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Historian William Van Hooser January 27, 2011 1. Lincoln’s Election 1860 4 Stones River, the largest battle ever December 3, 1862-January 2, 1863 12 Fort.

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Presentation on theme: "Historian William Van Hooser January 27, 2011 1. Lincoln’s Election 1860 4 Stones River, the largest battle ever December 3, 1862-January 2, 1863 12 Fort."— Presentation transcript:

1 Historian William Van Hooser January 27, 2011 1

2 Lincoln’s Election 1860 4 Stones River, the largest battle ever December 3, 1862-January 2, 1863 12 Fort Sumter 1861 5 Fredericksburg December 1 1862 13 Lincoln’s Call of Duty 1861 6 Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863 14 First Battle of Bull Run 1861 7 Freedom for Slaves 15 Battle at Shiloh April 6-7, 1862 8 Vicksburg May 22-July 4, 1863 16 The Seven Days’ Battle June 26-July 1, 1862 9 Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863 17 Battle of Bull Run II August 29-30, 1862 10 Gettysburg Address November 19,1863 18 Antietam September 17, 1862 11 Chickamauga September 19-20, 1863 19

3 The Third Battle of Chattanooga November 23-25, 1863 20 Surrender at Appamattox Courthouse 25 The Wilderness May 1864 21 Lincoln’s Assassination April 141865 26 The Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse May 9-20, 1864 22 Fact to Know 27 Cold Harbor July 1864 23 War for southern independence Time line~1861-1865 28 The 3 rd Battle of Winchester September 19, 1864 24 Resources…..………………..……..……………29 3

4 Lincoln’s election was the main splitting point between the Northern and Southern states. Before the election, the South threatened that if Lincoln was elected President, they would secede from the United States. They thought that if Lincoln was elected that he would use the North’s majority to abolish slavery. But since the North wanted to elect Lincoln as President and there were more people in the northern states than the southern, Lincoln was elected by a landslide. Even though Lincoln tried to assure the South that he would not try to abolish slavery, they seceded and formed the Confederate States of America. Their president was an old U.S. army officer named Jefferson Davis. The North was furious and said it was unconstitutional and so it resulted in them fighting one another in one of the bloodiest and the last war that would be fought on American soil. 4

5 On April 12, 1861, thousands of Confederate troops poured into Charleston Harbor. The few U.S. Marines defending the Fort surrendered after a week of battle. The fort was bombarded by hundreds of shells, an estimated 40 men in the fort were killed by shell blasts. The general of the Confederate army, P.G.T. Beauregard knew that he had started a war….the one we know today as the Civil War. The North’s reaction– war. Winner of this battle—South 5

6 Abraham Lincoln calls thousands of men to come and fight the Confederacy. He asks Robert E. Lee to come and be the general of the Union army. Lee refuses and says he cannot fight his own town, his family and his children. He later receives an invitation to join the Confederacy. Robert E. Lee accepts. 6

7 On July 1, 1861, the Confederate base, known to southerners as Manassas was attacked by Union forces. The two generals, Gen. McDowell and Gen. Beauregard fought in this Virginia land. The fight lasted for 5 hours. If the southern general Stonewall Jackson (That wasn’t his real name, just a nickname.)wasn’t there, this battle may have turned out differently because thanks to the nickname Stonewall, it’s obvious that his soldiers thought he was like a stone wall because he almost never moved from battle. He made his men fight until Gen. Johnston arrived with 9,000 Confederate troops. There was an estimated 4,000 missing, killed and/or captured on both sides combined. Winner: The Confederacy 7

8 The Battle at Shiloh lasted almost about two days. It took place at Shiloh, Tennessee in Hardin County. This battle’s generals were Gen. Ulysses S. Grant for the Union and Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston and Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard for the Confederacy. They fought for almost two days, not giving up until finally General Johnston of the Confederacy was shot by a stray bullet. When Grant launched a counterattack, the Confederacy retreated all the way to Corinth. Even though the Union won, they lost 13,047 men. Even though they had a tactical victory, the Union had greater losses. In total, over 23,000 losses for both sides combined. After this battle both sides realized that this war would not come to be quickly ended. 8

9 The Seven Days’ Battle took place near Richmond, Virginia. On June 26, Lee gave the command to attack the Union. The Union managed to push back the attack but this was a great event for the South because before Lee ordered the retreat, they had broken the enemy lines. General McClellan was the leader of the Union and seven days after this battle started, he ordered that his forces retreat. However, both sides had heavy losses. While retreating up a hill, the Confederates lost over 2,000 men while scaling up it. While trying to chase them, the Union sustained even more casualties than the Confederacy. WINNER: THE CONFEDERACY 9

