strong determination to win the war, especially at times of great crisis. Examples of Churchill’s phrases still often quoted today are “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat”, and “This was their finest hour”.
Words 1. massive a. 1) very large, solid and heavy 大而重的，厚实的 eg ： The bell is massive, weighing over 40 tons. 这个钟很重，超过了 40 吨。 The elephant has a massive head. 大象有个笨重的头。 2) of big scale; of large quantity 大规模的，大量的 eg: Zhao Wei has been the subject of massive media coverage. 赵薇一直是媒体大量报道的对象. The government has made massive efforts to build a well-off society. 政府做了大量的努力以建设一个小康的社会。
Words 2. ban n. 1) an official order that forbids sth. From being used or done 禁止, 禁令 eg: Alcohol production is put under ban. 禁止酿酒 There was no ban on smoking cigarettes. 这里没有禁止抽烟的禁令。 v. 1) to say that sth. must not be done, seen, used etc 禁止； 取缔 eg: Swimming in this river is banned. 此河禁止游泳。 I’m banned from driving. 我被禁止驾车。 。
Words 3. fascinate v. 1) to make someone think about sth a lot, want to watch it a lot 迷住，使神魂颠倒，强烈地吸引住 eg: Tom was fascinated by Peking opera. 汤姆被中国戏剧吸引。 Ｉ love history, it fascinates me. 我喜欢历史，这门学问对我有强烈的吸引力。
Words 4 ． tolerate v. to allow people do, say, or believe what they want without criticizing them 忍受，容忍，宽容 eg: I can’t tolerate his rudeness. 我无法忍受他的粗鲁行为。 They happily tolerated the existence of opinions contrary to their own. 他们愉快地接受了相反意见。
Words 5. necessity n. 1) sth. that must happen, even if it is unpleasant or undesirable 必然性 ; 必要性 eg: Taxes are a regrettable necessity. 上税令人遗憾，但也是必要的。 There is no necessity to buy tickets in advance. 没有必要提前买票。 2 ） sth that you need to have 必需品 eg: A cell phone is an absolute necessity for this job. 干这项工作电话是不可缺少的。 Food and Clothing are the bare necessities of life. 食物和衣服都是最低限度的生活必需品
Words 。 6. arouse v. 1) to cause to wake 唤醒 eg: Anne had to be aroused from a deep sleep. 必须把安从熟睡中唤醒。 We aroused him from his deep sleep. 我们把他从熟睡中叫醒。 2 ） to cause to become active 唤起，引起 eg: Her behavior aroused the suspicions of the police. 她的行为引起了警察的猜疑。 The strange film aroused our curiosity. 这部奇快的电影引起了我们的好奇。
Words 7. surrender v. 1) to give up sth that is important or necessary 交出；让出； 放弃 eg: The general had to surrender his troops. 这位将军不得不交出军队。 He wanted to surrender his insurance policy. 他想退保险 2 ） to be forced to say officially to stop fighting 使投降； 使自首 eg: The hijackers finally surrendered themselves to the police. 劫持者最终向警方投降了。
Words The government has surrendered to the pressure of big business and lowered interest rates. 政府屈服于大企业的压力，降低了利率。 3 ） to allow yourself to be controlled or influenced by sth 听 任；使沉溺于 eg: He surrendered to the temptation and took out a cigarette. 他经不住诱惑，拿出一支香烟。 The woman surrendered herself to despair. 这个女人陷于绝望。
Words 8. invade v. 1) to force oneself into a country, town or area 侵犯（权力 等），侵入；侵略 eg: Hitler invaded Poland in 1939. 希特勒 1939 年侵略波兰。 Don’t invade others’ right. 不要侵犯别人的权利。 2 ） to enter a place or building in large numbers, sometimes used humorously 涌入，大批进入 eg: Every summer the town of Zhouzhuang is invaded by tourists. 每年夏天周庄这个小镇里到处都是游客. Amy was annoyed by the small crawling pests that invaded her house. 埃米对家里的大批小爬虫感到烦心。
Words 9. resemble v. 1) to look like or be similar to, someone or something 像，类似 eg: She resembles her sister in appearance but not in character. 她长得很像她的姐姐但是性格不像。 She resembles her mother in the way she moves her hands when she talks. 她说话时打手势的动作像她妈妈。
Words 10. descend v. 1) sink from higher to a lower level 下来，下降，下倾 eg: The Queen descended the stairs. 女王走下楼梯。 The sun descended behind the hills. 太阳落山了。 2 ） followed by 祖传，是 … 的后裔 eg: He said he descended from an ancient family. 他说他来自一个古老的家庭。 The Japanese are thought to be descended from tribes from the north of China. 日本就相信是中国北方部落的后裔。
