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Leveraging Openness in a Universe of Free: Lessons from The National Academies Press Michael Jensen ASIDIC 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Leveraging Openness in a Universe of Free: Lessons from The National Academies Press Michael Jensen ASIDIC 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leveraging Openness in a Universe of Free: Lessons from The National Academies Press Michael Jensen ASIDIC 2009

2 Nothing to sell But plenty to tell. Based on 15 years of online presence 25 years of online experience Facts, conclusions, musings, and suppositions Will try to stay jargon-free

3 Books, not journals, not reference Long form material functions differently online than articles and items Strategy drivers: Time-sensitivity, context, competition, audience expectations Perspective vs. fact Immersive vs. just passing through

4 National Academies Press 180 books/year, from National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, National Research Council, National Academy of Engineering: mostly perspective with fact 100,000 sales; we don’t get to choose titles, just what titles to promote NAP’s “Dual mission”: financial sustainability and maximal dissemination

5 Katrina and NOLA This American Life, a month after Katrina First-person stories from NOLA illuminated, informed and amazed At that time, TAL charged for Web audio. I couldn’t promote it for them. They lost the opportunity for broader audiences, new audiences, new supporters Not open enough

6 Science, Evolution, and Creationism Free PDF, on site and sent out to 1000s Free browsable Openbook on site Free, encouraged superdistribution Free print to 1000s Widely linked-to by bloggers worldwide Still selling well, but possibly “too open” to maximize profit – but great dissemination

7 Online habits (2.0) 1 Billion+ Web users Participation, engagement, discussion Giant conversation of passing comments, quoted texts, and links to value Giant systems trying to make sense of this abundance “what’s the best out there/in here?”: Google, Digg,, blogs Twitter, Facebook, MySpace, etc.

8 New competition/discovery models in the world of "free" Google: links-to as votes for significance Digg or Flickr: tags as votes collective bookmarks as votes Blogs (DailyKos, Slashdot, etc.): comments, history, and “recommended” as votes Site contexts (Google Rank) Alexa: traffic as status marker

9 Preconditions for online promotion some degree of openness something for people to respond to something for people to link to, quote from willing participation of readers quid pro quo with readers, bloggers, commenters

10 – our experience 4000+ books online, page by page, free Many free helpful tools – skim, find, related titles Lots of “accrued algorithmic interest” since 1994 ~1.2 million visitors per month, ~ 10pp/visitor 1/3 of our income via online sales of digital and print publications Google rank of 8 or 9 of 10, consistently High page rank for our content in search engines Algorithmic authority that matches our scholarly authority

11 Formats for Open that matter PDFs: composed, or page scans.epub, other ebook formats HTML (chapters, pages) Page images (Google Book Search, archival Openbooks) with OCR behind Scribd and new experiments

12 What are you trying to accomplish? Promotion/Marketing Dissemination Increase sales Increase visibility Increase lifetime in market

13 Promotion: being found and mattering Scarcity vs. abundance Rational response to abundance Word vs. Phrase vs. Multiple search Likely near futures Accumulated interest “Significance" in the engines: votes by links etc.

14 Goal: Increase sales Audience size vs. cannibalization fears NAP: 0.3% of visitors purchase – but we get ~1.2 million visitors/month Provide “best non-optimal version” you can (HTML, not PDF; PDF image, not PDF from composition)

15 Why do people buy a book? To own it To immerse in it To show off their interests to others Because they’re readers Few of above are replaced by Web browsing/reading

16 Reading process online Streaming? Download? Web-centric? Print-centric? NAP: “stream” of single pages for browsing; must pay for download or print: pay for convenience We remain print-centric, but use open Web for what it’s best at.

17 Content type matters Reference (dying in print) Textbooks (in crisis in print) Newspapers (in crisis in print) Long form fiction (Web is a poor competitor to immersive experience; ebooks still tiny) Long form nonfiction (Web may be a competitor, depending on audience; ebooks still tiny) Magazines (Web is poor competitor) Periodicals/articles (Web is good competitor)

18 Long-form Books: what to sell Highest, best forms, to be "owned" (print, PDF, ebook version) Variants (audio book, multimedia-enhanced) Big packages (front/backlist in PDF or Ebook) to libraries and intermediaries (NetLibrary, Ebrary, etc.)

19 Long-form Books: What to give Best non-optimal version Quid pro quo of some kind, for attention and participatory promotion: Free HTML, page images/OCR, first chapters Something to quote from, to link to, to browse

20 Nominal Examples Science of Climate Change – make Ocean Acidification chapter free, in HTML, epub, or even PDF, with promotional envelope Novel series now in #4 – make #1 free in epub Civil War Diaries – make images of handwritten diaries available online, with transcript, embellishment, promotion

21 What to do with open/free Treat every item as an advertisement Presume sharing – include URLs and promo Upsell related titles Acquire emails from site readers Make sales frictionless Treat every minute on your site as a sales opportunity Keep it free

22 NAP’s lessons learned Get free/open early in HTML or even ASCII Have definitive URLs for chaps and pages if possible Skip PDFs, except as a sales form or a dissemination tool – too close to “the thing” Encourage engagement, participation, commentary, and give them something back – free browsing – in return for their attention Actively compete for algorithmic and human attention in the content abundance economy

23 Thank you! Questions?

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