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1PW 101: Selected Sayings. 2 2 Week 9 Attaining Piety Exaggeration in Religious Matters Spending for the Sake of Allah Community and Authority.

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Presentation on theme: "1PW 101: Selected Sayings. 2 2 Week 9 Attaining Piety Exaggeration in Religious Matters Spending for the Sake of Allah Community and Authority."— Presentation transcript:

1 1PW 101: Selected Sayings

2 2 2 Week 9 Attaining Piety Exaggeration in Religious Matters Spending for the Sake of Allah Community and Authority

3 3PW 101: Selected Sayings3 Attaining Piety إِنَّ أَحَبَّ الأَعْمَالِ إِلَى اللَّهِ مَا دَامَ وَإِنْ قَلَّ “The most beloved actions to Allah are those done consistently, even if they be few.” B 5861 Consistently: on a regular basis; more effective and difficult Few: will amount to more through consistency

4 4PW 101: Selected Sayings4 Attaining Piety قِيلَ لِلنَّبِيِّ مَنْ أَكْرَمُ النَّاسِ قَالَ أَكْرَمُهُمْ أَتْقَاهُمْ “It was said to the Prophet, “Who are the best people?” He replied, “The best of them are the most mindful of Allah.” B 3374 Who?: in order to become like them, not theory Most mindful: on guard of not displeasing Allah by disobeying him; like walking through thorns/minefield

5 5PW 101: Selected Sayings5 Attaining Piety مَثَلُ المُؤْمِنِ الَّذِي يَقْرَأُ القُرْآنَ كَمَثَلِ الأُتْرُجَّةِ، رِيحُهَا طَيِّبٌ وَطَعْمُهَا طَيِّبٌ، وَمَثَلُ المُؤْمِنِ الَّذِي لاَ يَقْرَأُ القُرْآنَ كَمَثَلِ التَّمْرَةِ، لاَ رِيحَ لَهَا وَطَعْمُهَا حُلْوٌ، وَمَثَلُ المُنَافِقِ الَّذِي يَقْرَأُ القُرْآنَ مَثَلُ الرَّيْحَانَةِ، رِيحُهَا طَيِّبٌ وَطَعْمُهَا مُرٌّ، وَمَثَلُ المُنَافِقِ الَّذِي لاَ يَقْرَأُ القُرْآنَ كَمَثَلِ الحَنْظَلَةِ، لَيْسَ لَهَا رِيحٌ وَطَعْمُهَا مُرٌّ “The example of a believer who recites the Qur’ān is like that of a citron: its scent is pleasant and its taste is good. The example of the believer who does not recite the Qur’ān is like that of a date: it has no scent but its taste is sweet. The example of a hypocrite who recites the Qur’ān is like that of basil: its scent if nice but its taste is bitter. The example of a hypocrite who does not recite the Qur’ān is like that of a colocynth: it has no scent and its taste is bitter.” B 5427 Recite: with understanding and practicing Scent/taste: outward and inward excellence

6 6PW 101: Selected Sayings6 Attaining Piety إِنَّ الْحَلَالَ بَيِّنٌ، وَإِنَّ الْحَرَامَ بَيِّنٌ، وَبَيْنَهُمَا مُشْتَبِهَاتٌ لَا يَعْلَمُهُنَّ كَثِيرٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ، فَمَنِ اتَّقَى الشُّبُهَاتِ اسْتَبْرَأَ لِدِينِهِ، وَعِرْضِهِ، وَمَنْ وَقَعَ فِي الشُّبُهَاتِ وَقَعَ فِي الْحَرَامِ، كَالرَّاعِي يَرْعَى حَوْلَ الْحِمَى، يُوشِكُ أَنْ يَرْتَعَ فِيهِ “The lawful and prohibited are clear. But between the two there are doubtful things about which many people have no knowledge. Whoever protects himself from doubtful matters keeps his religion and honor safe. Whoever gets involved in ambiguities might fall into the prohibited. Like a herdsman who grazes his animals near a private reserve. He is bound to enter it.” M 1599 clear: the essentials of Islam Doubtful: may be harmful but enjoyable Ambiguities: unclear whether it is prohibited, but bad Bound to enter: because of being so close; stay further away

