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Design Patterns. Patterns 1, 2, 3, … is a sequence that exhibits the pattern: The integers in their natural order.

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Presentation on theme: "Design Patterns. Patterns 1, 2, 3, … is a sequence that exhibits the pattern: The integers in their natural order."— Presentation transcript:

1 Design Patterns

2 Patterns 1, 2, 3, … is a sequence that exhibits the pattern: The integers in their natural order

3 Another Sequence 1, 3, 5, … –The pattern: The odd integers, in order

4 What is a Pattern? A template or model for imitation –A dress pattern –A cookie cutter –As we shall see, an OO design diagram A set of rules –For the Fibonacci sequence, the rule is: the i th element (except for f 0 and f 1 ) is equal to the sum of the (i-1) st element and the (i-2) nd element.

5 Why are Patterns Useful? Patterns describing infinite sequences eliminate having to enumerate all values 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, … Don’t have to list all the elements

6 Why are Patterns Useful? A pattern can be a convenient membership test for a set of elements –Regular expressions denote patterns of strings For example [a-zA-Z][a-zA-z0-9]* is a pattern representing identifiers –Compilers use regular expressions to test for identifiers

7 Why are Patterns Useful? Knowledge of a pattern can enable one to easily produce new objects:

8 Why are Patterns Useful? In particular, patterns discerned from existing situations may be applied to new situations a, b, c, … Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, …

9 But Sometimes the Similarities are not Obvious “Beat your plowshares into swords …”

10 Which Bring Us To… Do 1, 2, 3, … and Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, … exhibit the same pattern? Patterns and Abstraction

11 1, 2, 3, … the integers in their natural order Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, … the days of the week in their natural order Are these the same pattern?

12 Patterns and Abstraction The pattern we really mean is The elements of some sequence taken in their natural order What about the fact that the integers are infinite and the days of the week are finite?

13 Some Patterns are Simple… ABC Jackson 5 Michael: you went to school to learn, girl Things you never, never knew before... … … Jermaine: sit yourself down, take a seat All you gotta do is repeat after me. J5: a b c Michael: easy as... J5: Michael: or simple as... J5: do re mi Michael: abc, 123, baby, you and me girl!

14 Others are Less Obvious… 2, 3, 5, 7, … –primes March, April, June, … –Months without a ‘Y’ in their names in natural order Mensa likes to use patterns like these as part of their qualification test

15 Some are Quite Difficult… 6, 28, 496, … –perfect numbers e, t, a, … – most frequent letters in the English language in descending order

16 … And Some are Just Downright Ornery 214, 232, 234, … –Classrooms on 2 nd floor of New Ingersoll from east to west 1.5, 4.1, 11, … – For cryin’ out loud– you’re CIS majors! Especially if they’re not mathematical and you don’t know the context

17 Patterns Within Patterns… A BC

18 … and Patterns of Patterns 1, 2, 3, … 1, 3, 5, … 1, 4, 7, … ??, ?? ??, …

19 And Now For Something Completely Different… Summing Integers Read from a File (C++) cin >> i; while (i >= 0) { total += i; cin >> i; }

20 Finding the Questions in a File (Java) line = br.readLine(); while (line != null) { if (line.indexOf("?") >= 0) questions.add(line); line = br.readLine(); }

21 Building a String from a Line of Characters (C) i = 0; C = getchar(); while (c != ‘\n’ && c != EOF) s[i++] = c; C = getchar(); } S[i] = ‘\0’;

22 Three Individual Pieces of Code… Different datum types –int, String, char Different end-of-input conditions –negative datum, end-of-file, end-of-line/end-of- file Different tasks: –summing, maximum, string construction Different languages!!

23 … and Yet A Pattern Emerges In all three cases: –Values are read from a file –A condition is used to test for end-of-input –The values are processed in some fashion –A ‘priming-the-pump’ technique is used Probably the first pattern you learn in CS 1

24 An Input Loop Pattern read first item while (not end-of-input) { process item read next item }

25 Why Are Such Patterns Useful? Avoids ‘reinventing the wheel’ Avoids making the same mistakes over and over again Speeds up the development process ‘Reusability’ of sorts

26 Design Patterns Pattern concept applied to software design Not a finished product –Reuseability of design ‘ideas’ Many patterns crop up over and over again

27 A Non-Software Example- Flywheel A flywheel is a massive rotating disk The basic idea is to accelerate the flywheel to a very high speed and thus maintain the energy as rotational energy using the disk.

