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I. Costs of victory Empire and war cost money; 140 million pound debt Proclamation of 1763 – colonists couldn’t move west of Appalachians – solve Indian.

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Presentation on theme: "I. Costs of victory Empire and war cost money; 140 million pound debt Proclamation of 1763 – colonists couldn’t move west of Appalachians – solve Indian."— Presentation transcript:

1 I. Costs of victory Empire and war cost money; 140 million pound debt Proclamation of 1763 – colonists couldn’t move west of Appalachians – solve Indian problem/1000 wagons west in 1765; Quartering Act pays for soldiers

2 Political ideas thriving in colonies republicanism – government depends on involved, virtuous citizens (town meeting) Radical Whigs – resist the threat to liberty posed by corrupt authority (king and his ministers)

3 Mercantilism – money is power Favorable balance of trade More exports than imports==colonies (unplanned in Britain) Colonies Produce Raw materials (gold, timber, tobacco, sugar); markets for manufactured goods (boats, snuff, rum)

4 review Why was Britain hurtin’? What did the Proclamation of 1763 say? How did colonists react? What is republicanism? What were Whigs worried about? What’s the theory of mercantilism? What’s the role of colonies in mercantilism?

5 II. Mercantilism issues Navigation Acts – commerce to and from colonies had to be in British ships Or they had to stop in Britain and pay tariff duties.

6 Salutary neglect Britain tolerated smuggling (John Hancock) and bribes to get around Navigation Acts. Colonial economy boomed, had British military protection, but resented the laws Boston Gazette: “A colonist cannot make a button, a horseshoe, nor a hobnail, but some snooty ironmonger or respectable buttonmaker of Britain shall bawl and squall that his honor’s worship is most eggregiously maltreated, injured, cheated, and robbed by the rascally American republicans.”

7 beginning of tension Prime Minister Grenville enforced Navigation Acts, 1763 Sugar Act 1764 – increased tariff on sugar, 1 st law to raise revenue; protested and lowered

8 review What did the Navigation Acts say? Name two problems created? What was salutary neglect? Why did colonists resent the Navigation laws?

9 III. Stamp Act Stamp Act 1765 – to pay debt/for soldiers, tax/stamp on paper goods like bills of sale, playing cards, marriage and death certificates - everything “taxation without representation” - James Otis

10 controversy Grenville – virtual v. direct representation – both a stretch Admiralty courts with no jury tried offenders, guilty unless proven innocent

11 Taking action Stamp Act Congress -9 colonies met in NY City; list of rights and grievances Intimidation and Nonimportation/ – Sons and Daughters of Liberty; no tax agents

12 review What slogan? Two theories of representation Stamp Act Congress – what and where? What two revolutionary groups? Who in England was hurt by the law? After repeal, what law did Parliament pass?

13 IV. Action reaction British merchants, manufacturers, shippers, laborers hurt – pushed repeal 1766 – repeal/statue/Declaratory Act – British sovereignty over colonies

14 Action reaction New Prime Minister Townsend Acts – indirect tax on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea Boston Massacre – Crispus Attucks and 10 others killed protesting; news spread by Committees of Correspondence

15 Tea Act Tax on tea kept, then tea act – monopoly for British E. India Company Boston Tea Party – 100 colonists threw tea overboard when Hutchinson wouldn’t back down

16 review Who pushed for repeal of the Stamp Act What did Parliament pass immediately after repeal? What was taxed by the Townsend Acts? What was an indirect tax? What resulted from the protests against the Townsend Acts? What did the Intolerable Acts do? What did the Quebec Act do and why was it misinterpreted?

17 v. Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts Closed ports (Boston) and legislatures (town meetings), new Quartering Act Quebec Act – respect French Catholicism and culture in Quebec, including no rep. assembly or jury trial in civil cases

18 First Continental Congress All but Georgia sent delegates, including Washington, both Adams (John the star), and Patrick Henry. Association boycott until grievances addressed; tar and feathers for violators

19 Lexington and Concord April 1775 British sent to capture gunpowder stores, John Hancock, and Sam Adams; Paul Revere warned 8 minutemen killed at Lexington; 70 British killed at Concord

20 review What did the Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts do? What did the Quebec Act do? Who came to the First Continental Congress? What was its message to Britain? How did the fighting at Lexington start? How was fighting at Concord different?

