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Unit Eight Coping with an Educational Problem Text A Fable of the Lazy Teenager Benjamin Stein.

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2 Unit Eight Coping with an Educational Problem

3 Text A Fable of the Lazy Teenager Benjamin Stein

4 Outline  Text Structure  Background Information  Language Points  Text Analysis  Assignment

5  Part One paragraph 1 to paragraph 10 – an anecdote The author’s concern – teenagers’ idleness and ignorance will produce serious effects on all concerned and society as a whole Text Structure

6  Part One (Para. 1 – 10)  Cause  Effects Teenagers’ intellectual laziness and ignorance All people will be seriously affected. A modern industrial state will stop functioning. Text Structure

7  Part Two paragraph 11 to paragraph 24 – a fable The author proposed a remedy – Kevin 1990 comes to realize in his dream how greatly lack of education costs his forebears, himself, his children and the society they live in, and how important it is to study hard Text Structure

8  Part Two (Para. 11 – 24)  Cause  Effects Lack of education Kevin 1990, his forebears (with the exception of his intellectual father), and his children lead a poor, miserable life. America is on the decline. There is no law and order in the country. Business in America are owned by wealthy Europeans and Asians. Text Structure

9 A Brief History of UCLA A Brief History of UCLA UCLA is known especially for its film studies. the largest of the eight branches of the University of California It was established in 1919 and now has about 35,000 students. Background Information  U.C.L.A.: (University of California at Los Angeles)

10 1886 The precursor of UCLA, the Los Angeles State Normal School, was located at 5th and Grand in downtown Los Angeles. It was a two-year teacher's college. The Normal School moved to Vermont Avenue in In 1919, the Normal School was reborn as the University of California, Southern Branch. From 1919 through 1929, the Southern Branch (derisively nicknamed "The Twig"), continued to operate on the Vermont Avenue campus. Millspaugh Hall, shown at right, was the administration building. MORE … MORE … Background Information

11 UCLA Today UCLA Today UCLA Today UCLA in 1955 UCLA in 1940 UCLA in 1930 Background Information

12 UCLA Today By any measure, UCLA ranks among the world's preeminent universities. From its celebrated faculty to its super high-achieving students, from its distinguished alumni to its myriad contributions to the community, UCLA has attained a stature in its short 81 years to which most institutions of higher education can only aspire. UCLA is a large and complex institution devoted to undergraduate and graduate scholarship, research, and public service. Known for academic excellence, many of its programs are rated among the best in the nation, some among the best in the world. Background Information

13  The Wealth of Nations Author: Adam Smith (a Scottish philosopher and economist) An important work of economic and social theory Published in 1776 Full title: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations Background Information

14  The Wealth of Nations Content: The author analyzed the relationship between work and the production of a nation’s wealth. His conclusion was that the best economic situation results from encouraging free enterprise. Website for the full text of the work: View it online: Background Information

15  Fable a short tale not based on facts intended to give moral guidance not state the moral lessons directly let the readers deduce the moral lessons Background Information

16  The Fable that the Author Offers: A dream of Kevin 1990 >> >> Kevin 2020 >>>> >> Kevin 1966 >>>> >> Kevin 1945 >>>> >> Kevin 1928 >>>> >> Kevin 2050 >>>> >> Kevin 1990 >>>> >> Kevin 1835 >>>> Background Information

17 Kevin 1835, a poor peasant in County Kerry, Ireland always hungry and must search for food “ Without education and money, I am powerless!” “My only hope lies in my children. If they are educated, they will have a better life!” Background Information

18 Kevin 1928, a steel-mill worker in Pittsburgh. “ I can read and write.” “My wages are far better off than anything my ancestors had in Ireland!” Background Information

19 Kevin 1945, a soldier fighting on Iwo Jima against the Japanese Army always hot, always hungry, always scared “ I am fighting here so my son and his son can live in peace and security!” “When I get back, I’ll work hard and send my boy to college so he can live by his brains instead of his back!” Background Information

20 Kevin 1966, studying all the time so as to get into college and law school living in a fine house “ When I have a son, I won’t make him study all the time as my father makes me!” Background Information

21 Kevin 1990, a cleaner in a factory owned by the Japanese Background Information

22 Kevin 2020, a porter in a hotel for wealthy Europeans and Asians Public education stops at the sixth grade. Americans have long since stopped demanding good education for their children. living with gunfire around all day and all night Background Information

23 Kevin 2050, living in a slum where there is no heat, no plumbing, no privacy surviving by searching through trash piles “ If I ever have children, I will make sure they work and study and learn and discipline themselves!” “To be able to make a living by one’s mind instead of by stealing, that would be a miracle!” Background Information

24  Foreword Benjamin Stein weaves a tale to bring home to young Americans the need to change the way they think about education. Language Points

25 to invent a complicated tale/story e.g. Jan Roberts weaves a compelling tale which traps a young woman in a world run by the Media. to weave a tale/story

26 to make people understand how important or serious sth. is e.g. Their sobering conversation brought home to everyone the serious and worthwhile work the Red Cross does. bring sth. home to sb.