28 Flywheel - Samples

29 Why a Flywheel? In the 70’s engineers were looking for a low- emissions, non-internal-combustion vehicle. Wanted to be able to ‘charge’ the vehicle and have it store that charge –Charging involved bringing the flywheel up to a high speed Batteries were too bulky, heavy –Would need tens of batteries for a small vehicle

30 Flywheel – Useful For Storing kinetic energy – often in a fairly small space Maintaining a uniform force. Production of high power pulses Can also be used to create a form of gyroscopic effect

31 Flywheel – Advantages Not affected by temperature changes No limit to energy stored Simple to measure stored force (measure rotation speed)

32 Flywheel – Disadvantages Danger of explosive shattering of wheel

33 Flywheel – Parts Massive wheel Axle Bearings

34 Flywheel - Applications Low-cost toys (the kind you wind up by running the wheels along the floor) Energy-efficient cars (during braking, surplus energy is used to accelerate the flywheel which can subsequently power the driveshaft) Potters wheel Used on satellites to point the instruments in correct direction

35 Flywheel - Summary Note the variety of applications Yet all use the same basic design pattern

36 Flywheel - Summary Notice what we did here –Provided a motivational situation (low-emission vehicle) –Presented the purpose of the flywheel –Described when to use one –Presented the parts of the flywheel –Discussed advantages and disadvantages –Gave known applications –Presented some samples

37 A Simple Software Example You’ve got a program from CIS 22 –Written in C++ –Uses a stack class template Which you wrote (whole point of assignment) Massive application –Hundreds of modules –Thousands of lines of code –Ok, Ok, two hundred lines of code in one file –But still, stack usage is scattered throughout system

38 But First- A Word From Our Sponsors For those of you who may not know: a class, is essentially a structure that contain contain functions as well as fields. a template is a parameterized piece of code whose arguments are supplied by the application programmer Thus, a stack class template is a definition of a stack class in which the element type of the stack is supplied when a particular stack is declared: stack si; // stack of ints stack sa; // stack of ActivationRecords

39 Back To Our Simple Software Example After CIS 22, you learn about the STL (Standard Template Library) –Library of useful data structures, including those you learned in 22 You decide you want to play with it –Good to know for a tech interview So you toss out your stack and begin using the one from the STL

40 The Problem Your stack’s operations: –push – places argument on top of stack –pop – pops stack returning value –isEmpty – true if empty STL’s stack’s operations: –push – same –top – returns top of stack –pop – pops stack, no value returned –empty – same semantics E pop() { E elem = arr[top]; top--; return e; } void pop() {top--;} E top() {return arr[top];}

41 Solution #1 Change the application code to conform to the new operations –Change all occurrences of isEmpty to empty –Replace pop (which used to return the element) with a top followed by a pop:; s.pop();

42 ??? !!! #^%$!!! Scratch that solution!! void clear() { while(!s.isEmpty()) s.pop(); } void clear() { while(!s.empty()); s.pop(); }

43 So?? What’s Plan B?

44 Plan B Add a new class, StackAdapter –StackAdapter declares a member variable of type stack (from the STL). –StackAdapter defines functions corresponding to the ones in your original stack class –Some of the functions do nothing more than call corresponding functions of the STL stack type –Other functions act as adapters between the old and new semantics In particular, StackAdapter ’s pop function will carry out the necessary (STL) top and pop operations on the STL stack

45 The StackAdapter Class template class StackAdapter { public: push(E val) {s.push(val);} E pop() { E x =; s.pop(); return x; } bool isEmpty() {return s.empty();} private: stack s;// STL stack }

46 The Adapter Pattern Plan B employs a design pattern known as Adapter The Adapter pattern: Converts the interface of a class into another interface clients expect. Adapter lets classes work together that otherwise couldn’t because of incompatible interfaces