21 I. Advantages/Battles BritishAmerican Numbers Money Navy Hessians, Indians, slaves Disorganized colonists Weak Continental Congress Colonial inflation (not worth a continental) France Whigs in Britain Washington, Franklin, Marquis de Lafayette, Baron Von Steuben Defensive war, supply lines for British Belief in cause

22 I. Battles/events Bunker Hill/Breed’s Hill – British took hill because colonists ran out of ammo Trenton/Princeton – Washington crosses Delaware Christmas

23 More battles Saratoga – Arnold beats Burgoyne, French help South – bloody guerilla warfare; hero “fighting Quaker Nathanael Greene” Yorktown – Cornwallis trapped by Washington, French navy, surrenders

24 Match ‘em Better army, navy, training, discipline, Hessians, Indians, slaves Washington, home field, belief in cause Bunker Hill Trenton/Princeton Saratoga South Yorktown Turning point/French help British pyric victory Cornwallis surrenders Guerilla warfare, Greene Washington crosses Delaware British advantages American advantages

25 II. People and ideas Thomas Paine – Common Sense – Britain too small/far away/unrepublican Jefferson Dec. Ind. – 1. Intro 2. Political ideas – universal equality, social contract, popular sovereignty, right/duty to revolt 3. Grievances 4. Declaring independence

26 strategies British – isolate NE/ruined by Howe, control South/stopped by Greene and France Americans – hold on/keep fighting (Washington), get French help (Franklin)

27 III. Taking sides Patriots/rebels/whigs – NE centered – Sam Adams, Patrick Henry (Va) – “give me liberty or give me death!” Loyalists/tories – well off – NYC and Charleston, Quaker Penn and NJ, also Anglican Church, more slaves

28 Treaty of Paris, 1783 Franklin, Adams, John Jay made separate peace with Britain w/o French permission. U.S. independent, stretched to Mississippi R., Great Lakes, and Florida. Britain was promised good treatment of Loyalists and debts paid

29 Match ‘em Thomas Paine Thomas Jefferson Patriots Loyalists Capture NE/South Hold on/get help Britain too big, far away, monarchical Social contract British Paris benefits American Paris benefits British side American side Declaration of Independence Independence, NW Territory Debts paid, lenience for loyalists Common Sense American strategy British strategy

30 III. Governing the New Nation 10 state constitutions, 2 nd Continental Congress, but no real govt. Articles of Confederation – a firm league of friendship - written 1777, ratification delay til 1781 over land

31 Structure/powers of government under Articles 1 branch – legislative, President for 1 year 1 vote per state 9/13 states to pass law Unanimous vote to amend Articles Under the Articles government could make laws, treaties, raise armies and declare war

32 achievements of Articles Land Ordinance of 1785 – how to get land; NW Ordinance 1787 – 60,000 to become a state. Transition government/best possible

33 review What Revolutionary War government? What was our first plan for government? How many branches? States to pass a law? States to amend the Articles? 4 “powers?” Name 3 government achievements under the Articles.

34 IV. Weaknesses of the Articles It couldn’t tax, Couldn’t settle disputes between states, Couldn’t regulate trade between states or with other countries no executive or judicial branch

35 Shays’ Rebellion Indebted W. Massachussetts farmers about to lose land, faced high taxes and inflation (continentals) Led by Daniel Shays, took over govt. buildings, broke farmers out of prison; national government could do nothing

36 Madison, Philadelphia, Constitutional Convention Only 9 states sent delegates to the Annapolis Convention; 12 sent to Philadelphia In Philly, James Madison, the “father of the Constitution,” proposed Virginia Plan, scrapping Articles in favor of a a strong government with 3 branches, based on Montesquieu’s ideas

37 compromises Great Compromise – Va. V. NJ Plan 3/5 compromise – counting slaves Slave trade compromise – ends 1808

38 review Name 4 problems of government under the Articles. Explain Shays’ Rebellion. Why didn’t Annapolis Convention accomplish anything? Who is the “Father of the Constitution? Explain 3 compromises made in Philadelphia.

