Presentation on theme: "Mr. S Byrd APUSHSouth Laurel HS Mr. S Byrd APUSHSouth Laurel HS."— Presentation transcript:
Mr. S Byrd APUSHSouth Laurel HS Mr. S Byrd APUSHSouth Laurel HS
What was Reconstruction? Reconstruction is the name of the period of time right after the Civil War in which we are trying to tie the nation back togetherReconstruction is the name of the period of time right after the Civil War in which we are trying to tie the nation back together Years !Years !
Problems of Peace Lincoln’s quoteLincoln’s quote –“With malice toward none, with charity for all.” Jefferson Davis and major Confed’ leaders were temporarily jailedJefferson Davis and major Confed’ leaders were temporarily jailed –Over a hundred years later they gave Davis his citizenship back
South was utterly destroyed, North was boomingSouth was utterly destroyed, North was booming Agriculture was hurt bad. South didn’t produce as much cotton as it did until 1870Agriculture was hurt bad. South didn’t produce as much cotton as it did until 1870
Freedmen Define Freedom After Civil War, some blacks would move around to test their freedom, but most stayed in the SouthAfter Civil War, some blacks would move around to test their freedom, but most stayed in the South Blacks created their own churches and segregated voluntarilyBlacks created their own churches and segregated voluntarily When blacks left white churches and segregated themselves it is called “de facto” segregationWhen blacks left white churches and segregated themselves it is called “de facto” segregation
“De jure” segregation is segregation made by law“De jure” segregation is segregation made by law Freed slaves wanted to learn to read and write.Freed slaves wanted to learn to read and write.
The Freedmen’s Bureau Freedmen’s Bureau--1865Freedmen’s Bureau –Provides assistance to ex-slaves and poor whites –Oliver Howard was the head –It’s biggest accomplishment was education –“Forty Acres and a Mule”--slogan of Freedmen’s Bureau
Johnson: The Tailor President Andrew JohnsonAndrew Johnson –Democrat from Tennessee –Wouldn’t secede with his state –Was a tailor before he became politician –Poorest person to ever become President –1 st person to become president b/c of an assassination –Was sick during his inaugural speech and had drank a stiff whiskey –Honest, sincere, intelligent…would give out copies of the Constitution and was buried with one as his pillow!
Presidential Reconstruction Abe Lincoln thought that the South never really seceded and Reconstruction would be short and painlessAbe Lincoln thought that the South never really seceded and Reconstruction would be short and painless –10% Plan--when 10% of voters who voted in 1860 in Southern states took an oath of allegiance would come back in to the Union –Lincoln was very lenient on the South
Wade Davis BillWade Davis Bill –Plan of Reconstruction by the Radical Republicans in the North –50% have to take an oath of allegiance and stronger safe guards for blacks –Lincoln pocket vetoed it Andrew Johnson disappointed the “Radical Republicans” by treating South leniently (Just like Lincoln)Andrew Johnson disappointed the “Radical Republicans” by treating South leniently (Just like Lincoln)
Johnson’s plan was to treat south good and have them ratify the 13 th amendment to rejoin the UnionJohnson’s plan was to treat south good and have them ratify the 13 th amendment to rejoin the Union
The Baleful Black Codes Black CodesBlack Codes –Regulate the everyday affairs of the free blacks –Set of laws passed in the South after the war –1 st passed in Mississippi (to keep labor stable) –Blacks HAD to work –Most blacks and poor whites became (1) tenant farmers or (2) sharecroppers
Sharecropper--someone that owned no land, no supplies, but would work on someone else’s farm with their supplies and they only offered labor and were paid littleSharecropper--someone that owned no land, no supplies, but would work on someone else’s farm with their supplies and they only offered labor and were paid little –Never get wealthy, only survive Tenant Farmer--may own some supplies, but owned no land. Rent a farm and do what they wantedTenant Farmer--may own some supplies, but owned no land. Rent a farm and do what they wanted –Make money, but have to pay most of it to rent –Crop-lien system another name for a tenant farmer
Johnson Clashes with Congress Civil Rights Bill of 1866Civil Rights Bill of 1866 –Forerunner of the 14 th amendment –Gave blacks citizenship –Republicans said this bill wasn’t strong enough –Southerners couldn’t come back as states until they ratified the 13 th and 14 th amendments Tennessee was the 1 st state to ratify and rejoinTennessee was the 1 st state to ratify and rejoin
