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Became the nation’s largest industry in 1920s. 10 million cars in U.S. in 1920, 26 million by 1929! Assembly line started in 1913, building 5 million.

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Presentation on theme: "Became the nation’s largest industry in 1920s. 10 million cars in U.S. in 1920, 26 million by 1929! Assembly line started in 1913, building 5 million."— Presentation transcript:


2 Became the nation’s largest industry in 1920s. 10 million cars in U.S. in 1920, 26 million by 1929! Assembly line started in 1913, building 5 million cars/year by 1929.

3  Industry weakness: Those who buy a long lasting item are out of the market for a few years (fewer sales) 1920 Ford Model T Center Door Sedan

4  More Steel mills were needed  More Rubber Factories  More Glass Suppliers  Real Estate: Can now build homes outside the cities in suburbs  Gas Stations replaced horse stables  Roads to be built

5  When automobile sales slow down so do all of the other industries that supply them.  This causes a massive downturn in the economy.  Jobs are lost in those other areas  This is why Auto industry helps drive the economy (even today)

6  New industries appeared in the 1920s: 1. Electric Industry a. Massive steam generators converted coal to electricity (2/3 of all Americans had electricity by 1929) b. New Appliances: Washing Machines, vacuum cleaners, refrigerators, ovens c. These appliances led to more free time - “chores” decreased, kids faced boredom

7 2. Radio/Motion Pictures a. In 1929 NBC became the 1 st successful radio network - Amos N’ Andy was 1 st famous radio comedy (it featured “blackface comedy”) b. Allowed the spread of advertising c. First talking movie in 1927: “The Jazz Singer”, starring Al Jolson

8 3. Aluminum became a major business 4. Corporations grew, forcing out family owned businesses a. increasing dependence on mortgage bankers like J.P. Morgan

9  Economic Weaknesses did occur 1. Decline in “traditional” industries a. Railroads were poorly managed & hurt by the new trucking industry b. Coal Industry was being replaced by natural gas& petroleum c. Cotton declined due to rayon & synthetic fibers d. Agriculture was hardest hit of all - farmers had expanded meat production in WWI to feed the U.S. & Europe - prices dropped after WWI. This hurt farmers during 1920s. Later drought & depression devastated them in 1930s.

10 2. Middle to Upper Class Prospered a. Ended up with more money than they could spend b. Many ended up speculating heavily in the stock market - instead of investing in sound markets - idea was to get rich quick c. 1920s was known as a time of plenty: spend and not worry about the future

11 IV. Heroes of the Decade 1. Babe Ruth (home run king) 2. Jack Dempsey & Gene Tunney (boxing legends) 3. Charles Lindberg (1 st man to fly solo across the Atlantic) – Spirit of St. Louis 4. Rudolph Valentino – first major Hollywood “Sex symbol”

12  A half-million blacks left the South for the North in the 1920s 1. Higher paying jobs, left behind Southern farms and sharecropping 2. Competed for jobs/housing with existing Northern Whites a. caused resentment b. race riots erupted in 26 Northern cities c. White media reported RUMORS of spreading violence by Blacks – this increased tensions/retaliation by Northern Whites

13 3. Migration also occurred due to blacks being hired to replace striking whites while unions formed 4. Marcus Garvey a. founded “Back to Africa” movement b. Garvey felt Blacks couldn’t compete with whites in America c. Urged blacks to return to “mother countries” in Africa to build strong separate civilizations d. “Black Pride” was started, gained recognition

14 e. Garvey started the Black Star Line ships to Africa - B.S.L. failed - Garvey was tried & convicted of fraud by an all-white jury - Many felt he was convicted mainly on radical beliefs - B.S.L. really failed due to mismanagement, rather than fraud. - served in jail from , released and deported to Jamaica

15 5. Black Ghettos Today a. Many were a result of the great migration b. Migrants were poor, moved into less expensive city houses c. Middle Class whites with cars moved to the new suburbs d. Inner city houses decayed with age & poor couldn’t afford to move out – stuck there e. Poor directly affected by economy, 1 st to lose jobs, no way out of their situation

16 6. The Harlem Renaissance a. Many migrant Blacks settled in Harlem, New York - became the “Negro capital of the world” b. W.E.B. Du Bois and James Walden Johnson became leaders of the Harlem Renaissance - was an expression of African American writers who began expressing their own identity and anger at racism - jazz music, rhythm & blues told stories of racism/hard times : Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington

17  Sacco & Vanzetti Trial 1. Sacco & Vanzetti were immigrants who believed in anarchy 2. They were tried and convicted of murder, based on circumstantial evidence, not hard proof 3. Some felt they were convicted on their beliefs & because they were immigrants 4. Executed in Later Names were cleared by Governor Michael Dukakis in Riots erupted after executions in U.S. & Europe

18  Palmer Raids 1. Palmer was President Wilson’s Attorney General 2. Palmer gathered information on radicals 3. Deported up to 600 immigrants (mostly to Soviet Union) due to Communist fears 4. Most deported or arrested favored NON-Violent radicalism, not Violent revolution

19  Feminism/Suffrage 1. Women Suffrage a. 19 th Amendment Passed in 1920 b. 15 th Amendment allowed all MEN to vote c. Progressives helped push for women to vote to help push through their reforms

20 d. Sheppard/Tower Act (1921) was 1 st Amendment to deal with Welfare reform - assisted maternal & infant health care - Child killers included: polio, diphtheria & smallpox e. Young Women Rebelled against Victorian Constraints - wore shorter dresses - smoking/drinking in public for 1 st time - wild dancing, more promiscuous