7 7PW 101: Selected Sayings7 Exaggeration in Religious Matters صَنَعَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ شَيْئًا تَرَخَّصَ فِيهِ، وَتَنَزَّهَ عَنْهُ قَوْمٌ، فَبَلَغَ ذَلِكَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ : « مَا بَالُ أَقْوَامٍ يَتَنَزَّهُونَ عَنِ الشَّيْءِ أَصْنَعُهُ، فَوَاللَّهِ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُهُمْ بِاللَّهِ وَأَشَدُّهُمْ لَهُ خَشْيَةً “The Prophet did something deliberately setting an easy example for other people, but some people refrained from doing it. When the Prophet learned of that, he delivered a sermon, and after having praised Allah, he said, ‘What is wrong with certain people who refrain from doing something that I do? By Allah, I know Allah better than they do, and I am more afraid of Him than they are.’” B 7301 Something: not mentioned; narrator emphasizes point Refrained: thinking that it’s more pious to not do it Sermon: because others may have had similar thoughts I know Allah/more afraid: follow my example; I do the most pious things; piety is not always by difficulty but by being in line with what Allah wants

8 8PW 101: Selected Sayings8 Exaggeration in Religious Matters عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَمْرِو بْنِ العَاصِ، قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : « يَا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ، أَلَمْ أُخْبَرْ أَنَّكَ تَصُومُ النَّهَارَ وَتَقُومُ اللَّيْلَ؟ » قُلْتُ : بَلَى يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، قَالَ : « فَلاَ تَفْعَلْ، صُمْ وَأَفْطِرْ، وَقُمْ وَنَمْ، فَإِنَّ لِجَسَدِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا، وَإِنَّ لِعَيْنِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا، وَإِنَّ لِزَوْجِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا » “ ʿ Abdullah, have I not been informed that you fast all day and pray all night?” I [ ʿ Abdullah ibn ʿ Amr ibn al- ʿ Ā ṣ ] replied, “Yes, Messenger of Allah.” He said, “Don’t do that. Fast, and break the fast. Sleep and pray. Your body, your eye, and your wife have a right over you.” B 5199 Body/eye: needs rest; eyes need to be shut during sleep Wife: no attention during night or intimacy during the day

9 9PW 101: Selected Sayings9 Exaggeration in Religious Matters فَزَارَ سَلْمَانُ أَبَا الدَّرْدَاءِ، فَرَأَى أُمَّ الدَّرْدَاءِ مُتَبَذِّلَةً، فَقَالَ لَهَا : مَا شَأْنُكِ؟ قَالَتْ : أَخُوكَ أَبُو الدَّرْدَاءِ لَيْسَ لَهُ حَاجَةٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا، فَجَاءَ أَبُو الدَّرْدَاءِ فَصَنَعَ لَهُ طَعَامًا، فَقَالَ : كُلْ؟ قَالَ : فَإِنِّي صَائِمٌ، قَالَ : مَا أَنَا بِآكِلٍ حَتَّى تَأْكُلَ، قَالَ : فَأَكَلَ، فَلَمَّا كَانَ اللَّيْلُ ذَهَبَ أَبُو الدَّرْدَاءِ يَقُومُ، قَالَ : نَمْ، فَنَامَ، ثُمَّ ذَهَبَ يَقُومُ فَقَالَ : نَمْ، فَلَمَّا كَانَ مِنْ آخِرِ اللَّيْلِ قَالَ : سَلْمَانُ قُمِ الآنَ، فَصَلَّيَا فَقَالَ لَهُ سَلْمَانُ : إِنَّ لِرَبِّكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا، وَلِنَفْسِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا، وَلِأَهْلِكَ عَلَيْكَ حَقًّا، فَأَعْطِ كُلَّ ذِي حَقٍّ حَقَّهُ، فَأَتَى النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ، فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : « صَدَقَ سَلْمَانُ »