47 The Adapter Pattern Visually StackAdapter push() pop() isEmpty() Stack push() pop() empty() s.isEmpty() x = s. peek() s.pop(); return x; s

48 You May Have Seen Something Similar For example, when coding binary search… –The recursive call for binary search is … bool binsrch(int a[], int lo, int hi, int val) i.e, upper and lower bound parameters are required … … but the user of the search wants to make the call bool binsearch(int a[], int n, int val) that is, simply the number of elements (that’s the standard signature for an array search in C/C++)

49 Using A Wrapper Function The classical resolution to this problem is to add an intermediary function: bool binsearch(int a[], int n) { return binsrch(a, 0, n-1); } This is the the procedural analogy of the Adapter pattern; binsearch is usually called a wrapper function. This pattern is often taught in 15 or 22.

50 Design Patterns Introduced by architect Christopher Alexander ( A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction) in the context of buildings and towns: “Each pattern describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, the describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use the solution a million times over, without ever doing it the same way twice.”

51 Architectural Design Patterns A PLACE TO WAIT –Bus stop –Waiting room adresses the common aspects of their design ARCADES- “covered walkways at edges of buildings, partly inside, partly outside”

52 ‘The Gang of Four’ Book Introduced design patterns to software design Much of this talk based upon this text In fact, it’s fair to say that one purpose of this talk is to provide a guide to how to read this text Bulk of text is a catalog of patterns

53 Why Only ‘Object-Oriented’? Wouldn’t this have been useful before as well? – ‘ Designing object-oriented software is hard, and designing reusable objected-oriented software is even harder’ (Opening sentence of ‘Design Patterns’, Gamma, et al) The number and complexity of classes, objects and their interactions makes proper design a formidable task –Also, might have been applicable before, but OOP (compared to say, procedural) ‘maxes’ out on reusability More opportunities for reuseable design Everybody says that, but let’s see why

54 OOP and Reusability So WHAT makes objected-oriented software more reusable than say applications designed and coded in a procedural style? –Classes? –Inheritance –Overloaded operators? –Access control? –Polymorphism

55 Allows one class to reuse another class’s implementation (code) as its own All state (variables) and behavior (functions) of the existing (super/base/parent)class become part of the new (sub/child)class. The new subclass can then add its own state/behavior The subclass is said to be a subtype of the superclass’ type Not available in traditional procedural languages Reusability Mechanisms – Inheritance

56 class Counter { Counter() {val = 0;} void up(val++;} void down() {val--;} int get() {return val;} int val; } Reusability Mechanisms - Inheritance class BoundedCounter extends Counter { BoundedCounter(int m) { max = m; } void up() { if (val < max) val++; } int max; }

57 Assembling or composing objects to get new functionality Basically one class contained as a variable of another Reusability comes from –The containing object (re)using the functionality of the contained object(s) … and thus avoiding implementing that behavior on its own –Somewhat available in traditional procedural languages Reusability Mechanisms - Composition

58 class SSNum { boolean equals(SSNum other) { … } … } Reusability Mechanisms - Composition class Employee { boolean equals(Employee other) { return id.equals(; } … SSNum id; }

59 One object carries out a request by delegating it to a second object (typically an instance variable of the first) Used widely in the context of composition, especially as a way of obtaining some of the flavor of inheritance In the previous example, the Employee object delegated the equality test to the (composed) SSNum object’s equals function. Somewhat available in traditional procedural languages Reusability Mechanisms - Delegation

60 A set of function signatures (no bodies) –No implementation– the function signatures represent an abstraction of functionality Can be thought of as representing a type Can be specified in C++ via abstract classes and in Java via interfaces. A class (i.e., with function bodies) is said to implement the interface if the class defines (i.e., supplies bodies for) all the interface’s functions –As with inheritance, the implementing class is also said to be a subtype of the interface’s type Not available in traditional procedural languages Reusability Mechanisms - Interfaces

61 interface Collection { boolean add(Object obj); boolean remove(Object obj); int size(); boolean isEmpty(); } Reusability Mechanisms - Interfaces