21 2. Children/Teens A. Kids no longer worked much thanks to progressive reforms B. More Time led to: Drinking, promiscuity, constant search for excitement C. More middle class attended school & given more luxuries D. Lower Class had more idle time E. Gangs developed on city streets

22 3. Crime Increased A. Due to Prohibition (18 th Amendment in 1917) - More middle/upper class were willing to break laws for alcohol B. Bootlegging became common - Adult gangs developed: Al Capone

23 4. Prohibition A. It was illegal to sell, drink, make or transport more than 1% alcohol B. Represented moral issues by Progressives & Southerners who migrated North C. Law angered ethnic groups such as Germans and Irish immigrants D. Drinking did decline, but it was repealed in 1933

24 1. KKK Rebirth a. KKK had only 34 members in 1914 – 5 million by 1925 b. The Red Scare helped to convince many to join the KKK c. KKK was a sanctuary to the frightened & insecure

25 d. KKK gained political control of state governments in Oklahoma & Texas e. Hatred extended to Mexicans, Japanese, European immigrants, Catholics, Jews, French Canadians, Prostitutes and radical women in the 1920s f. KKK felt all of those groups werebeyond redemption

26 g. Similarities to the rise of Nazi’s in Germany h. KKK wanted “pure Americanism” i. KKK fell quickly in the 1920s due to: - clashes with the law - scandals with sex/corruption j. Racism remained and there would be no major civil rights legislation until the 1960s

27 2. Immigration Restriction a National Origins Act - created a “quota system” - limited European immigrants to 150,000 per year - based on fears of immigrants flooding into the U.S. from a rebuilding Europe - the law lasted into the 1960s - Mexican immigrants were NOT restricted and filled the need for unskilled workers

28 1. The Lost Generation a. American writers who questioned why Materialism ruled over intellectual, spiritual and artistic concerns b. Writers moved to Europe and wrote pessimistically of greed/emptiness of American lives in 1920s - included: Ernest Hemingway, Gertrude Stein, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ezra Pound,T.S. Elliot, Sinclair Lewis

29 2. Harlem Renaissance brought previously hidden Black art, music & literature to the world A. Rhythm & Blues music - sounds of years of sorrow and struggle B. Writers Claude McKay, Langston Hughes - wrote about the Black struggle for equality C. Cultural Explosion - marked by white & black authors who were critical of mass production/wanting a simpler lifestyle

30 3. Fundamentalist Controversy A. Scopes Trial - John Scopes was a Biology teacher - Scopes taught theory of evolution, which was against Tennessee law to teach - Prosecution used William Jennings Bryan to testify, but contradicted by taking Bible out of context after saying it was a literal translation

31 - Scopes was found guilty, given a $100 fine - Bryan was so hurt by trial that he died 6 days later - Fundamentalism did survive despite the trial John Scopes High School Biology teacher Famous Lawyers

32 I. Warren G. Harding (President ) A. Republican candidate for president in His slogan was “back to normalcy” B. Believed in importance of Big Business - supported by big business leaders C. Tried to have U.S. face calm after WWI and Wilson’s Treaty failure

33 D. Teapot Dome Scandal 1. Two cabinet members took bribes for big oil leases in Teapot Dome, Wyoming. 2. Harding died of a stroke in 1923, before scandals became public 3. He was a good man, surrounded by corruption

34 II. Calvin Coolidge, (President ) A. “Silent Cal”, honest, integrity, a friend of business B. “The Business of America is Business” 1. Believed big business must be prosperous for America to prosper 2. This was popular strategy throughout the 1920s 3. Chose not to run again in 1928

35 III. Herbert Hoover (President ) A. Self-made millionaire named “Wonder Boy” B. Most intelligent President in the 1920s, served as secretary of commerce under Harding and Coolidge C. Pushed for gov’t. regulations, but only wanted volunteerism from businesses, not having the gov’t. make it mandatory

36 IV. Republican Policies A. Isolationism 1. Wanted to separate from Europe’s troubles B. Dawes Plan 1. Allies owed the U.S. $10 billion in war debts they couldn’t pay until Germany repaid them $33 billion debt 2. France moved into Germany, possibly threatening a new war

37 3. Dawes was sent to avert another war. Got U.S. bankers to loan Germany money to repay its debt, so allies could repay the U.S. 4. Policy was to replace Europe’s military dependence with big business dependence 5. Only worked until the Great Depression destroyed banking industry

38 V. Brand-Kellogg Treaty A. 14 Nations signed a treaty outlawing war B. Treaty declared war was illegal 1. Weakness was there was no punishment if treaty was broken

39 VI. Scientific Management A. Developed by Frederick Taylor 1. Taylor felt workers were lazy, sloppy 2. Felt efficiency could be measured to improve productivity, raise wages & profits B. Time Study Analysis 1. Take a single task (welding a car frame) 2. Use a stop watch to time the person - after several times, the average time represents the standard time it takes to weld a car together

40 3. After a year, Management saw what average time was taken to do the task. If it was twice the standard time, the worker was at 50% efficiency 4. Aim was for 100% or better. If not improved after a period of time, then firings, demotions or new supervisors took over 5. Exceptions to improvement: When changes are made to the product, or new workers are hired C. Benefits of Scientific Management 1. Accountability, evaluation of talent, future cost projections 2. The more you do something, usually you get more accurate in less time

41 VI. Failures of the Republican policies A. Crash came down during Hoover’s time due to ignorance 1. When economy slowed in 1927, credit should have been made more difficult to get, but instead it was made easier 2. This would have created a mild recession, instead of a sudden, hard depression B. Failure of Brand-Kellogg and League of Nations to create punishments helped Germany & Japan get aggressive & led to WWII

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