Words 11 ． establish v.1) cause to be, set up 成立，建立 eg: Ingrid Bergman established her fame as a film star at the age of 20. 英格丽 · 褒曼 20 岁时就确立了她当电影明星的声誉。 The established religion of Egypt and other Arabic countries is Islam. 埃及和其它阿拉伯国家的国教是伊斯兰教。
Words 12. drift v. 1) to move slowly on water or in the air 漂流，飘 eg: The rubber raft drifted out to the sea. 橡皮筏子飘向了大海。 A leaf was drifting on the river. 一片叶子正在河上漂流。 2 ） to move or to go somewhere without any plan or purpose 漂泊；游荡 eg: Jennie spent the year drifting around Europe. 珍妮在欧洲游逛了一年。 He drifted about from job to job. 他到处漂泊，频频换工作。
13. addition: n. 1) the act of adding sth to sth else, esp. adding numbers together. 加法 eg: Before I entered the primary school, my mother taught me to do addition and subtraction. 上小学之前妈妈教我加减法。 The little girl can do addition well. 这个小女孩加法很擅长。 2 ） sth that is added to sth else, often in order to improve it 增加的人或物 eg: A bottle of wine would make a pleasant addition to the meal. 如果有一瓶葡萄酒就更好了. He will be a valuable addition to our basketball team. 他将是我们篮球队里可贵的新增力量。 Words
14 ． conquer v. to defeat 攻克 eg: There has been a tremendous international effort to conquer cancer. 全世界已经做出巨大努力来克服癌症。 Man can conquer nature.. 人定胜天。 Words
15. alternative n. 1) one of two or more possibilities 供选择的东西 eg: I wanted to go out, but I had no money. I had no alternative to staying at home. 我想出去，可是没钱；只能待在家里。 There was no other alternative but to fight till the victory. 除了战斗直到胜利, 别无选择。 Words
16 ． modify v ． 1) to make small changes to improve sth and make it more suitable or effective 更改 ; 修改 eg: The present law needs to be modified. 现行的法律需要修订. The design has been modified to improve fuel consumption. 为了改善燃油消耗，该设计已经作了修改。 2) if an adjective, adverb, etc. modifies another word, it describes it or limits its meaning 修饰 eg: In the phrase “ walk slowly”, the adverb “slowly” modifies the verb “walk”. 在 “ 慢慢走 ” 词组中, 副词 “ 慢慢 ” 修饰动词 “ 走 ” 。 Adverbs are used to modify verbs. 副词用来修饰动词。 Words
17 ． preserve v. 1) to make sth. continue without changing 保护，维护， 保持 eg: The queen had managed to preserved her good looks. 皇后看上去人仍然很年轻。 The government is making efforts to preserve forests 政府正在努力去保护森林 2 ） to store (food, ect) for a long time after treating it so that it will not decay 保存 eg: Salt preserves food from decay. 盐能防止食物腐烂。 I like preserved fruit. 我喜欢蜜饯 Words
Phrases 1. to…extent to a certain extent/to some extent 在某种程度上 eg: To a certain extent the failure of the restaurant was due to bad management. 从某种程度上说，餐馆的失败是由于经营不 善造成的。 To a certain extent, these changes will affect all managers. 从某种程度上说，这些变化将影响到所有的 经理。
Phrases 2. pass on ： eg: hand or give sth. to sb. 将 … 传给 When you have finished reading the novel, please pass it on to Sally. 当你读完这本小说，请把它传给莎莉。 The king passed on much of his fortune to the princess. 国王把他很多财产传给了公主。
Phrases 3.. strike out eg: to start an independent life 开始独立生活，闯 Eric left the family business and struck out on his own. 艾瑞克离开了家族企业, 开创了自己的事业。 John quit his job and struck out as a traveling salesman. 约翰辞掉原来的工作，开始从事旅游推销员 的工作。
1. Text Organization Part One Paragraphs 1-3 ： Massive borrowing from other languages is a major feature of the English language. Part Two Paragraphs 4-16 ： Tells about the history of the English language from the Indo-European parent language to modern English. Part Three Paragraphs 17—19 ： Tolerance, love of freedom, and respect for the rights of others--these qualities in the English-speaking people explain the richness of their language.
