Presentation on theme: "Roman Republic 509 BC to 27 BC. BACKGROUND Founding of Rome The tale of Aeneas (The Aeneid by Vergil) –Fleeing burning Troy with his father Anchises and."— Presentation transcript:
Roman Republic 509 BC to 27 BC
BACKGROUND Founding of Rome The tale of Aeneas (The Aeneid by Vergil) –Fleeing burning Troy with his father Anchises and son Iulus –Dido at Carthage and other travels (like The Odyssey) Historical evidence –Settlements from 11 th Century BC
Kingdom of Rome ( BC) Romulus and Remus –Latin princess was Vestal virgin –Raped by Mars, bore twin boys –Ordered killed by non-Latin king –Suckled by a she wolf –Grew and founded a city (753BC) –Romulus killed Remus for power. Historic Evidence –The Etruscans conquered the Romans (non-Latin king) –Romans eventually overthrew Etruscans –Ruins of home of king (Romulus?) date from 8 th Century BC Regal period –Ruled by 7 kings beginning with Romulus –Mostly a bad time of oppression by tyrants –Revolted in 510, and threw out the last king (Tarquin), and Etruscan influence
Republican Period (509-27BC) Republican rule replaced the monarchy, the Romans determined never again to tolerate a king’s rule –Replaced with a “res publica” = rule of the people –This combined balanced elements of PEOPLE: Democracy - citizens rule (plebians) –Assembly of the plebs SENATE: Aristocracy – nobles rule (patricians) –the senate (elders) MAGISTRATES: Monarchy – rule of one –imperium legal authority (under certain conditions) to impose the law was held by several magistrates – especially the consuls –Veto power to prevent any laws being passed either consul or tribunes of the plebs – but each balanced the power of the other. –Magistrates such as consuls, praetors, tribunes of the plebs, censors etc All this was held together by mainly unwritten codes of precedent or constitution called “the way of the elders” - mos maioram.
Republican Government avoided the greatest fear of the Romans – rule by a king Rome overthrew its last king (Tarquinius Superbus) in 509BC Developed a mostly unwritten constitution called the mos maiorum “the customs of the elders” to regulate rule by a senate (aristocrats) and the people –SPQR= ‘Senatus Populus que Romanus’ = The Senate and the People of Rome
Republican Government Senate (originally Patricians – later also wealthy Plebians) elected 2 consuls (1 year) –Finance, Foreign affairs and the military –Direct access by the people to the consul People (plebs) organized by 35 tribes and they elected 10 tribunes –Governed local affairs –Had veto power (individually) over even the senate & consuls The Mos Maiorum ensured balance of political power. –Veto (I forbid) of the Tribune of the Plebs protected commoners against the senate’s (aristocrats) laws –Veto of one consul against his co-consul ensured no ONE could act alone. –fixed, limited term offices ensured power was spread around. –sacrosanct tribunes, both their person, and their veto meant aristocrats couldn’t bully or persecute him to support them. –Imperium (right to raise war, and capital punishment) limited to 3 offices –No army to be brought into the city walls (pomerium) meant individuals couldn’t use military might against the people and senate –Also involved customs of right regulation of civic and family life
Constitution (the elites) Senate (aristocrats) –Originally 300 later 600 members of elite families. –Dominated by small group patrician (consular) families. –Never made laws but recommended them to the assembly of the plebs (Concilium Plebis) –Had power to appoint a person to solve a specific problem (He was a "speaker" or "dictator” – a 6 months imperium) –Appointed censors (vetted senatorial candidates, moral guardian/rank judge) –Appointed governors to Rome’s Provinces (pro-consuls) –Concerned with finance (so could block laws) & foreign affairs. –Thus they came to dominate the whole government by their wealth and influence – an imbalance that caused the republic’s destruction.
Constitution (the Commons) PLEBIANS Several assemblies of Plebs existed, but with very limited power dominated by wealthy magistrates, without secret ballot, “gate-kept” by the senate consultum. Concilium plebis(Assembly of the plebs) –Made all the laws (called plebiscita) –Lead by 10 Tribunes of the plebs Comitia Tributa –Elected magistrates (administrators) and judges Comitia Curiata – Confirmed emporium (military power) holders. Comitia Centuriata – Wealthy elites – elected consuls and praetors (imperium offices). STATE RELIGION Several state religious offices had influence for example Pontifex Maximus “great bridge builder” –Chief priest of the city - office now held by.. Vestal virgins - sacred female priest who cared for the “household” of Rome, and other treasures - had rights independent of the patriarchy (vote, etc)
The CURSUS HONORUM (Latin: "course of honours") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. It was designed for men of senatorial rank. The cursus honorum comprised a mixture of military and political administration posts. Membership of the senate came after serving as a Quaestor (1 st rung on the cursus). OFFICEMin age Patrician, -2 NumberTermServicePowers Equites (knights) Later teens unlimited10yrs Service in the cavalry/military An elite class in society. Military Tribune 2524 Commander in Legion Quaestor (1 st rung) 3020 Financial admin in Rome or deputy- Governor in province. Organised games. Brought Senatorial membership Aedile (2 nd rung) 36?2 plebs 2 patricians 1yr Supervises of temples, food & water, supervised markets, games & public building (edifices) Praetor (3 rd rung) yr Judge in Roman courts, cover for an absent consul. Followed by Propraetorship (provincial governor) Imperium (6 lictors). Veto in court cases for the chief Praetor
OFFICEMin age Patrcn, -2 NumberTermServicePowers Consul (top rung) 4221 yr ten yr gap. Marius broke this rule. In charge of Political agenda. Commanders in chief & chairmen of senate month about. Followed by Proconsulship (gov’nor of important provinces) Could Veto each other. Imperium (12 Lictors). Could veto all offices except plebian tribunes. Censor 218 monthsSaw to the numbers in tribes, and vetted candidates for senate Tribune of the Plebs 101 yrConvene Plebs assembly, propose laws, protect the interests of plebs. Could exercise capital puishment, call senate together, and had to stay in or near Rome. Full veto. Sacrosanct. Dictator16 monthsTake control in rarest emergencies appointed by consuls or senate. Canceled all other offices except Tribune Imperium. (24 Lictors) Lictors were guards & escorts for magistrates who possessed imperium (Praetors, Consuls, Dictators). They carried Fasces (rods and axe) as symbols of the power to beat, and execute that imperium holders possessed. The modern term Fascist refers to this power.