62 The “Is-a” Relationship An object of a subtype is compatible with the corresponding (parent) type. –As we’ll see, an object of the subtype can be assigned to a variable of the parent type The object of the subtype is considered an object of the type as well –And can appear and be used anywhere the parent type’s objects can This is known as the ‘is-a’ relationship… –An object of a subtype ‘is-a’ object of the parent type as well … and is the basis for much of the reusability of OOP

63 ‘Is-a’ in the Context of Inheritance An object of a subclass is compatible with the parent class’ type –Thus given a Counter variable, a BoundedCounter object can be assigned to that variable: BoundedCounter bctr; Counter ctr = bctr; The parent type (a superclass) is a concrete type with its own implemented behavior.

64 ‘Is-a’ in the Context of Interface An object of a class implementing an interface is compatible with the interface’s type –E.g., assume class HashSet implements the Collection interface. Then, given a Collection variable, a HashSet object can be assigned to that variable: HashSet set; Collection coll = set; The parent type in this situation is an abstraction. The only implemented behavior belongs to the subtype.

65 The Dynamic Nature of Type/Subtype Compatibility Given a variable of a parent type containing an object of the subtype –Calling a function calls the subtype object’s function! Set set; collection coll = set; coll.add(“Hello”);// set insertion! –This is known as … Polymorphism

66 So What??? Given an interface, Collection, write a method, intersection that returns a set corresponding intersection of two specified collections. Set intersection(Collection coll1, Collection coll2) { Set result = new Set(); for (Object element : coll1) if (coll2.contains(element)) result.add(element); return result; } intersection can accept as parameters) Set s, Vector s, in fact any combination of class that implement the Collection interface. Only one intersection function need be written for a whole family of different aggregate classes – all due to the polymorphism of the contains and add functions. This is reusability of a sort impossible to achieve with a procedural language

67 Describing Design Patterns Recall our Flywheel In addition to presenting the flywheel we also presented –Motivation –Purpose –Application –Advantages/disadvantages

68 Describing Design Patterns Design Patterns are presented in a similar (fairly standardized) fashion

69 Pattern Description - Name Name should be a good reflection of the pattern’s purpose Adapter

70 Pattern Description - Intent A statement answering: –What does the pattern do? –What is its rationale? –What problem does it address? Adapter converts the interface of a class into another interface clients expect. Adapter lets classes work together that otherwise couldn’t because of incompatible interfaces

71 Pattern Description – Also Known As Other names by which the pattern is known Wrapper

72 Pattern Description – Motivation A scenario that illustrates the problem and its solution via the classes and structures of the pattern Our CIS 22/STL Stack problem and solution

73 Pattern Description – Applicability Under what circumstances can the pattern be applied? What are examples of poor designs that the pattern can address? How can such situations be recognized? Use Adapter when: –You want to use an existing class and its interface does not match the one you need

74 A graphical representation of the relationships among the classes/objects in the pattern Pattern Description – Structure Client Target Request() Adapter Request() adaptee.specificRequest() Adaptee SpecificRequest() adaptee Class Interface Implemented method() Abstract method() method pseudo-code Instance variable subtype

75 Pattern Description – Participants The classes and objects participating in the pattern –Target (the interface consisting of push, pop, isEmpty ) Defines the specific interface that Client uses –Client (Your 22 program) Interacts with objects conforming to the Target interface –Adaptee (STL stack type) Defines an existing interface that needs adapting –Adapter (StackAdapter) Adapts the interface of Adaptee to the Target interface

76 Pattern Description – Collaborations How the participants interact to realize the pattern –Clients call operations on an Adapter object In turn the adapter calls Adaptee operations

77 Pattern Description – Consequences What are the trade-offs and results of using the pattern? –How much adapting does Adapter do? Simple name changes all the way to supporting completely different set of operations There are several other consequences we can’t address here

78 Pattern Description – Implementation Pitfalls, hints, techniques? Language-dependent issues? Fairly straightforward There are some language issues, but again, not for now