One striking feature of the English language lies in its massive borrowing from other languages. Looking back on its history, we many find English, originally spoken by the Anglo-Saxons, has been mainly influenced at different times by Old Norse, Norman French, Latin and Greek and has been developed into many dialects. That’s why English is said to be so “messy”. However, it is this messiness that reflects the English people’s tolerance for change, their love of freedom and their respect for other’s rights. Thanks to all these qualities, English has become the first global language.
1) That happy tolerance, that willingness to accept words from anywhere, explains the richness of English and why has become, to a very real extent, the first truly global language. The English people are very willing to accept foreign words, and that is why English has such a large vocabulary and why it has indeed become an international language.
2) Churchill could have said, “We shall never give in,” but it is one of the lovely— and powerful—opportunities of English that a writer can mix, for effect, different words from different backgrounds. Churchill could have used the Old English phrase “give in” instead of the Norman French word “surrender”, but that is where the power and attraction of English lies—a writer can put different words from different backgrounds together to strengthen the effect of his writing.
The title, The Glorious Messiness of English, offers a good example of oxymoron. An oxymoron puts two contradictory terms together to puzzle the reader, luring him/her to pause and explore why. “Glorious” is a commendatory term, while “messiness” is derogatory. Why do they stand next to each other? Then, as the reader reads on, he/she will find out that the title is actually a thesis statement: Yes, English is messy, but the messiness reflects some commendable qualities of English, such as tolerance, the love of freedom, and the respect for others’ rights. At this point the reader cannot but admire the author’s ingenuity.
Robert MacNeil employs many metaphors, such as core of English (Para 4), a common parent language (Para 8), another flood of new vocabulary (Para 14), the special preserve of grammarians (Para 19). In Para 18 there is an instance of sustained metaphor: the cultural soil, the first shoots sprang up, …grew stronger, build fences around their language. In this case the English language is compared to plants, and the various cultures influencing it are compared to the soil, while users of English are compared to gardeners.
We can also find parallelism in the quote from Winston Churchill: “We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender.” There is personification in the sentence “Translations of Greek and Roman classics were poured onto the printed page…” There is metonymy in the sentence “The country now had three languages: French for the nobles, Latin for the churches and English for the common people.” Here the word “churches” stands for religious institutions and those who are involved in religious practices.
无忧 PPT 整理发布 The English language is used by more people in the world than any other living language today. This may seem surprising at first. After all, the population of the United Kingdom is one of the smallest in the world. But of course the UK is not the only country whose native language is English; the majority of people in the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are also native English-speakers. However, even if you add up the populations of these countries the total only comes to about 400 million, which is less than one0tenth of the population of the world. Who else speaks English? Well, if we count all the English-speakers in India ， Singapore some other countries, that adds another 700 million to the total. Add all those people who speak English elsewhere and the total English-speaking population of the world comes to an impressive one and a half billion. This figure shows that there are more non-native speakers of English than there are native speakers. Why is this? There is one important historical reason: the influence of the British Empire --- the Empire that stretched across the globe. Although the Empire no longer exists, the English language is firmly rooted in its former colonies--- in Africa, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, the Far East, Australia, New Zealand, the Caribbean and North America. Why English?
