Presentation on theme: "Breaking down the Barriers"— Presentation transcript:
1Breaking down the Barriers The challenges that children and young people bring with them into Care
2Research Study99 children in foster care were compared with 100 school-children (living with family) who were matched for age and gender.We looked at the number and range of negative life events that the children in care experienced and compared them with the children in the communityWe called these events and situations risk factors. The maximum number was 25.
3Ashwood Screening Questionnaire Significant Life eventsBackground FactorsTeenage parent, poor home conditions, multiple school placements, school exclusion, parent in care, CPP, mother no qualifications.Relationship FactorsEarly maternal rejection, abandonment, abuse and neglect, loss of contact with birth parent, death of either parent, change in fathers, emotional abuse, neglect, separation from siblings
4Ashwood Screening Questionnaire Significant Life eventsLifestyle FactorsFamily crime, witness to violence, multiple carers, parents drug/alcohol use, mother in prison, parents mental health, changes of address
5Research FindingsChildren in Care – average 9.5 risk factors present per child.Comparison Group – average 0.5 risk factors per child
6Children at Most Risk – Prior Factors Research StudyChildren at Most Risk – Prior FactorsHaving a child protection plan for any reasonFamily relationship problems ( family violence, multiple “parents”, chaotic home-life, parent in prison)Parents using substances, teenage parents, multiple home moves, death of parent(s)
7Children at Most Risk – In Care Factors Research StudyChildren at Most Risk – In Care FactorsMultiple placementsThe highest number of placement moves occurred in the 5-11 years age group,The 3-4yrs age group moved less but multiple moves in all age groups were associated with poorer outcomesSiblings placed elsewhereThe siblings might have remained with birth family or been placed separately in the care system
8Weaker Links to Poor Outcomes But they were still linked Research StudyWeaker Links to Poor OutcomesDevelopmental DisordersEarly Failure to ThriveSensory ImpairmentsLong-term MedicationPhysical Health IssuesExclusion from SchoolBut they were still linked
9Research StudyAcademic Progress and Learning Outcomes Greater Risk Rating = more attachment and mental health and behavioural problems = poorer progress and attainment
10Research StudyNegative Life Events which were significantly associated with Attachment, mental heath and behavioural difficulties:-Placement instabilityDevelopmental disordersMaternal RejectionMultiple changes of accommodation
11Case Study Billie needed very special care ... Billie is a girl with sensory impairment, one of two girls born to a mum with heroin addiction which caused her death. Both girls adopted by mother’s sister when they were 3 years old, but Billie, the older girl, was rejected by the aunt and her new partner while Zoey her sister remained with them.Billie needed very special care ...
12Case StudyAt the age of 3 years Louisa witnessed her mother punching step-sister Bella who was on the table at breakfast time. Bella fell from the table and died and mother was imprisoned for manslaughter. Louisa and her older sister India were fostered separately. At age five years Louisa was a very challenging and distressed child, ripping at her skin, screaming and sobbing at the least upset, unable to sleep ...
13Toxic StressLack of stimulation and opportunity to develop a healthy attachment to a primary caregiverOver a prolonged period of time, stress responses become excessive and toxic to the body, which can have life long consequences.Toxic stress turns off any functions that slow down reactions - functions that can be essential to protecting ourselves when faced with a threat.Lower regions of the brain are developed first and protect the body from danger, commonly known as the fight, flight or freeze response. However, if this system becomes chronically overactive it will impact on the development of the higher regions of the brain, resulting in cognitive delay and impairments in executive functioning. Consequently, the ability to think before reacting is severely affected, as the limbic system takes over when threatened and the child is unable to think through the consequences of their behaviour before reacting.
14Toxic Stress These lost functions include the ability to: self-regulateprocess informationmake sense of the worldinteract positively with other peopleAnd often children struggle with every aspect of daily lifeChildren and young people who have experienced adversity that creates toxic stress are traumatised and often struggle with every aspect of daily life.
15Self-regulationChildren & Young People who struggle with self-regulation arelikely to be perceived as presenting challenging behaviour.They may be hyper-aroused and acting out, or dissociatedand switched off.Processing disorders add to the child's difficulties, leading them to misinterpret neutral events as frightening,They lack the ability to account for their own feelings and behaviour.However, although the plasticity of the brain decreases over time, throughout childhood, depending on the severity of the trauma experienced, it continues to make those necessary synaptic connections to develop the functions of the higher brain, such as language, empathy, regulation of emotions and reasoning.