10 The second Battle of Bull Run was more dangerous than the first one. During this battle the Union had much greater forces— 34,000 to be exact—and Lee’s army only had 20,400. Most of these men were wounded or dying. This battle was longer than the first one but it turned out to be another victory for the South. Here’s how it went: General Lee ordered that his men build big bonfires and have torches with each man and each man should march around and make it seem like there were more and more people arriving. (Lee got the idea from the Bible in Gideon’s story) By morning, an approximate 130 marches were made with enough torches to add up to 20,000 men. The Union guards reported this and General Pope ordered the retreat because he thought they were vastly outnumbered. WINNER: THE CONFEDERACY 10

11 Antietam was one of the bloodiest battles ever fought in the Civil War. Its competitors: General Lee and General McClellan who was hoping to get some revenge for their defeat at Richmond. Both had very large armies, at least a total of 30,000 men each. Each side in this battle lost at least half of that and almost 75% of those left were wounded, maimed or lost a limb. Even more were probably captured. So in total, only 2,000-3,000 men left this battle unharmed. As we said this was one of the bloodiest battles, however both sides were so beaten up, it was officially called a draw. 11

12 Stones River is one of the longest battles in the Civil War and remains the longest battle in history. It lasted for almost 31 days and its participants were Major General William S. Rosecrans of the Union and General Braxton Braggs of the Confederacy. Both generals were trying to destroy each other. General Braggs learned that the Union’s General Rosecrans was going to break through their lines at Stones River in Murfreesboro, Rutherford County, Tennessee. They confronted each other at the river and fought for 29 days. The resulting battle was well— kind of a draw. However, after much viewing, reviewing re-reviewing, scientists today have determined that the South won that battle because they managed to keep the Union from their lines. But casualties were harsh. Most of the soldiers were lucky to just get away with a broken limb or a minor mauling. WINNER: THE CONFEDERACY 12

13 Abraham Lincoln was angry with Major Gen. George B. McClellan for refusing to pursue General Lee. So Lincoln dismissed McClellan and replaced him with Major Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside. Burnside reluctantly followed the plan made by Abraham Lincoln and the General-in- chief to march to Fredericksburg and capture most of Virginia. Soon, the Confederate general, Robert E. Lee confronted Burnside with over 70,000 men. This resulted in a battle between the Confederacy and the Union again, that lasted from late fall all the way into early winter—to be precise, December 13 (my sister’s worst birthday ever. Luckily, she hadn’t been born yet!). Vastly outnumbered-the Union had 100,000 men--the Confederacy resorted to hit and run tactics. Soon after much sabotage, poisoning the enemy water supply, stealing food and placing explosives on their campfires, the Union finally retreated with casualties numbering 50,000. Some of the bodies were left for dead hoping that some of the Confederate soldiers would get sick from diseases and germs from the dead bodies. The Confederacy lost about 10,000 men—most caught in the sabotage. WINNER: THE CONFEDERACY 13

14 On this date, Abraham Lincoln made the Emancipation Proclamation and stated that all slaves were free. He also stated other things like the boundaries of the Constitution. Like remember in the beginning of the war, when the South split up, the North said it was unconstitutional? He made rules about stuff like that. They said that it WAS unconstitutional for the states to leave the United States and proclaimed that we should not be a lot of different countries but one country joined together. This fueled the Union morale in the fight against the Confederacy. 14

15 The slaves in the South probably never heard of it because otherwise the southern masters feared that their slaves would try to escape. The freed slaves had two choices: escape into the North and leave their family behind, or stay in the nice warm house of their masters. Many of them had no idea how to be free so they stayed with their masters. Those that tried to leave, tried to flee to what they heard was the nearest Union army. At one time, they had 200,000 black soldiers. Some of them were sent to fight, some to hospitals to take care of the black soldiers that were sent into battle, some to new homes in the North. But many were herded into contraband camps or hired out to Unionist plantations. Unfortunately, some of them were sent back to their masters for lack of means to care for them. 15