27  Part One ( Para. 1 – 10) The author’s concern – teenagers’ idleness and ignorance will produce serious effects on all concerned and society as a whole Language Points

28 use up or finish a supply of (sth.) e.g. To our disappointment, our car ran out of gas halfway home. When they ran out of food, the soldiers set about hunting for more. run out of

29 In America, a drugstore is a shop where drugs and medicines are sold or given out, and where you can buy cosmetics, some household goods, and also drinks and snacks. drugstore

30 handful a small number (used as singular noun, followed by of) e.g. You ’ d better hurry up. A handful of people are already waiting in the hall. I have to give up the plan because only a handful of students are willing to spend the New Year ’ s Eve on campus.

31 in amazement with a feeling of great surprise or disbelief e.g. Aunt Sophia gazed at her picture in amazement: she looked like a teenage girl in it. All the people in the lecture hall stared at him in amazement when he talked loudly with his friend.

32 No modestly educated adult can fail to be upset by such an experience. an adult who have received only a little education  Even an adult who have received only a little education will feel worried about such an experience. every … is … Paraphrase (L11)

33 While our children seem better-natured than ever, they are so ignorant – and so ignorant of their ignorance – that they frighten me. during the time that  Do exercise 2 of “Structure” on P241. although, whereas Structure (L12) at the same time as

34 upset make (sb.) worry or feel unhappy (usu. used in the pattern: be upset by/about) e.g. They are terribly upset by the break-up of their parents ’ marriage. He was upset about the argument he had with his wife.

35 ignorant knowing little or nothing (often used in the phrase: be ignorant of/about) e.g. Some people are ignorant of the facts about global warming. She was ignorant of her husband ’ s illegal activities. Otherwise she would have done everything possible to stop him.

36 slice 1) a part of sth. (followed by of) e.g. Fiction takes up a large slice of the publishing market. Here ’ s a car that represents a slice of motoring history.

37 2) a thin flat piece cut from sth. (often used with of) e.g. Try to eat at least four slices of bread a day. Cut the pork into thin slices. slice

38 The ability to perform even the simplest calculations is only a memory among many students I see.  Many students whom I see don’t have the ability to perform even the simplest calculations any long. The ability does not exist any longer. Paraphrase (L16)

39 ability power or skill to do, make, or think; talent (followed by infinitive to) e.g. We elected him monitor because he had the ability to bring out the best in others. He lost the ability to walk after a car accident.

40 sum up give a brief summary (of sth.) e.g. Alice summed up her Christmas holidays in one word: “ Terrible. ” My teacher would sum up the main points of the lesson before he ended the class. We discussed the proposed changes for most of the meeting. The chairman only took a few moments at the end to sum up.

41 compete with/against try to be better than (sb. else) (used in the pattern: compete with/against sb. for sth.) e.g. More than 2,300 candidates from 93 political parties are competing for 486 seats. They found themselves competing with foreign countries for a share of the market. We are having to compete with three other departments for the fund.

42 human capital here human capital refers to people’s knowledge and skills

43 accumulate collect, or gather together, esp. over a period of time e.g. I have accumulated many books over the last few years. While we were away on vacation, a lot of letters accumulated in our mailbox.

44 affect have an influence on e.g. The 20 th century was full of inventions that have affected the way we live. More than seven million people have been affected by the drought. The Asian financial crisis didn ’ t affect our national economy.

45 function operate; act e.g. When the camera is functioning properly the green light comes on. Athens functioned as a center of trade in the thirteenth century.

46 idle lazy; not doing anything e.g. Most of the men were idle during the depression. She is so idle; we can never get her to do anything.

47 jam get stuck e.g. The lock jammed and I couldn ’ t open it. The tape-recorder jammed and the teacher had to read the story to the class by herself.

48 break down stop working; fall, collapse e.g. The elevators in this building are always breaking down. I have accumulated so many dirty clothes since my washing machine broke down last week. Talks between the two countries broke down when the two sides failed to reach an agreement.

49 drive home explain sth. to people as forcefully as possible; make (sth.) clear so that people understand it (used in the pattern: drive sth. home (to sb.); we can also say: press / hammer sth. home (to sb.)) e.g. We must drive home to them where the difficulties lie. Peter was lazy. His parents tried to drive home to him the importance of hard work.