39 review What was different about the Second Continental Congress? What 3 key decisions were made by the 2 nd Continental Congress? What were the pros and cons of Washington as general? Why was Bunker Hill a pyrrhic victory? What was Olive Branch Petition and King’s reaction to it?

40 2 nd Continental Congress All 13 colonies - Made demands, raised war money, chose Washington to head army His leadership qualities - patient, brave, self- disciplined, fair, trusted, dedicated.

41 Battle of Bunker Hill British attacked straight up Breed’s (not Bunker) Hill, taking heavy casualties to take the Hill. King George III rejected Olive Branch Petition, proclaiming colonies in rebellion.

42 II Common Sense Thomas Paine, 1776, Common Sense – colonies are bigger and across the ocean Republic - power from virtuous people, like practiced in the town meetings

43 Declaration of Independence Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Sherman (judge), Livingston (lawyer) Borrowing from Locke – social contract – government protects rights; people consent to be governed

44 Parts of Declaration 1. Explain why 2. all men have rights 3. government protects rights 4. if it really doesn’t, alter or abolish 5. long list of grievances (“He has…”) 6. declare independence

45 review When was Common Sense written, by whom? Give two common sense arguments for independence? What was a republic, to Paine? Who served on the committee to write the Declaration of Independence? What is the social contract? List the 6 steps.

46 III. Taking sides Patriots/rebels/whigs – NE centered – Sam Adams, Patrick Henry (Va) – “give me liberty or give me death!” Loyalists/tories – well off – NYC and Charleston, Quaker Penn and NJ, also Anglican Church

47 Loyalist fate African-Americans sought freedom as loyalists – NY to Nova Scotia (Canada), but some sold from Va to W. Indies. Some Loyalists fled, others stayed and lost property or eventually became Americans.

48 Washington’s NJ Campaign British based in NYC with huge navy, defeated Washington at Long Island. Washington crossed Delaware River Christmas night, defeated Hessians at Trenton, British at Princeton a week later.

49 review Famous Patriots/other names/quotes? Who were the Loyalists/where/other names? What became of African-American Loyalists? What became of other Loyalists?

50 I. The war turns The British failed to isolate New England when Gen. Howe stayed too long in Philadelphia rather than pursue Washington. Washington’s troops suffered through winter at Valley Forge, trained by Prussian Baron Von Steuben.

51 French help British Gen. Burgoyne, needing Howe’s help, was defeated at Saratoga by Benedict Arnold, turning point of war. American victory allowed Benjamin Franklin, dressed plainly and with news of the British offer of home rule, to convince France to aid U.S.

52 World war Spain and Holland entered, and France provided its navy and ½ the soldiers. British withdrew to New York with Washington close by for rest of the war.

53 Review match ‘em Howe Valley Forge Baron Von Steuben Burgoyne Saratoga Franklin Awful winter Trained the troops Ambassador to Paris got French help Turning point battle British general defeated at Saratoga British general spent too much time in Philly

54 II. Winning British Southern strategy (lots of loyalists): captured Ga, Charleston, bloody fighting in Carolinas. Nathanael “the fighting Quaker” Greene used hit and run tactics against British Gen. Cornwallis

55 Final fighting Yorktown: Cornwallis retreated to the Chesapeake, thinking he would get help from his navy. Instead he was cornered by Washington’s troops and De Grasse’s French navy

56 Review – match ‘em Georgia, Charleston Nathanael Greene Gen. Cornwallis Yorktown Admiral de Grasse Franklin, Adams, Jay American Treaty of Paris benefits British Treaty of Paris benefits Independence, land to Mississippi R. and Great Lakes Captured by British Debts paid, Loyalist lenience Led French fleet at Yorktown Southern General, the fighting Quaker Last battle American Treaty delegation British Gen. at Yorktown

57 III. Governing the New Nation 10 state constitutions, 2 nd Continental Congress, but no real govt. Articles of Confederation – a firm league of friendship - written 1777, ratification delay til 1781 over land

58 Structure/powers of government under Articles 1 branch – legislative, President for 1 year 1 vote per state 9/13 states to pass law Unanimous vote to amend Articles Under the Articles government could make laws, treaties, raise armies and declare war

59 achievements of Articles Land Ordinance of 1785 – how to get land; NW Ordinance 1787 – 60,000 to become a state. Transition government/best possible

60 review What Revolutionary War government? What was our first plan for government? How many branches? States to pass a law? States to amend the Articles? 4 “powers?” Name 3 government achievements under the Articles.