16 Vicksburg is one of the first of many battles won by the Union. General Ulysses S. Grant launched an attack on the port town of Vicksburg, Virginia. After a siege of many days, an estimated 500 Confederate soldiers were killed by the bombardment from the Union ships. Even more were killed from the bullets from the shore. A few weeks after the battle started, the Confederate soldiers surrendered. The Union losses were few because this port town was useless besides the food supply and had only a small garrison of Confederate soldiers. An estimated 20 Union soldiers were killed. WINNER: UNION 16

17 Gettysburg was the key battle during this war. It may have been one of the shortest main battles in the Civil War but its name still lives on. General Lee tried an assault on the town of Gettysburg. However, Maj. Gen. George Meades wasn’t about to let this town go. They fought all day and during the night both sides received reinforcements. They were both not about to give up. They fought for two more days at the same time that Vicksburg was under siege. Finally, on July 3, Lee ordered a full retreat. However, Maj. Gen. Meades wasn’t going to give up. He pursued him for another few days. Gettysburg’s wounded and killed for both sides totaled 30,000 men. However, when Gen. Lee ordered the retreat, an even greater amount of Confederate men were killed. The effect was astonishing—most of the Confederate men were dead, spread along 14 miles of horror and terror. After this, people started thinking that this was going to be a long and bloody war although they still thought it was worth it to protect their freedom. WINNER: THE UNION 17

18 “Fourscore and seven years ago...” these five first words of Abraham Lincoln’s 3-minute speech are the most important words in Civil War history. In his speech Abraham Lincoln was respecting the dead at the Gettysburg Battlefield. They were dedicating a cemetery for soldiers of the Gettysburg battle. Lincoln was a very poor speaker and he had no idea he was giving a speech until after they were on their way. After he learned he would be speaking after the greatest speaker in the world at that time, he made up a speech right on the train to Gettysburg. P.S. What’s his name that spoke before Lincoln spoke for two hours and nobody remembers what he said. But everyone remembers Lincoln’s short speech because as Everett said, "I should flatter myself if I could come to the heart of the occasion in two hours in what you did in two minutes." 18

19 Chickamauga is more like a siege than a battle. Union Maj. General William Rosecrans decided to attack Chickamauga, Tennessee where General Braxton Bragg was stationed at the moment. First, Rosecrans cut off General Bragg’s supplies by sabotaging train route supplies. He managed to starve the Confederate army out into fighting. However, General Bragg had set a trap. He sent some men out of the back gate. But however, the rest of Bragg’s army went out the west gate and went behind the surprised General Rosecrans army. After five hours of fighting and the smoke cleared, General William Rosecrans ordered a grand retreat. He managed to get to the nearest fortified town that belonged to the Union. General Bragg pursued him for a few hours, but then he finally saw that his army was starting to get hungry and stopped the pursuit. WINNER: THE CONFEDERACY 19

20 The third battle of Chattanooga was the second bloodiest battle of the Civil War and was fought by the same generals that fought at Chickamauga, Gen. Rosecrans and Gen. Bragg. This battle seemed to take forever. Gen. Bragg used the same tactic that Gen. William Rosecrans used with his army in the siege of Chickamauga. (kind of ironic, isn’t it?) It worked out perfectly. After two days of fighting, the Confederacy started retreating. Both sides experienced the second greatest loss of life in the Civil War. WINNER: THE UNION 20

21 A fine example of guerilla warfare. A military transport of Confederate troops was stationed in the wilderness and was heading toward the seaport town of Nelly. However, Union troops hid up in the trees and once the convoy came into view, the battle started. However, since they were hiding up in the trees, they couldn’t get their bullets down because of all the branches. The Confederate troops had the same problem. Very few troops were wounded. However, the Union troops managed to push back the Confederate troops. But they had lost 100 men at least. They had 3,000. But now the only way to get back to the Union side of the lines was to make a break for it. An estimate of only 1,000 men made it back alive so it was kind of a tie. WINNER: DRAW 21

22 This battle took place after the battle of the Wilderness. The Union was being pursued while trying to retreat to a safe Union base. Spotsylvania belonged to the North and had an approximate garrison of 2,000. After eleven days of fighting, a total of 3,000 Confederate soldiers and 2,427 Union soldiers had perished. The Confederacy retreated and the Union pursued but they could not keep up with the fast Confederate troops. WINNER: UNION 22

23 Lee ordered that his army attack the fortifications of Cold Harbor. Now Cold Harbor was the only place to attack because on both sides of it was a river and it was a really bad spot to attack because there at Cold Harbor there was a lot of disease. There were two major assaults, both made by Grant. General Lee’s army (Lee was sick at the time so he couldn’t be there) dug in and tried to withstand the force of the Union army. However, the Union defenses were very strong and they couldn’t withstand the force of disease forever. They finally ordered a full retreat. WINNER: UNION 23

