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Learning zAssociation, Consequences & Modeling. Learning z Learning yRelatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience yExperience.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning zAssociation, Consequences & Modeling. Learning z Learning yRelatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience yExperience."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning zAssociation, Consequences & Modeling

2 Learning z Learning yRelatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience yExperience (nurture) is the key to learning

3 beforeafter Learning zCortex before & after kitten trained to associate horizontal line with shock

4 3 Types of Learning zAssociation yObjects/behavior zConsequences yBehavior & results zObservation yImitate/model Event 1 Event 2 Sea snail associates splash w/ a shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its antics

5 Classical Conditioning (Association) zIvan Pavlov y1849-1936 yRussian physician/ neurophysiologist yNobel Prize in 1904 yStudied digestive secretions

6 Pavlov zPresent meat powder to dogs yMeasure digestive processes (saliva) zNoticed saliva production in absence of meat yExperimenter yDrawer where meat was kept zDogs responding to environmental stimuli associated with meat

7 Classical Conditioning zSome stimuli cause automatic response yLoud noise/shock/food zSome stimuli do not cause response yBell/light zThese 2 kinds of S can become associated yOccur close together in time zThis association can cause a response to stimuli that usually do not cause response

8 Examples of Associations zToilet flushes in shower cringe zCan opener & cat food meow zDentist office & pain fear zAssociate initially meaningless stimuli with meaningful one

9 Classical Conditioning - Terms zConditioned = ‘learned’ zNeutral (S) - does not elicit a R yTone or bell zUnconditioned (S) - automatically elicits an Unconditioned R yShock zAssociation formed by pairing these two (S) together

10 Classical Conditioning - Terms zNeutral (S) causes a R & is now called a conditioned (S) zConditioned (S) - elicits a CR zUCR~CR yUCR caused by UCS yCR caused by CS

11 Classical Conditioning zUCS - meaningful (S) UCR zUCR - unlearned (R) zCS - formerly neutral (S) CR zCR - learned (R) to CS

12 Classical Conditioning zLearned association between neutral (S) & unconditioned (S) such that you R to neutral (S) as you did to Unc (S) zcan opener & cat food meow NS UCSUCR zcan opener meow CSCR

13 Classical Conditioning zLittle Albert CC video demo

14 Reaction Paper V: CC zWhat is classical conditioning? Define the following: UCS, UCR, CS, CSR and provide a NOVEL example of CC in action zPLEASE TURN THESE IN AFTER CLASS!

15 Conditioning zAcquisition yResponse is established/ strengthened yStimulus evokes a CR yStrengthening of a CR zExtinction yDiminishing of a CR yUCS does not follow a CS zSpontaneous Recovery yReappearance, after a rest period

16 Strength of CR Pause Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR Classical Conditioning

17 Stimulus Generalization zTendency for a stimuli similar to CS to evoke similar responses

18 Principles of CC zNo conscious effort yAdvertising yLove zStrength of UCS yStrong enough -> UCR zFrequency & timing of pairings yMany trials yNS shortly before UCS

19 Higher Order Conditioning - My Fear of Pajamas Initial conditioning zNS(dark)+UCS(thunder) UCR(fear) zCS(dark) CR(fear) Higher order conditioning zNS(pajamas)+CS(dark) CR(fear) zCS(pajamas) CR(fear)

20 Operant Conditioning (Skinner (1904-1990) zBeh operates (acts) on environment yProduces consequences (reinforcer or punisher) zConsequences -> future behavior yBeh increases in response to reinforcer yBeh decreases in response to punisher yAutomatic response to consequences

21 Operant Conditioning zReinforcer yStrengthen behavior it follows

22 Schedules of Reinforcement zContinuous Reinforcement yReinforcing desired behavior each time yRapid learning & extinction zPartial Reinforcement yReinforcing behavior part of the time ySlower acquisition & extinction

23 Punishment zPunishment yDecreases behavior that it follows zPowerful controller of unwanted behavior

24 Problems with Punishment zPunished behavior is not forgotten yReturns in absence of P zIncreases aggression yAbused delinquents zCreates fear yGeneralizes zDoes not -> desired behavior yReinforcement tells you what to do yPunishment tells you what not to do yCombination best

25 Principles of Consequences zPrimary consequence yInnately reinforcing/punishing stimulus yImpacts a biological need zSecondary consequence yConditioned reinforcing/punishing yLearned through association with primary consequences

26 zPositive yAdding X xReinforcer (desirable - candy/$) xPunisher (undesirable - spanking) zNegative yRemoving X xReinforcer - (undesirable - pain from headache) xPunisher (desirable - dessert) Principles of Consequences

27 zIntrinsic yProvided by actor xReinforcer: satisfaction for a job well done xPunisher: guilt over moral transgression zExtrinsic yProvided by others xReinforcer: paycheck xPunisher: fired Principles of Consequences

28 Consequences zReinforcer or Punisher? zIncreasing or decreasing beh? yIncrease = reinforcer yDecrease = punisher zPositive or Negative? zAdding or taking away? yAdd = positive yTaking away = negative

29 Group Activity V: Operant C zGroups of 3-4 address this issue: yTen year old girl won’t clean her bedroom. Use operant techniques to make her room once a week yInclude 1 + & - punisher/reinforcer (4 total) yNote whether they are primary or secondary & intrinsic or extrinsic zPLEASE TURN IN AFTER CLASS!

30 Observational Learning zAssociations inefficient way to learn new behavior yLearning by observing & imitating/modeling others

31 Observational Learning zBobo Doll Studies (1960s) yvideo zLearn via conditioning of others yVicarious consequences

32 Observational Learning zViolence in TV, video games & music yAssociated with aggressive behavior zProsocial Behavior yPositive, constructive, helpful behavior yCan also be learned via observation xPositive role models

33 Modeling zModeling not inevitable yType/power of model ySituation yActor personality

34 Summary: Learning z3 types of learning yAssociation - classical conditioning yConsequences - operant conditioning yModeling - observational learning


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