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The Application of Skinner’s Analysis of Verbal Behavior to Children with Autism.

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Presentation on theme: "The Application of Skinner’s Analysis of Verbal Behavior to Children with Autism."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Application of Skinner’s Analysis of Verbal Behavior to Children with Autism

2 “There are many behavior analytic procedures for arranging learning opportunities, some adult-initiated, some learner-initiated, some embedded in typically occurring activities or sequences of responses, and some that are hybrids or permutations of these. Each type of procedure has its uses and advantages. ABA programming uses any and all procedures to accomplish the job of skill development and skill generalization with each individual learner” (Green, 2001, p. 74)

3 Skinner’s Analysis of Language LeBlanc et al. (2006) While some behavior analysts teaching language to children with autism were heavily influenced by the UCLA program or Stokes and Baer (1977)… Others were more heavily influenced by B.F. Skinner’s analysis of language –Verbal Behavior

4 Five Verbal Operants Mand Tact Intraverbal Duplic Codic

5 Mand Form of the response is controlled by an EO Note: An S D may control its occurrence, but not always its form EO: Hungry for cookie S D : Mom Response: “Cookie” S R+ : Cookie

6 OperantControlling variableReinforcement Mand EO - form SD - occurrence Specific to each mand, related to current MO

7 Mand In everyday language, mands are “requests” for something specific, where the item requested is the reinforcer Examples –Objects “Can I have a Coke?” –Information “What’s missing?” –Action “Tickle me!”

8 Tact A verbal operant in which the response form is controlled by a nonverbal stimulus Reinforced by nonspecific reinforcement (e.g., praise) In everyday language, a tact is a “label”, evoked by a nonverbal stimulus S D : Cookie Response: “Cookie” S R+ : “That’s right!”

9 OperantControlling variableReinforcement Mand Form – EO Occurrence - S D Specific to each mand, related to current EO TactNon-verbal S D Nonspecific

10 Examples: Tact “Doggy” (“Good Girl!”) “It’s raining.” (“Thanks, I’ll get an umbrella.”)

11 Intraverbal Response form is controlled by a verbal stimulus Reinforced by nonspecific reinforcement (e.g., praise) There is no point-to-point correspondence between the response and the verbal stimulus –What’s that? When parts of the response can be related to parts of the stimulus. S D : “What’s your favorite snack?” Response: “Cookie” S R+ : “That’s right!”

12 OperantControlling variableReinforcement Mand Form – EO Occurrence - S D Specific to each mand, related to current EO Tact Non-verbal S D Nonspecific Intraverbal Verbal S D, no point-to-point correspondence Nonspecific

13 Examples: Intraverbal (S D )-“What’s up?” (R)- “_____” (S D )-“How are you?” (R)- “_____” (S D )-“Red, white and ___?” (R)- “___”

14 Duplic Response form is controlled by a verbal stimulus Reinforced by nonspecific reinforcement (e.g., praise) There is point-to-point correspondence between the response and the verbal stimulus There is formal similarity between the response product and the verbal stimulus –What’s that? They’re in the same sense mode and resemble each other. S D : “Cookie” Response: “Cookie” S R+ : “That’s right!”

15 OperantControlling variableReinforcement Mand Form – EO Occurrence - SD Specific to each mand, related to current EO Tact Non-verbal SD Nonspecific Intraverbal Verbal SD, no point-to-point correspondence Nonspecific Duplic Echoic, Copying text, Mimetic Verbal SD, point-to-point correspondence, formal similarity Nonspecific

16 Examples: Duplic Echoic: “Hi” – “Hi” Copying a text: see written word John – write John Mimetic: see someone sign ball – sign ball

17 All of the responses are of the same topography “eeee” – but are different operants because they have different types of controlling antecedents and consequences XKaren sees a monkey on TV, points, and says, “eeee!” XJulie’s mom sings, “Ring Around the Ros…” And Julie says “eeee!” XChris is watching Thomas and after Thomas says, “Percy”, he says “eeee!” XJoey wants his sister’s candy, and says, “eeee!” IntraverbalEchoicTactMand

18 Codic Response form is controlled by a verbal stimulus Reinforced by nonspecific reinforcement (e.g., praise) There is point-to-point correspondence between the response and the verbal stimulus NO formal similarity between the response and the verbal stimulus S D : “Cookie” Response: Write cookie S R+ : “That’s right!”