24 The 3 rd Battle of Winchester was mainly a Marine Corps battle fought by the X Marine Corps and the VIII Marine Corps division of the Confederacy, ordered by General Lee and General Grant. This place was a swampy area so the South had an upper hand because most of them were used to swampy country. The Confederacy attacked. However, the Union used their knowledge of the swamp against the Confederacy’s knowledge by placing traps, they forced them into an open area of the swamp. After a few hours of fighting, the Confederacy retreated. Losses exceeded 15,00o on both sides combined. (I guess the alligators in the swamp had a really good day for eating and had a feast they would never forget.) WINNER: THE UNION 24

25 If you thought that Appamattox Courthouse was just a bunch of government delegates talking with an occasional punch thrown, you are wrong. It was a battle at Appamattox. General Lee and General Grant’s forces conflicted on April 9, 1865. After a few hours fighting, Lee’s army was surrounded on three sides. The other side was a river. General Lee surrendered to Grant at approximately 2:30 pm. Finally, the war was over. But, it would be a few days before all the fighting stopped. When all the soldiers came home, there was a big celebration in all the towns. The Southern president, Jefferson Davis, however, was arrested for high treason. He escaped a few days later. Curiously just a few hours after President Lincoln was assassinated. WINNER OF THE ENTIRE WAR: AMERICA 25

26 In the year 1865, while watching “Our American Cousin” at presidential balcony of the Ford Theater, President Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Boothe. Boothe was born in Virginia as a middle child. He was an actor who hated Lincoln because the Boothe family lived in Virginia which was in the southern part of the states. His town was captured and he never heard from his family again. I once read this funny story where President Lincoln was eating and he accidentally took John Wilkes Boothe’s fruit basket. Boothe became angry and his anger was amplified when Lincoln ate the card that was on the basket and he shot the president. So Boothe never knew who it was from. During his lifetime, he was the most hunted man in America. According to historians, he was caught in a barn in Virginia. However, they can’t confirm that it was really John Wilkes Boothe. President Lincoln died on the scene. Everybody thought that Boothe did it because he was hired by a southern leader before the war ended. Curiously however, the president of Southern states escaped from his jail. Some say the assassination was a distraction. Others say it was coincidence. 26

27 Lincoln’s dead body was once kidnapped by grave robbers. They hoped they would get three million dollars out of it. They were caught and Lincoln’s body was recovered and put under three meters of cement. 27

28 28 Confederacy uiniform & money Union uiniform & money

29 Union states: Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Massachussetts, Rhode Island, Maine, Kansas, Oregon and California Confederate states: Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, North and South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia, Georgia, Delaware and Maryland. 29

30 War for southern independence time line~1861-1865 30

31 About 19 th Century History, The Election of 1860 Brings Abraham Lincoln to the White House: Robert J. McNamara, 2011. “The Boys’ War”, page 1,by Jim Murphy, Clarion Books,1990 The History Place, A Nation Divided: 1996. Oracle Education Foundation: ThinkQuest, Battle of Bull Run: About American History, Battle of Shiloh: Martin Kelly, 2011. History Central: The Seven Days’ Battle: History of War: Second Battle of Bull Run/ Manassas, 2nd, 29-30 August 1862: J. Rickard, 24 January 2007. National Park Service, Stones River. 31

32 About Military History. Civil War: Battle of Fredericksburg: Kennedy Hickman, 2011. Civil War Trust. The Battle of Vicksburg: 2011. Civil War Trust. Battle of Gettysburg: 2011. Kids.Net.Au: Gettysburg Address: 2011. About Military History. Civil War: battle of chickamauga: Kennedy Hickman, 2011. Civil War Trust. Battle of chattanooga: 2011 Civil War Trust. Battle of the wilderness: 2011 Civil War Trust. Battle of spotsylvania: 2011 32

33 Civil War Trust. Battle of cold harbor :2011 Civil War Trust. The 3 rd Battle of Winchester:2011 Civil War Trust. Battle of Appomattox Court House,2011 Wikipedia. The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln: 2011 Shotgun’s Home of the American Civil War. Freedmen, The Freed Slaves of the Civil War: February 16, 2002. SurfnetKids Almanac: Top Ten Facts About the Emancipation Proclamation: 2011 33

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