10 10PW 101: Selected Sayings10 Exaggeration in Religious Matters Salmān al-Fārisī visited Abū al-Dardā’ and saw his wife poorly dressed and asked her, “What’s the matter with you?” She said, “Your brother Abū al-Dardā’ has no need of this world.” Abū al-Dardā’ came and made some food for him. Salmān said, “Eat.” He said, “I am fasting.” Salmān said, “I will not eat unless you eat.” He said, “He ate. In the night, Abū al-Dardā’ went to stand in prayer and Salmān said to him, “Sleep,” and he slept. Then he got up again and Salmān said, “Sleep.” At the end of the night, Salmān said, “Now get up and we will pray.” Salmān said to him, “Your Lord has rights over you, your self has rights over you, and your wife has rights over you so give those with rights their due.” Abū al-Dardā’ came to the Prophet and mentioned this to him and the Prophet said, “Salmān spoke the truth.” B 1968 Asked her: communication between genders No need of this world: respectful way of complaining We will pray: made him reduce but not eliminate Came to the Prophet: to check if he was right or wrong Spoke the truth: about the rights and balance

11 11PW 101: Selected Sayings11 Exaggeration in Religious Matters جَاءَ ثَلاَثَةُ رَهْطٍ إِلَى بُيُوتِ أَزْوَاجِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، يَسْأَلُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَةِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَلَمَّا أُخْبِرُوا كَأَنَّهُمْ تَقَالُّوهَا، فَقَالُوا : وَأَيْنَ نَحْنُ مِنَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ؟ قَدْ غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ، قَالَ أَحَدُهُمْ : أَمَّا أَنَا فَإِنِّي أُصَلِّي اللَّيْلَ أَبَدًا، وَقَالَ آخَرُ : أَنَا أَصُومُ الدَّهْرَ وَلاَ أُفْطِرُ، وَقَالَ آخَرُ : أَنَا أَعْتَزِلُ النِّسَاءَ فَلاَ أَتَزَوَّجُ أَبَدًا، فَجَاءَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِلَيْهِمْ، فَقَالَ : « أَنْتُمُ الَّذِينَ قُلْتُمْ كَذَا وَكَذَا، أَمَا وَاللَّهِ إِنِّي لَأَخْشَاكُمْ لِلَّهِ وَأَتْقَاكُمْ لَهُ، لَكِنِّي أَصُومُ وَأُفْطِرُ، وَأُصَلِّي وَأَرْقُدُ، وَأَتَزَوَّجُ النِّسَاءَ، فَمَنْ رَغِبَ عَنْ سُنَّتِي فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي »

12 12PW 101: Selected Sayings12 Exaggeration in Religious Matters Three people came to the houses of the wives of the Prophet to ask about how the Prophet worshipped. When they were told, it was as if they thought it was little and said, “Where are we in relation to the Messenger of Allah who has been forgiven his past and future wrong actions?” One of them said, “As for me, I will pray all night every night.” Another said, “I will fast all the time and not break the fast.” The other said, “I will withdraw from women and never marry.” The Messenger of Allah came to them and said, “Are you the ones who said such- and-such? By Allah, I am the one among you with the most fear of Allah, but I fast and break the fast, I pray and I sleep, and I marry women. Whoever shuns my example is not of me.” B 5063 Wives…to ask: access not only to Prophet but to family Where are we: we must do more since we are worse than him Is not of me: not really following my way, which is from Allah; worship has been taught, not determined by self; balanced diet

13 13PW 101: Selected Sayings13 Exaggeration in Religious Matters دَخَلَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَإِذَا حَبْلٌ مَمْدُودٌ بَيْنَ السَّارِيَتَيْنِ، فَقَالَ : « مَا هَذَا الحَبْلُ؟ » قَالُوا : هَذَا حَبْلٌ لِزَيْنَبَ فَإِذَا فَتَرَتْ تَعَلَّقَتْ، فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ : « لاَ حُلُّوهُ لِيُصَلِّ أَحَدُكُمْ نَشَاطَهُ، فَإِذَا فَتَرَ فَلْيَقْعُدْ » The Prophet entered the mosque and saw that there was a rope hanging between the two pillars. He said, “What is this rope?” Someone responded, “The rope belongs to Zaynab. When she is tired, she hands on to it.” The Prophet said, “No, remove it. You should pray as long as you have the energy for it. When you are tired, you should sleep.” B 1150 Zaynab: a wife of the prophet; women in mosque Energy: won’t be consistent; ignore other things

