2Nosy Neighbors 1Well, she might have inherited some money from her family.Honey, how can Mrs. Carson afford a Ferrari? Isn’t she a teacher?Who knows? She may have gotten a big raise at work.I suppose. Or she could have won the lottery.I doubt it. She had to have robbed a bank!You could be right.
3Nosy Neighbors 2Well, they couldn’t have gone on vacation. The dog is still there.I haven’t seen the Chins for a month.Or they might be staying with their son for a while.They may have been abducted by aliens.Hmmm. They must have moved to an exotic island.Then they should be very happy.
4Speculating about the Present Modals speculating about the present are followed by a base form verb.You could be right.base form verbThen they should be very happy.
5Speculating about the Past Modals speculating about the past are followed by the past participle.She could have won the lottery.pastparticipleShe may have gotten a big raise.
6Review Degree of Certainty Modals and modal-like expressions express degrees of certainty.Degree of Certaintycertainnear certaintynear impossibilityless certainno modalmusthave tohave got tocan’tcouldn’tmaymightcould
7Certainty The Chins went on vacation. Mrs. Carson got a raise. Modals and modal-like expressions express degrees of certainty. Don’t use a modal for 100% certainty.The Chins went on vacation.Mrs. Carson got a raise.
8Near Certainty They must have moved to an exotic island. There are several modals that express near certainty, including must have and had to have.They must have moved to an exotic island.He had to have robbed a bank.
9Near Impossibility They couldn’t have moved away. There are several modals that express near certainty that something is impossible, including couldn’t have and can’t.They couldn’t have moved away.They just moved here.They can’t be out of town.They left all the lights on!
10Less Certainty They may have been abducted by aliens. There are several modals that express less certainty, including may, and might.They may have been abducted by aliens.They might be staying with their son.
11Practice 1 Example: One of your classmates is late. Use modals to suggest reasons for these classroom situations. Speculate on what might have happened.Example: One of your classmates is late.She must have gotten stuck in traffic. There was a big accident.1. You smell smoke.2. The teacher is angry.3. The desks are shaking.4. You can’t find your textbook.5. The lights go out.
12Speculating about the Future 1 Modals speculating about the future are also followed by a base form verb. The modals should and ought to express near certainty.That Ferrari should last a lifetime.She ought to take us for a drive soon.
13Speculating about the Future 2 Use may, might, and could when you are less certain.The Chins may not return.The house might get sold.They could move next month.
14Use modals to express future possibilities about these present situations. Practice 2Example: We shop for food at grocery stores.‘Smart’ kitchens might calculate what we need and order it electronically. In the future, household computers may do all our shopping.1. Ordinary people don’t travel in space.2. Houses are made of wood.3. People pay for products with cash or credit cards.4. Our fingerprints provide identification.