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Yapısal Programlama Yüksek Düzeyli Dillerin Gelişim Süreci –1954-1957, Fortran (by IBM), for creating scientific and engineering applications, first commercial.

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Presentation on theme: "Yapısal Programlama Yüksek Düzeyli Dillerin Gelişim Süreci –1954-1957, Fortran (by IBM), for creating scientific and engineering applications, first commercial."— Presentation transcript:

1 Yapısal Programlama Yüksek Düzeyli Dillerin Gelişim Süreci – , Fortran (by IBM), for creating scientific and engineering applications, first commercial high-level programming lang. –1959, Cobol, Commercial applications requiring manipulation of large amounts of data –Late 1960s, Pascal, for academic use –1967, BCPL, for writing OSs, software, compilers –1970, B, early versions of UNIX –1973, C, UNIX, major operating systems –1975, BASIC –1980s, C++, object-oriented programming (OOP) –1995, Java, create dynamic content for Web pages and for consumer devices –2000, C#, designed specifically for the.NET platform

2 list of directions given to you when you ask how to get to the local grocery store 1.First, go to steps 8 and 9. 2.Drive one mile straight. 3.Drive one mile straight again. 4.Drive one mile straight again. You will see the store on your right. 5.If the store is closed, go to step Stop and get out of your car. 7.Go to step Drive straight to Harvard Avenue. 9.Turn right at 51st Street. 10.Go to step Turn left on Yale Street. 12.Go four miles straight and you will see another grocery on your left. 13.Go in and shop. 1.Drive straight to Harvard Avenue. 2.Turn right at 51st Street. 3.For the next three miles, keep driving straight. You will see the grocery on your right. 4.If the grocery is open, go inside. 5.If the grocery is closed, turn left on Yale Street. Go four miles straight and you will see another grocery on your left. 6.Go inside whichever grocery is open and buy groceries.

3 Benefits of Structure Less code equals more power Make the code easier to read and follow Enable you to break your code into logical parts Make it easier to spot where errors are Make reusing code easier

4 The Constructs of Structured Programming Sequence (Sıra) Decision (Karar) (also called selection) Looping (Döngü) (also called repetition or iteration) As long as a programming language supports these three constructs, you can write structured programs. An unstructured program contains lots of branching.

5 Sequence

6 Decision

7 Looping

8 Structured Programming = Yapısal Programlama Input  Process  Output Sequence (Functions) Decision (Conditionals) Looping (Loops)

9 Basic C++ Code Structure // C++ code template comment #include header file (support for inputs and outputs) #include header file (support for string handling) void main() a function { // Code goes here!!!! }

10 Functions Functions are the basic subdivision of code. Just as statements are the equivalent of sentences, functions are the equivalent of paragraphs. To move between functions you use calls.

11 Functions Main function –Functions called main have a special meaning in C++, they are functions that will be automatically run. // C++ code template #include void main() { cout << "Hello, World!" << endl; }

12 Statement coutinstruction <

13 a function can do more than one thing // C++ code template #include void main() { cout << "Hello, World!" << endl; cout << "How are you?" << endl; }

14 More functions #include void hello() { cout << "Hello, World!" << endl; } void hello2() { cout << "Hello, World, MK II!" << endl; } void main() { cout << "main function" << endl; }

15 #include void hello() { cout << "Hello, World!" << endl; } void hello2() { cout << "Hello, World, MK II!" << endl; } void main() { cout << "main function" << endl; hello(); hello2; }

16 Remember to have the function appear before you call it #include void hello() { cout << "Hello, World!" << endl; hello2(); } void hello2() { cout << "Hello, World, MK II!" << endl; } void main() { cout << "main function" << endl; hello(); }

17 3 Örneği inceleyiniz. Yanlış olanlar ne? #include void hello() { cout << "main function" << endl; } void main() { cout << "main function" << endl; } #include void main() { cout << "main function" << endl; hello(); hello2(); } void hello() { cout << "Hello, World!" << endl; hello2(); } void hello2() { cout << "Hello, World, MK II!" << endl; }

18 Conditionals (Karar yapıları, şartlı yapılar) Conditionals revolve around answers to questions. –true/ false –yes/ no For breakfast, would you rather have toast or cereal? –Toast –Cereal –Toast & Cereal –None Conditionals revolve around making a decision

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20 Conditionals in C++ if (condition) { // do statements here if the condition is true } else { // do these statements if the condition is false };

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26 Loops (Döngü yapıları) the same piece of code a number of times –Bir komutun (ya da komut bloğunun) belirli sayıda işletilmesi –Bir komutun (ya da komut bloğunun) belirli bir şart gerçekleştiği sürece (bir ön teste bağlı olarak) işletilmesi –Bir komutun (ya da komut bloğunun) belirli bir şart gerçekleşene kadar (bir son teste bağlı olarak) işletilmesi

27 Bir komutun (ya da komut bloğunun) belirli sayıda işletilmesi

28 C++ “for” yapısı: Örnek 1 for ( ; ; ) { // statement (or block of statements) }

29 C++ “for” yapısı: Örnek 2

30 Bir komutun (ya da komut bloğunun) belirli bir şart gerçekleştiği sürece (bir ön teste bağlı olarak) işletilmesi

31 C++ “while” yapısı

32 Bir komutun (ya da komut bloğunun) belirli bir şart gerçekleşene kadar (bir son teste bağlı olarak) işletilmesi

33 C++ “do while” yapısı

34 Infinite Loops


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