14 14PW 101: Selected Sayings14 Exaggeration in Religious Matters إِنَّ الدِّينَ يُسْرٌ، وَلَنْ يُشَادَّ الدِّينَ أَحَدٌ إِلَّا غَلَبَهُ، فَسَدِّدُوا وَقَارِبُوا، وَأَبْشِرُوا “This religion is easy. Anyone who makes the religion too hard on himself will find that it overpowers him. So aim for what is right, follow a middle path, and accept the good news [that you are rewarded for your deeds].” B 39 Easy: not overburdening given human capacity Too hard: body/mind can’t endure it Overpowers: will not be able to keep it up Right: defined by Allah Middle path: giving priority to body and soul Good news: you get full reward without giving up all aspects of life

15 15PW 101: Selected Sayings15 Exaggeration in Religious Matters لاَ تُطْرُونِي، كَمَا أَطْرَتْ النَّصَارَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ، فَإِنَّمَا أَنَا عَبْدُهُ، فَقُولُوا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ، وَرَسُولُهُ “Do not go to excess in praising me as the Christians went to excess about the son of Maryam [Jesus the son of Mary]. I am only His servant, so say, ‘His servant and His Messenger.’” B 3445 Excess: by equating with Allah in any way Son of Maryam: refute son of God Servant: title of respect but humility in relation to Allah; proper balance

16 16PW 101: Selected Sayings16 Spending for the Sake of Allah عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ صَدَقَةٌ، فَقَالُوا : يَا نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ، فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ؟ قَالَ : يَعْمَلُ بِيَدِهِ، فَيَنْفَعُ نَفْسَهُ وَيَتَصَدَّقُ قَالُوا : فَإِنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ؟ قَالَ : يُعِينُ ذَا الحَاجَةِ المَلْهُوفَ قَالُوا : فَإِنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ؟ قَالَ : فَلْيَعْمَلْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ، وَلْيُمْسِكْ عَنِ الشَّرِّ، فَإِنَّهَا لَهُ صَدَقَةٌ “Every Muslim should give charity.” Someone asked, “What about someone who had nothing to give?” He said, “He should get work and earn something and give charity.” He said, “What if he can’t?” He said, “He should help someone troubled by need.” He said, “What if he cannot do that?” He said, “He should command what is right or what is good.” He said, “What if he does not do that?” He said, “He should refrain from evil. That is charity for him.” B 1445 should get work: to show greatness of act; actually this person can receive it Help someone: same type of act and same reward Command: like helping another Refrain: no action but suppressing desires; rewarded

17 17PW 101: Selected Sayings17 Spending for the Sake of Allah جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ : يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَيُّ الصَّدَقَةِ أَعْظَمُ أَجْرًا؟ قَالَ : « أَنْ تَصَدَّقَ وَأَنْتَ صَحِيحٌ شَحِيحٌ تَخْشَى الفَقْرَ، وَتَأْمُلُ الغِنَى، وَلاَ تُمْهِلُ حَتَّى إِذَا بَلَغَتِ الحُلْقُومَ، قُلْتَ لِفُلاَنٍ كَذَا، وَلِفُلاَنٍ كَذَا وَقَدْ كَانَ لِفُلاَنٍ “Messenger of Allah, which charity has the greatest reward? He said, “That you give charity while you are healthy yet in need, in a state of poverty and trying to acquire wealth. Do not put it off until you are close to death and then you say, ‘This person gets this much and that person gets that much,’ when it already belongs to someone else.” B 1419 Yet in need: most difficult situation Already belongs: through inheritance; you can’t take it