无忧 PPT 整理发布 Other important reasons for the spread of English are economic. English is the language of international business and commerce. It is also the native language of the United States. So, any country wanting, for example, to trade with the United States, or to take advantage of its technology, must be able to operate in English. Also, most scientific and technological developments have been made by English-speaking societies. To keep up with such developments, to talk about them in international conferences, or write and read about them in scientific journals and books, scientists, scholars and students must be able to understand English These are obvious reasons for the spread and interest in the English language. But there is a rather less obvious reason. English is also the language of a popular culture. All over the globe millions of young people listen to pop music and watch pop videos. The stars who perform in English are by far the most famous. The songs of Paul McCartney, John Lennon, Bob Dylan, the Rolling Stones, Police, Sting, Michal Jackson and hundreds of other American and British singers can be heard all over the world. English has become an international language. English is well suited to this role. Unlike many other languages, it has a built-in flexibility that allows constant adaption and assimilation. In English, vocabulary from other languages is often used, new words and combinations of words can be coined easily, nouns can be turned into verbs and vice versa. Why English?
无忧 PPT 整理发布 Furthermore English does not suffer from having an academy (as does France) which monitors the language and sets the standards of “correctness”. What is correct in English is often, simply, what is accepted as appropriated and understandable by those who speak it, whether they are native or non-native speakers. This flexibility helps to explain why English has survived so well, why it can vary so much from speaker and why it has become a world language. Why English?
无忧 PPT 整理发布 Comprehension Exercise Select the most appropriate answer for each of the following questions 1. We learn from the passage that_________ A) there are more native speakers of English than there are of other languages B) there are more non-native speakers of English than there are native speakers C) native speakers of English are people who speak in countries such as India and Singapore D) a little more than a tenth of the world population are native speakers of English Why English?
无忧 PPT 整理发布 2. The writer believes that one of the obvious reasons for the spread of English is that ________ A) English is the most widely used language in international trade and business B) English is the only language used in international affairs C) English has a richer cultural heritage than most other languages D) English is the language used in all scientific periodicals Why English?
无忧 PPT 整理发布 3. Why are the names of singers such as “Paul McCartney, John Lennon and Bob Dylan” mentioned in the passage? A) To show that stars performing in English are more likely to become popular B) To show the influence of English pop singers on world culture C) To show that English is the international language of pop songs D) To show that popular culture also plays a part in the spread of English Why English?
无忧 PPT 整理发布 4. What is the attitude of the writer to the French academy that sets the standards of correctness for French? A) Approving B) Negative C) Questioning D) Neutral Why English?
无忧 PPT 整理发布 5. According to the writer, the chief reason why English has survived so well is that ________ A) its vocabulary is very flexible B) anything that can be understood is correct C) it has a lot of borrowed terms from other languages D) it is flexible allowing for adaption and assimilation Why English?