79 Pattern Description – Sample code We’ll just let our example be the sample code

80 Pattern Description – Known uses Examples from real systems Take a look at Gamma

81 Pattern Description – Related Patterns What other patterns are closely related to this one? What are the similarities? Differences? Which patterns use this pattern? Which patterns does this pattern use? This was our first one! Too early to supply answers for this

82 Why are Design Patterns Useful? Avoids ‘reinventing the wheel’ Avoids making the same mistakes over and over again Knowledge of a particular design pattern (like Adapter) is valuable… … but so is simply knowing about the concept of a design pattern Knowing there are catalogs of patterns addressing design issues Gets you thinking about design problems differently

83 Another Example Adapter was an example of a Structural design pattern –Structural patterns are concerned with how classes and objects are composed to form larger structures. Our next example will present a Creational design pattern –Creational patterns help make a system independent of how its objects are created and represented.

84 Another Example Us folks at –Provide interactive programming exercises –Students submit solution code to our server which Does operational and textual checks Provides feedback –In addition, there is a context-sensitive glossary/help system Generates hypertext links into the glossary, ‘on-the-fly’, for instructions and feedback

85 Creating a Glossary Object Glossary glossary = new Glossary(); Issues –Glossary is quite large – one is OK, but what if there are tens (or hundreds) of concurrent users? –No need for more than one glossary It’s a query-only object

86 Creating a Glossary Object Is there a way to prevent more than one Glossary object from being created? –The expression glossary = new Glossary() creates a new instance each time And if we can restrict to one instnacnce, how does the rest of the application access that single instance? –C++ could use a global variable. –What about Java?

87 Singleton Design Pattern - Intent Ensure a class has only one instance and provide a global point of access to it

88 Singleton - Motivation Just gave it to you, but since you asked –Ensuring single print spooler in a system –Ensuring a single buffer/node pool

89 Singleton - Applicability Applicability: –Used when There must be exactly one instance, which must be accessible from a well-known point

90 Singleton static instance() singletonOperation() getSingletonData() static uniqueInstance singletonData Singleton - Structure return uniqueInstance

91 Singleton - Participants Participants –Singleton Defines an instance operation that allows clients to access its unique instance –instance is a class function/method May be responsible for creating its own unique instance

92 Singleton - Collaborations Collaborations –Clients access a Singleton instance solely through the instance operation

93 Singleton - Consequences Controlled access to single instance Reduced name space –No global variables Permits variable number of instances –I lied– it’s actually one glossary per language glossary = new Glossary(“Java”)

94 Singleton - Implementation class Glossary { public static Glossary getGlossary() { if (glossary == null) glossary = new Glossary(); return glossary; } private Glossary(); private Glossary glossary; } Note the private Glossary constructor

95 Behavioral Patterns Structural and creational patterns are two of the three pattern purposes, the third being behavioral patterns Behavioral patterns are concerned with –algorithms –the assignment of responsibilities between objects –the patterns of communication between objects/classes –characterize complex control flow We’ll now present Observer, a baehavioral pattern and in IMHO, one of the most beautiful patterns of all

96 This is not Your Father’s Oldsmobile On a typical mid-to-high-end car these days –rain sensors turn on the wipers –wipers turn on the lights –shifting out of park turns on day running lights –turning on radio raises antenna –pressing brake disengages cruise control –and a host of other interactions between sometimes seemingly unrelated components

97 One Particular Set of Interacting Components Let’s focus on just three components –The interior light –The interior light switch Turning to ‘on’ turns on the interior light –The car door Opening turns on the interior light

98 Let’s Code a Car Class class Car { … Door door = new Door();; InteriorLightSwitch interiorLightSwitch = new InteriorLightSwitch(); InteriorLight interiorLight = new InteriorLight(); }

99 The InteriorLight Class class InteriorLight { public boolean isOn() {return amOn;} void setOn(boolean b) { if (amOn != b) { amOn = b; System.err.println("interior light turned “ + (amOn ? "on" : "off")); } boolean amOn = false; }

100 The InteriorLightSwitch Class class InteriorLightSwitch { public boolean isOn() {return amOn;} void setOn(boolean b) { if (amOn != b) { amOn = b; System.err.println("interior light switch “ + “ “moved to " + (amOn ? "on" : off")); interiorLight.setOn(amOn); } boolean amOn = false; }

101 The Door Class class Door { public boolean isOpen() {return amOpen;} void setOpen(boolean b) { if (amOpen != b) { amOpen = b; System.err.println("door " + (amOpen ? "opened" : "closed")); interiorLight.setOn(amOpen); } boolean amOpen = false; }

102 Mind Your Own Business Door knows it should turn on light Interior switch knows it should turn on light An alarm module (keyless entry) would also have to turn on light Who should know when to turn on the interior light?