18 18PW 101: Selected Sayings18 Spending for the Sake of Allah أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ : " قَالَ رَجُلٌ : لَأَتَصَدَّقَنَّ بِصَدَقَةٍ، فَخَرَجَ بِصَدَقَتِهِ، فَوَضَعَهَا فِي يَدِ سَارِقٍ، فَأَصْبَحُوا يَتَحَدَّثُونَ : تُصُدِّقَ عَلَى سَارِقٍ فَقَالَ : اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ الحَمْدُ، لَأَتَصَدَّقَنَّ بِصَدَقَةٍ، فَخَرَجَ بِصَدَقَتِهِ فَوَضَعَهَا فِي يَدَيْ زَانِيَةٍ، فَأَصْبَحُوا يَتَحَدَّثُونَ : تُصُدِّقَ اللَّيْلَةَ عَلَى زَانِيَةٍ، فَقَالَ : اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ الحَمْدُ، عَلَى زَانِيَةٍ؟ لَأَتَصَدَّقَنَّ بِصَدَقَةٍ، فَخَرَجَ بِصَدَقَتِهِ، فَوَضَعَهَا فِي يَدَيْ غَنِيٍّ، فَأَصْبَحُوا يَتَحَدَّثُونَ : تُصُدِّقَ عَلَى غَنِيٍّ، فَقَالَ : اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ الحَمْدُ، عَلَى سَارِقٍ وَعَلَى زَانِيَةٍ وَعَلَى غَنِيٍّ، فَأُتِيَ فَقِيلَ لَهُ : أَمَّا صَدَقَتُكَ عَلَى سَارِقٍ فَلَعَلَّهُ أَنْ يَسْتَعِفَّ عَنْ سَرِقَتِهِ، وَأَمَّا الزَّانِيَةُ فَلَعَلَّهَا أَنْ تَسْتَعِفَّ عَنْ زِنَاهَا، وَأَمَّا الغَنِيُّ فَلَعَلَّهُ يَعْتَبِرُ فَيُنْفِقُ مِمَّا أَعْطَاهُ اللَّهُ

19 19PW 101: Selected Sayings19 Spending for the Sake of Allah The Messenger of Allah said: “A man said, ‘I must give some charity,’ and went out and put his money in the hand of a thief. The next day people told him that he had given charity to a thief. He said, ‘Allah, you are praised. I will give charity again.’ He went out and this time put it in the hand of a prostitute. The next day people told him that he had given his charity to a prostitute. He said, ‘Allah, you are praised. I gave it to a prostitute. I will give more charity.’ He went out and this time put it in the hand of a rich man. The next day people told him that he had given it to someone wealthy. He said, ‘Allah, you are praised. I have given charity to a thief, a prostitute and a rich man.’ Then someone came to him [probably a prophet] and said, ‘Your charity to a thief might make him stop stealing. What you gave to the prostitute might make her change her ways. What you gave to the rich man might make him reflect so that he will spend from what Allah has given him.” B 1421 A man said: to himself – Prophet narrating his intention People told him: we don’t know whether it was true Thief, prostitute, rich man: not worthy of chairty Might make him stop/change/reflect: fruits in this life as well

20 20PW 101: Selected Sayings20 Spending for the Sake of Allah مَا نَقَصَتْ صَدَقَةٌ مِنْ مَالٍ “Charity does not decrease wealth in any way.” M 2588 Decrease: in reality; redefining wealth so people are more inclined to give charity

21 21PW 101: Selected Sayings21 Spending for the Sake of Allah أَيُّكُمْ مَالُ وَارِثِهِ أَحَبُّ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ مَالِهِ؟ » قَالُوا : يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، مَا مِنَّا أَحَدٌ إِلَّا مَالُهُ أَحَبُّ إِلَيْهِ، قَالَ : « فَإِنَّ مَالَهُ مَا قَدَّمَ، وَمَالُ وَارِثِهِ مَا أَخَّرَ “Which of you loves the property of his heir more than he loves his own property?” They responded, “Messenger of Allah, there is no one who wouldn’t love his own property more.” He said, “His property is what he sends ahead, and the property of his heir is what he leaves behind.” B 6442 Which of you: to teach a lesson There is no one: honest answer His property is: redefining the concept