50 humble 1) not proud; modest e.g. He thanked us again with a humble smile. Frank strikes me as a very humble person.

51 humble 2) low in importance, status, or condition e.g. Michael started his career as a humble fisherman. Lacocca rose from humble beginnings to become boss of Ford.

52 suggestion sth. suggested (often followed by of/for/that-clause) e.g. The old man followed the doctor ’ s suggestion of a stroll to the river every day. I have lots of suggestions for the park ’ s future. (note that in the that-clause after “ suggestion ” the subjunctive mood should be used. e.g. They didn ’ t like my suggestion that she share the room with her classmate.)

53  Part Two (Para. 11 – 24) The author’ suggestion – Kevin 1990 comes to realize in his dream how greatly lack of education costs his forebears, himself, his children and the society they live in, and how important it is to study hard Language Points

54 portable light and small enough to be easily carried or moved e.g. Professor Smith always carries a portable computer with him. I still remember that my parents bought me a portable radio at my 20 th birthday.

55 search for look for e.g. Many planes and ships were sent to search the South Sea for the missing Chinese pilot. The police were searching the yard for clues.

56 With steady wages, he would be able to feed himself and help his family. If he has steady wages  Do exercise 1 of “Structure” on P241. Structure (L42, L44) Without education and money, he is powerless. If he has no education and money

57 luxury 1) sth. expensive which is not necessary but which gives you pleasure (used as a countable noun) e.g. A week by the sea is a luxury they can no longer afford. Houses with swimming pools are still a luxury in many parts of the country.

58 luxury 2) very great comfort, esp. among beautiful and expensive surrounding (used as an uncountable noun) e.g. She was brought up in an atmosphere of luxury and wealth. He took over his father ’ s company and led a life of luxury.

59 better off richer than you were before; more comfortable e.g. Today ’ s farmers are better off than they used to be. It is obvious that those who work hard are better off than those who don ’ t.

60 scared frightened (often followed by of/to/that-clause) e.g. When she saw a snake on the floor, the lady was too scared to move. I have always been scared of dogs. Alex was scared that his classmates might tell the teacher he broke the window.

61 wake up stop sleeping e.g. This morning I woke up with a terrible headache. Stewart woke me up with his coughing.

62 … and government offers no services to the working class here “services” refers to the systems of social security such as health care and provision for the unemployed maintained by the government

63 complex not simple e.g. The problem was so complex that there would be no easy solution. When I visited Shanghai for the first time I got lost in the rather complex network of roads.

64 adequate enough (often followed by infinitive to or for) e.g. My parents are prepared to offer me an amount of money adequate to purchase an apartment. Her knowledge of English was adequate for the job.

65 decline a gradual decrease in the quality, or importance of sth. (followed by in) e.g. The first signs of economic decline became visible in that region. Some people are worried that there will be a great decline in the stock market.

66 in decline, on the decline gradually decreasing in importance, quality, or power e.g. The birthrate in China is on the decline. He is still one of the world ’ s most popular soccer players, but his fame is in decline. Class attendance is in decline recently.)

67 acquire get e.g. I ’ ve managed to acquire a copy of the report. J. P. Getty acquired a fortune in business.

68 astonish surprise very much; amaze e.g. Her devotion to students always astonishes me. Diana astonished her family by winning three competitions in a row.

69 swear make a serious promise about (often followed by infinitive to or that-clause) e.g. The witness swore on the Bible to tell the whole truth and nothing but the truth. He swore that he would never lie.

70 make a living by earn money by (doing sth.) e.g. Many farmers in this area make a good living by growing flowers. He makes a living by writing.

71 miracle an amazing or wonderful event, esp. sth. that happens unexpectedly e.g. It is a miracle that no one was killed in the earthquake. It was a miracle that the pilot landed the plane in that snowstorm.

72 faculty mental and physical abilities e.g. He is 90 years old but still has most of his faculties. It is a myth that the faculty of hearing is greatly increased in blind people.

73 Text Analysis Text A Introduction Main part Conclusion Unit 3 This unit does not reveal the main topic until the third paragraph. In the first two paragraphs the author tries to guide readers through reasoning by which he arrives at his main argument. Providing three solutions to the question of how to educate the public so as to form in them a positive attitude towards science. The author presents a conclusion in the last paragraph. Unit 6 Posing a question – Do animals have intelligence? Providing three examples to prove that some animals are intelligent. The author presents a conclusion in the last paragraph. Unit 8 An anecdote Providing a fable, which functions to convey the message that education is vital to both the individual and society. The author does not present a conclusion in the final part. A Brief comparison of expository essays between structures of Text A of Unit 3, 6 and 8

74 Assignments Review this unit. Finish exercises.

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