Swingin Around the Circle with Johnson Johnson’s swing around the circleJohnson’s swing around the circle –When Johnson went around trying to not let the people in Congress he didn’t want –Failed, everyone of the Republicans got elected
Republican Principles and Programs Radical Republicans- -those who wanted to punish the SouthRadical Republicans- -those who wanted to punish the South 3 leaders in Congress3 leaders in Congress (1)Charles Sumner (2)Thaddeus Stevens--74 years old, insisted on being buried in black cemetery (3)Ben Wade
Reconstruction by the Sword Military Reconstruction Act of 1867Military Reconstruction Act of 1867 –Divided South into 5 military districts –Each had a Union General and an army Radical Republicans now wanted the 15 th amendment passedRadical Republicans now wanted the 15 th amendment passed –15 th amendment=black suffrage
Ex Parte Milligan--1866Ex Parte Milligan –Couldn’t try civilians in military courts, if civil courts were open, even if its during a war “Redeemers”, “Home Rule”, or “Bourbons”“Redeemers”, “Home Rule”, or “Bourbons” –Names of people (after Reconstruction) that would get in power and kick Republicans out in the South
“Solid South”“Solid South” –Name of the South after Reconstruction –Would vote Democrat solidly
No Women Voters Union LeagueUnion League –To encourage blacks to get into politics –Started in North, but spread into South
Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South Hiram Revels and Blanche K. BruceHiram Revels and Blanche K. Bruce –1 st 2 Black Senators –Both from Mississippi –Blacks were slowly becoming leaders ScalawagsScalawags –Southerners who cooperated with the North and Republicans during Reconstruction Called this by other SouthernersCalled this by other Southerners
CarpetbaggersCarpetbaggers –Northerners who moved to the South to take advantage (make money) of South during Reconstruction Some were sleazy crooksSome were sleazy crooks Example: One of the governors made 100,000 on an 8,000 salaryExample: One of the governors made 100,000 on an 8,000 salary
The Ku Klux Klan (KKK)--founded in Pulaski, Tenn.(KKK)--founded in Pulaski, Tenn. –“Invisible Empire of the South” –Started by Nathan Bedford Forrest –Composed of white Southern Democrats –KKK attempted to keep “blacks in their place” –Uniform was a sheet
Force Acts--1870Force Acts –Passed by Congress to try to stamp out the KKK –KKK would just hide themselves and say they were part of another club Franchise--the right to voteFranchise--the right to vote
3 main ways white Southern Democrats kept blacks from voting3 main ways white Southern Democrats kept blacks from voting (1)Poll taxes (2)Literacy tests (3)Bold face intimidation
Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank Tenure of Office ActTenure of Office Act –Said a President couldn’t fire a member of their cabinet with Congressional approval –Johnson was set up –He immediately fired a member…Edwin Stanton b/c there was nothing prohibiting him in the Constitution –Congress accused him of “high crimes and misdemeanors” –Impeached him and took him to court
A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson 7 independent Republicans voted Johnson “Not Guilty”7 independent Republicans voted Johnson “Not Guilty”
The Purchase of Alaska We bought Alaska from Russia in 1867We bought Alaska from Russia in 1867 –Cost 7.2 million –Purchased by William Seward –People made fun of it calling it “Seward’s Folly”, “Sewards Icebox”, “Frigidia”
The Heritage of Reconstruction Many white Southerners said Reconstruction as or more grievous wound than the war itself!!!Many white Southerners said Reconstruction as or more grievous wound than the war itself!!!
AP Practice Questions 1.President Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction was opposed by some Radical Republicans because they (A) felt it was too harsh on southerners (B) felt it was too lenient on southerners (C) believed it was too generous to the freedmen (D) believed it would be impractical to carry out (E) worried it would raise taxes too high
AP Practice Questions 1.The Reconstruction plans of both Lincoln and Johnson included (A) a requirement that a majority of citizens sign sworn statements of allegiance (B) a call for immediate elections in former Confederate states (C) the passage of the Civil Rights Act (D) the requirement that Southern states ratify the 13 th amendment (E) the redistribution of land
AP Practice Questions 1.Which of the following would be considered an achieved success of Reconstruction in the South? (A) racist policies were ended (B) industrialization was successfully implemented (C) African-Americans were given redistributed land (D) a public school system was successfully created (E) tensions in the North were ended