103 More Issues In ‘luxury’ model opening door causes seat to slide back –Now door must know to turn on light and slide seat back But what about non-’luxury’ cars? –Separate door mechanism for luxury/non-luxury? –Luxury/non-luxury models ‘wired’ differently?

104 ‘Spaghetti’ Responsibility Logic Turning on wiper switch –Must know to turn on wipers –Wipers in turn must know to turn on headlights and activate 4WD sensor –Headlights must know to dim radio display

105 ‘Spaghetti’ Responsibility Logic Pressing brake –Turns on ‘upper rear brake light’ –Turns on brake lights –Disengages cruise control, but only if that option is present –Initiates ALB sensor

106 ‘Spaghetti’ Responsibility Logic Every component must know about all components dependent upon it –Furthermore, every component becomes responsible for those components

107 Still Not Convinced?? Well how about if I tell you that our implementation is wrong?

108 A Sample Car interaction public static void main(String [] args) { Car car = new Car(); car.door.setOpen(true); System.err.println(car); car.door.setOpen(false); System.err.println(car); car.interiorLightSwitch.setOn(true); System.err.println(car); car.door.setOpen(true); System.err.println(car); car.door.setOpen(false); System.err.println(car); }

109 The Output door opened interior light turned on door: opened / interior light: on / interior light switch: off door closed interior light turned off door: closed / interior light: off / interior light switch: off interior light switch moved to on interior light turned on door: closed / interior light: on / interior light switch: on door opened door: opened / interior light: on / interior light switch: on door closed interior light turned off door: closed / interior light: off / interior light switch: on

110 OOP = Responsibility-Driven Programming Goal is for objects (components) to be responsible for themselves ‘Decoupling’ objects simplifies the design The simpler, more self-responsible objects are easier to reuse

111 The Observer Design Pattern - Intent Define a (many to one) dependency between objects so that when one object changes state, all its dependents are notified and updated automatically

112 Observer - Applicability Use Observer when either –A change to one object requires changing others, and you don’t know how many others need to be changed –An object should be able to notify other objects without making assumptions about who those objects are (minimize coupling between the objects)

113 Observer - Structure Subject attach(Observer) detach(Observer) notify() return subjectState Observer update() ConcreteObserver update() observerState() observerState = subject.getState() ConcreteSubject getState() subjectState subject observers for (o in observers) o.update()

114 Applied to the Car Application Subject attach(Observer) detach(Observer) notify() return amOpen Observer update() InteriorLight update() setOn(door.isOpen() || ilswitch.isOn()) Door isOpen() amOpen observers for (o in observers) o.update() InteriorLightSwitch isOn() amOn return amOpen

115 Observer - Participants Subject –Knows its observers. Any number of Observers may observe a Subject –Provides an interface for attaching (registering) / detaching (unregistering) Observers Observer –Defines an updating interface for objects that should be notified of changes in a Subject ConcreteSubject –Stores state of interest to ConcreteObservers ConcreteObserver –Implements Observer’s updating interface to be notified of changes to ConcreteSubject object

116 Observer - Collaboration ConcreteSubject notifies its observers when a change occurs After being notified, a ConcreteObserver may query the subject for more information

117 The Observer Interface interface Observer { void update(Observable observable, Object arg); } An Observer ’s update method is called (by the observable object) when the observable object has changed. arg is an optional argument containing any additional useful information about the change.