16Impact on learning The child or YP may not : have the capacity to experience curiosity and joybe engaged or enthused by learninghave the excitement about mastering skills or understandinghave the ability to use reasoned thought or language to understand and explain behaviour
17Impact on learning The child or YP may not : Be able to take risks necessary to learnBe able to overcome their feelings of shame and loss of self-esteemCope with any form of criticism or praiseRelate appropriately to peersRelinquish their role of protector to younger siblings
18Case Study 1Michael describes what happened ‘I saw my Dad at the weekend – I only see him about every month, usually at his place or sometimes we go out. I like to see him because he is my Dad. When I went to his flat on Saturday we watched a new video and had a takeaway but then he told me that my Mum has a new boyfriend and she’s going to have a baby. I couldn’t really understand because I haven’t seen my Mum for about two years and then she was still doing drugs. I wanted to cry but I couldn’t. All week, I kept getting into trouble at school, I just wanted to smash something – how come she can have another baby but not want me?’Contact visits with birth parents and families aresometimes painful for looked after children. Parentsand children may desperately want to remain incontact even though it raises mixed feelings.Children and young people may be reminded thattheir parents cannot care for them and feel angryand sad about this but have nowhere to direct thesefeelings. It may also reawaken their feelings of lossand abandonment. It can be hard for children andyoung people to contain such strong feelings, whichthey may spill out into other parts of their life. It isalso very difficult for them to talk about their feelings– they may not have the words to explain, or they
19Case Study 2Sammie explains what often happens ‘I don’t like lunch times because we all have to go in the playground and there are too many people rushing round and the little ones are making noise. Then, each class has to line up when we are told to go to the hall for lunch. At lunch you have to choose what you want and I don’t always like it and sometimes I can’t sit with my friends. I am always getting told off for not eating my dinner because I’m talking. Sometimes I feel hungry in the afternoons and I get grumpy. I like mornings best at school, really.'Many children with attachment difficulties find largegroups quite threatening. They become hypervigilentand constantly scan the environment for danger.They are not likely to be aware they are doing this,as it is an automatic response to being in a stressfulsituation. Some children will also be very dependenton their friendship group and only feel safe whenthey are with their friends – they will often go togreat lengths to be with their friends, because theyare the safer option.Food and eating can be very difficult for somechildren and young people and, in a stressfulsituation, they may lose their appetite or overeat forcomfort. They may not be able to settle long enoughto eat a meal (meals may have previously beenerratic or something to eat quickly) or they may cravefood that gives a quick burst of energy.BackgroundSammie is 10 years old and in Year 5 at primary school. She has been in this school for a yearand lives with foster carers and their family. She seems to be happy and settling well althoughshe is a very anxious child and needs to have her friendship group around her to feel secur
20Case Study 3 when I do what they want, they are still going on at ‘I don’t see the point of all this work at school. Evenwhen I do what they want, they are still going on atme, I could have done this or written a bit more. What’sthe point of me doing it if it’s still not good enough?Some teachers are ok but some just needle me all thetime – like they don’t think much of me – they say stufflike, “No homework again, Marcus? It’ll hardly beworth you sitting the GCSE, will it?“. If I’m having abad day, I just explode when they say something likethat and get chucked out of the classroom, but atleast I don’t have to listen to them getting at me.’Children and young people with attachment issuesmay fear failure and so will not put themselves ina position where they might fail. School work is,by its nature, commented on along with suggestionsfor improvement and these children may interpretthis as failure. These are the children who often donot work at school even though their teachers saythey are able pupils. For them, rejection has beena common experience throughout their lives andthey will not want to risk feeling that again – in anypart of their life. For some children, being told offin school or receiving sarcastic comments canreawaken the intense feelings of distress followingrepeated rejections by their main caregiver, and somechildren and young people cope with this throughangry behaviour.The sceneMarcus is 15 years old and in Year 10 at school. He has been at this school for three years andso far is only just meeting his targets. His teachers constantly say that he does not work eventhough they believe he is able. They believe he can achieve academically, if he puts in the workand effort. He is also known for having a volatile temper and is frequently sent out of classfollowing an outburst, often about uncompleted work. Because Marcus has become taller andbigger, some teachers find his behaviour threatening. Marcus lives in a residential children’shome and has been back and forth between different carers and his birth mother many times.He is determined to keep in contact with his birth mother and still sees her occasionally, buthas come to accept that he cannot live with her.
21Acknowledgments Thank you Ashwood Associates and National Children’s Bureau for ‘Understanding Why’ Workbook
22AcknowledgementThank you for this very important message Michael, Sammie, Marcus………………….'I do appreciate you being there for me and trying to understand me even on the days when things are difficult’