无忧 PPT 整理发布 Before you can start speaking and writing in English, your brain must get enough correct English sentences. You can’t speak English if you have never seen any English sentence in your life. This is obvious. And you can’t speak English well if you have not seen a large number of English sentences. There are two ways to get correct English sentences: listening and reading. Both are good, but reading is usually much easier than listening. With the help of a good dictionary, you will be able to understand English texts much more easily than, for example, English television or movies. If you read just one book in English, you will see that your English has become much better. You will start using lots of new vocabulary and grammar in your school compositions and e-mail messages. You will be surprised, but English phrases will just come to you when you are writing or speaking! Things like the past simple tense and how to use the word “since” will become part of you. You will use them automatically, without thinking. Correct phrases will just appear in your head. The Most Important Way to Learn English
无忧 PPT 整理发布 It will be easy to use English, because your brain will only be repeating the things that it has seen many times. By reading a book in English, you have given your brain thousands of English sentences. They are part of you now. How can you make a mistake and say “I feeled bad”, if you have seen the correct phrase (I felt bad) 250 times in the last book you have read? You simply can not make that mistake anymore. This is true for hundreds of words and grammas structures. If you read in English, you can forget about grammar rules. Throw away your grammar book! You don’t need to know the rules for the present perfect tense. You don’t even have t know the name “present perfect”. Instead, read a few books in English, and soon you will feel that “I have seen Paul yesterday” is wrong, and “I saw Paul yesterday” is correct. How? Simple. Your brain has seen the second kind of sentence 192 times and the first kind 0 times. This is what we call grammar intuition. This is how native speakers know what is correct. It’s no magic. You can do it, too. The only difference between you and native speakers is that they have heard and read more English sentences than you have. Many learners have improved their English grammar and vocabulary in an amazing way because of intensive reading. The Most Important Way to Learn English
无忧 PPT 整理发布 How to Read These great results come especially quickly if you do three things when reading. Pay attention to interesting things: new words, phrases, and grammar structures. Use your dictionary to learn about these interesting things. The more you use your dictionary, the faster your progress. If you don’t like to stop reading (to look up a word in your dictionary), you can write down all the interesting sentences, or you can underline them in the book with pencil. You can learn the words and grammar in these sentences later. Add these interesting things to a memo or notebook. This will give you everyday contact with correct English sentences. With such a memo, you will not forget useful words and grammar. Because of this, you can build your knowledge very quickly. The Most Important Way to Learn English
无忧 PPT 整理发布 What to Read You should always read English texts which are at the “right level”. What does it mean? There should be some words that you don’t know, because you don’t want to use your dictionary 10 times in one sentence. Here are the kinds of texts that you can read in English: Literature. If normal books are too difficult for you, we recommend graded readers. These are usually famous books, written in simple language. There are many levels of difficulty - --- from “easy starts” (which use only 200 basic English words) to “advanced”(3000 words). Science books. If you are interested in science, you can get great science books written in English. There are many famous English-speaking authors in many subjects, such as psychology, biology, physics, or economics. Textbooks. If you are studying at a college and you use textbooks written by English- speaking authors, you can get the original English versions. If you are learning a new computer language, you can use a book in English. You will learn your subject and English at the same time. The Most Important Way to Learn English
无忧 PPT 整理发布 The web. On the World Wide Web you are completely free. You can read about every subject in the world ----- whatever interests you. Because you will often spend many hours surfing the Web, you can also learn a lot of English. There are also some small things to do. For example, you can start using English versions of your computer operating system, and other applications. You can also find people who will write e-mail in English to you. You should simply read in Engligh as much as possible. The Most Important Way to Learn English
无忧 PPT 整理发布 Comprehension Exercise Select the most appropriate answer for each of the following questions. 1.According to the writer, reading just one book in English________ A) won’t do much to improve your English B) helps you improve you r reading comprehension C) will help you a great deal in your use of the language D) is more useful than watching English television or movies Feminine Force
无忧 PPT 整理发布 2. According to the passage, grammar intuition can be achieved by ________ A) reading books on different subjects B) reading intensively C) reading each correct English sentence 192 times D) reading and repeating what you have read Feminine Force
无忧 PPT 整理发布 3. When reading, the author recommends that you do all of the following except________ focusing on interesting words, phrases and grammatical structures recording your progress in a notebook using your dictionary to look up unknown words noting down interesting points in your memo Feminine Force
无忧 PPT 整理发布 4.Reading texts or books at the right level means that you should read________ graded readers at the advanced level the original English versions of your college textbooks science books that are suitable to your level texts that do not have too many new words Feminine Force
无忧 PPT 整理发布 5. The main idea of the passage is that in order to learn English well________ you should read as much in English as possible you should watch TV and listen to the radio as well as read you should focus your attention on what you read you should read books at every level Feminine Force
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