118 The Observable Superclass class Observable { void addObserver(Observer observer) { observers.add(observer); } void notifyObservers(Object arg) { for (observer : observers) observer.update(this, arg); } void notifyObservers() {notifyObservers(null);} Set observers = new HashSet (); }

119 The InteriorLight Class class InteriorLight implements Observer{ InteriorLight() { interiorLightSwitch.addObserver(this); door.addObserver(this); } public boolean isOn() {…} private void setOn(boolean b) {…} public void update(Observable observable, Object arg) { setOn(interiorLightSwitch.isOn() || door.isOpen()); } boolean amOn = false; }

120 The InteriorLight Class class InteriorLight implements Observer{ InteriorLight() {…} public boolean isOn() {return amOn;} private void setOn(boolean b) { if (amOn != b) { amOn = b; System.err.println("interior light turned " + (amOn ? "on" : "off")); } public void update(Observable observable, Object arg) {…} boolean amOn = false; }

121 The InteriorLightSwitch Class class InteriorLightSwitch extends Observable { public boolean isOn() {return amOn;} void setOn(boolean b) { if (amOn != b) { amOn = b; System.err.println("interior light switch “ + moved to " + (amOn ? "on" : "off")); notifyObservers(); } boolean amOn = false; }

122 The Door Class class Door extends Observable{ public boolean isOpen() {return amOpen;} void setOpen(boolean b) { if (amOpen != b) { amOpen = b; System.err.println("door " + (amOpen ? "opened" : "closed")); notifyObservers(); } boolean amOpen = false; }

123 The Output This Time door opened interior light turned on door: opened / interior light: on / interior light switch: off door closed interior light turned off door: closed / interior light: off / interior light switch: off interior light switch moved to on interior light turned on door: closed / interior light: on / interior light switch: on door opened door: opened / interior light: on / interior light switch: on door closed door: closed / interior light: on / interior light switch: on interior light switch moved to off interior light turned off door: closed / interior light: off / interior light switch: off

124 Music Crescendo’ing to Climax Design patterns are pervasive –Sometimes consciously employed –Sometimes recognized only after the fact Some real manifestations…

125 Minimizing Hard-coding The CodeLab engine can check exercises for any language that has a compiler An appropriate set of tools and entities– compilers, linkers, compiler message analyzers, glossaries – must be created specific to the language We want this done without hard-coding any knowledge of particular languages into the engine This is accomplished using the Factory Method pattern

126 Maintaining Consistency Furthermore, the language-specific tools used in an exercise must be consistent with each other (i.e., be restricted to tools of that specific language). This is addressed using the Abstract Factory pattern This design was introduced into the engine by Josh Goldsmith as part of his 88.1 project.

127 Invoking the Tools Many of the tools used to build and test exercises form tree-like hierarchies of sorts Java Tool Java Compiler Tool Java Interpreter Tool C++ Tool C++ Compiler Tool C++ Linker Tool Executable Tool A Java Tool is executed by executing a Java Compiler Tool followed by executing a Java Interpreter Tool Similarly for the C++ Tool

128 Treating Individual Objects and Compositions Identically Sometimes a full Java Tool is launched Other times simply the Java Compiler Tool We want to launch and subsequently process both tools (the composite Java Tool and the atomic Java Compiler Tool) identically This is achieved using the Composite pattern

129 Filtering Streams When processing submissions and exercise output, we often want to –Remove whitespace completely –Remove a final trailing linefeed –Compress multiple whitespace to a single whitespace –Remove comments –Ignore case This is done using the Strategy pattern

130 Iteration Any class implementing the Collection interface must supply a uniform means of iterating over its elements. This is done via the Iterator pattern

131 Whew! In summary –Design patterns provide highly flexible, reusable solutions to commonly arising design situations –Patterns are recognized as valuable repositories of information based upon analysis and experience –Catalogs exist enumerating collections of patterns –Conscious use of patterns is widespread

132 Further Reading Design Patterns, Gamma, Helm, Johnson, Vlissides, Addison-Wesley, 1995 Object-Oriented Design and Patterns, Horstman, Wiley, 2006 Design Patterns Java Workbook, Metsker, Addison- Wesley, 2002 The Design Patterns Java Companion, Cooper,

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