22 22PW 101: Selected Sayings22 Spending for the Sake of Allah يَا ابْنَ آدَمَ إِنَّكَ أَنْ تَبْذُلَ الْفَضْلَ خَيْرٌ لَكَ، وَأَنْ تُمْسِكَهُ شَرٌّ لَكَ، وَلَا تُلَامُ عَلَى كَفَافٍ، وَابْدَأْ بِمَنْ تَعُولُ، وَالْيَدُ الْعُلْيَا خَيْرٌ مِنَ الْيَدِ السُّفْلَى “O son of Adam, it is better for you to spend what is in excess of your needs and worse for you to keep it. You will not be blamed for keeping enough to cover your needs. Begin with your immediate dependents. The giving hand is better than the receiving hand.” M 1036 Better: more pious and pleasing to Allah Not be blamed: you have a right to plan Immediate dependents: most deserving of your wealth Giving hand: the one who gives [upper hand]

23 23PW 101: Selected Sayings23 Community and Authority إِنَّ المُؤْمِنَ لِلْمُؤْمِنِ كَالْبُنْيَانِ يَشُدُّ بَعْضُهُ بَعْضًا “A believer in respect of another believer is like a building whose parts support one another.” B 481 Another believer: also following Islam Support: without support it will collapse; must help one another in all things

24 24PW 101: Selected Sayings24 Community and Authority مَثَلُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي تَوَادِّهِمْ، وَتَرَاحُمِهِمْ، وَتَعَاطُفِهِمْ مَثَلُ الْجَسَدِ إِذَا اشْتَكَى مِنْهُ عُضْوٌ تَدَاعَى لَهُ سَائِرُ الْجَسَدِ بِالسَّهَرِ وَالْحُمَّى “The likeness of the believers in their mutual love, mercy and affection is that of the body. When one limb of it complains, the rest of the body reacts with sleeplessness and fever.” M 2586 Body: a mental picture makes it easier to understand Complains: because there is a problem Body reacts: feels the pain and tries to do something; must watch over every part of the body to be healthy

25 25PW 101: Selected Sayings25 Community and Authority إِذَا خَرَجَ ثَلَاثَةٌ فِي سَفَرٍ فَلْيُؤَمِّرُوا أَحَدَهُمْ “When three people set out on a journey, they should appoint one of them as the leader.” AD [ ḥṣ ] 2608 Three: or more; perhaps even two Journey: or undertake any endeavor which requires leadership Appoint one of them: before setting out; so there will be order and less disputes

26 26PW 101: Selected Sayings26 Community and Authority أُوصِيكُمْ بِتَقْوَى اللَّهِ وَالسَّمْعِ وَالطَّاعَةِ، وَإِنْ عَبْدٌ حَبَشِيٌّ “I command you to be fearful of Allah and to hear and obey [your leader], even if an African slave is put in command over you.” T [ ḥṣ ] 2676 and to hear/obey: combined with the fear of Allah African slave: lower status; racism prevalent in Arabia; i.e. even if you dislike the person Put in command: through legitimate means

27 27PW 101: Selected Sayings27 Community and Authority بَايَعْنَا رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَى السَّمْعِ وَالطَّاعَةِ فِي الْعُسْرِ وَالْيُسْرِ، وَالْمَنْشَطِ وَالْمَكْرَهِ، وَعَلَى أَثَرَةٍ عَلَيْنَا، وَعَلَى أَنْ لَا نُنَازِعَ الْأَمْرَ أَهْلَهُ، وَعَلَى أَنْ نَقُولَ بِالْحَقِّ أَيْنَمَا كُنَّا، لَا نَخَافُ فِي اللهِ لَوْمَةَ لَائِمٍ A Companion said: “We gave the Messenger of Allah our pledge to hear and obey in hardship and ease, with regard to both what we liked and what we disliked, even if there was prejudice against us; and not to dispute the authority of those placed over us; and to speak the truth wherever we were and not to fear in the way of Allah the blame of any critic.” M 1709 Pledge: when accepting Islam - `Aqabah Hear/obey: to make and effort to listen; follow Islam What we disliked: couldn’t see the wisdom behind/was difficult Not to dispute the authority: to avoid anarchy and sedition Fear in the way of Allah/any critic: when doing something for Allah

28 28PW 101: Selected Sayings28 Review Attaining Piety Exaggeration in Religious Matters Spending for the Sake of Allah Community and Authority

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