19 OperantControlling variableReinforcement Mand Form – EO Occurrence - SD Specific to each mand, related to current EO Tact Non-verbal SD Nonspecific Intraverbal Verbal SD, no point-to-point correspondence Nonspecific Duplic Echoic, Copying text, Mimetic Verbal SD, point-to-point correspondence, formal similarity Nonspecific Codic Textual, Taking dictation Verbal SD, point-to-point correspondence, NO formal similarity Nonspecific

20 Examples: Codic Textual behavior: See written Turn left – say “turn left” Taking dictation: “Buy juice” – write buy juice

21 “Applied Verbal Behavior” (AVB) The application of Skinner’s analysis to language training for children with autism and other developmental disabilities

22 AVB and NTA Comparisons LeBlanc et al. (2006) Linguistic Framework Motivation Spontaneity

23 Linguistic Framework (LeBlanc et al.,2006; Sundberg & Partington, 1999) Language is taught and conceptualized in terms of the verbal operants rather than using a traditional structural analysis Most research is published in The Analysis of Verbal Behavior and JABA and is not as easily accessed or consumed by teachers, speech therapists Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills (ABLLS) –Corresponding language assessment that guides published curriculum for instruction VB-MAPP

24 Motivation (Sundberg & Partington, 1998) Mands are taught first because the mand “is a unique type of language that directly benefits the child by letting his caretakers know exactly what he wants at that particular moment” (p. 110)

25 Motivation: Natural Environment Training (NET) (Sundberg & Partington, 1998; Sundberg & Partington, 1999) Based on NLP? And the “general orientation” (S&P, 1999, p. 151) of incidental teaching Language training is conducted in the natural environment Child directed teaching activities and functional reinforcers are used Generalization is programmed for

26 Other Characteristics of “AVB Programs” More frequent use of sign language than PECS “Mixed verbal behavior” Specific data collection procedures Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing Procedure Fluency training

27 DTT and NET in AVB Programs (Sundberg & Partington, 1999) Phase 1NET>DTT Focus on early manding, pairing, compliance, stimulus control Phase 2NET=DTT Focus on mand, tact, receptive, imitation, echoic, intraverbal Phase 3DTT>NET Focus on academic activities and specific skill development Phase 4NET>DTT Focus on learning from group instruction, from peers, and without a highly structured environment; training is more like that of typical kindergarten and 1 st grade classrooms Phase 5DTT>NET Focus on academic skills and structured learning characteristic of later elementary classrooms

28 References Carr, J.E., & Firth, A.M. (2006). The verbal behavior approach to early and intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism: A call for additional empirical support. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 2, Carr, J. E., & Sidener, T. M. (2002). On the relation between applied behavior analysis and positive behavior support. The Behavior Analyst, 25, Cautilli, J. (2006). Validation of the verbal behavior package: Old wine new bottle - A reply to Carr and Firth (2005). The Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, Halle, J. W. (1987). Teaching language in the natural environment: An analysis of spontaneity. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 12, Horner, R.H., Carr, E.G., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2005). The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Council for Exceptional Children, 71, Koegel, R.L., Koegel, L.K., & Brookman, L.I. (2003). Empirically supported pivotal response interventions for children with autism. In A.E.Kazdin & J.R. Weisz (Eds.), Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (pp ). New York: Guilford Press. LeBlanc, L.A., Esch, J., Sidener, T.M., & Firth, A.M. (2006). Behavioral language interventions for children with autism: Comparing applied verbal behavior and naturalistic teaching approaches. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 22, Michael, J. (2004, August). B.F. Skinner’s elementary verbal relations. In ABA IV. Class conducted at the Pennsylvania State University Behavior Analysis Program. Sautter, R.A., & LeBlanc, L.A. (2006). Empirical applications of Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior with humans. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 22, Skinner, B.F. (1957). Verbal behavior. Acton, MA: Copley Publishing Group. Stokes, T. F., & Baer, D. M. (1977). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, Sundberg, M.L. (2001). 301 research topics from Skinner’s book Verbal Behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 9, Sundberg, M.L., & Michael, J. (2001). The benefits of Skinner’s analysis of verbal behavior for children with autism. Behavior Modification, 25, Sundberg, M.L., & Partington, J.W. (1998). Teaching language to children with autism and other developmental disabilities. Danville, CA: Behavior Analysts, Inc. Sundberg, M.L., & Partington, J.W. (1999). The need for both discrete trial and natural environment language training for children with autism. In P.M. Ghezzi, W.L. Williams, & J.E. Carr (Eds.), Autism: Behavior analytic perspectives (pp ). Reno, NV: Context Press. Barbera, M., & Rasmussen, T. (2007). The verbal behavior approach: How to teach children with autism and related disorders. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.


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