61 IV. Weaknesses of the Articles It couldn’t tax, Couldn’t settle disputes between states, Couldn’t regulate trade between states or with other countries no executive or judicial branch

62 Shays’ Rebellion Indebted W. Massachussetts farmers about to lose land, faced high taxes and inflation (continentals) Led by Daniel Shays, took over govt. buildings, broke farmers out of prison; national government could do nothing

63 Madison, Philadelphia, Constitutional Convention Only 9 states sent delegates to the Annapolis Convention; 12 sent to Philadelphia In Philly, James Madison, the “father of the Constitution,” proposed Virginia Plan, scrapping Articles in favor of a a strong government with 3 branches, based on Montesquieu’s ideas

64 compromises Great Compromise – Va. V. NJ Plan 3/5 compromise – counting slaves Slave trade compromise – ends 1808

65 review Name 4 problems of government under the Articles. Explain Shays’ Rebellion. Why didn’t Annapolis Convention accomplish anything? Who is the “Father of the Constitution? Explain 3 compromises made in Philadelphia.

66 3 compromises Representation – Virginia Plan/Big State Plan; NJ Plan/Small State Plan Great or Connecticut Compromise – bicameral legislature; House based on Virginia Plan, Senate based on NJ PLan

67 Count slaves South – yes (increases its population); North- no 3/5 Compromise – count 3 of 5 slaves (3/5 of a person?)

68 Keep the slave trade? South – yes; North – no Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise – end it in 20 years (1808)

69 Review – explain: Great Compromise 3/5 Compromise Slave Trade Compromise

70 I. ratification Federalists supported the Constitution Antifederalists opposed it and wanted to merely amend the Articles (NJ Plan); feared too strong national government

71 Antifederalist concerns Constitution wouldn’t respect states’ rights or people’s rights Strong central government would be remote from the people

72 The chief executive President under the Constitution sounded too much like a King. By creating the electoral college the founders showed their distrust for the people

73 review What were people who supported the Constitution called? What were people who opposed the Constitution called? List four concerns of the Antifederalists.

74 II. Federalist Papers written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay Newspaper articles written to persuade New York Antifederalists to ratify (9 states needed, all eventually ratified)

75 Federalist 10 Madison fears faction, a group that works against the rights of others Get rid of faction by taking away liberty or making everyone the same Control effects with a large republic – “extend the sphere ”

76 Federalist 51 “If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither internal nor external controls would be necessary Control men with strong government; control rulers with elections and checks and balances

77 review Who wrote the Federalist Papers? What was the purpose? What does Federalist 10 say? What does Federalist 51 say?

78 Were the founding fathers Democratic Reformers? Traditional view – Fiske founding to early 1900s – Founders were geniuses – “enlightened statesmen,” “Miracle at Philadelphia.” Elite theory – Beard – Founders were rich creditors wanting their money from poor debtors – lawyers, well-educated, rich Roche – they were democratic – coming up with a political deal that would win the support of the states Young – they were trying to help the upper class as much as they could, but made some “accommodations” to the people.

79 III. President Washington Unanimous pick; chose a Cabinet: Secretary of State Jefferson, Secretary of Treasury Hamilton, and Secretary of War Knox Hamilton’s economics: debt is good - assume state debt, pay off national debt to encourage loyalty to government, sound credit rating

80 Excise Tax on Whiskey/Whiskey Rebellion When farmers revolted, Washington sent 13,000 militia to put down the Whiskey Rebellion. Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation said we wouldn’t help France fight Britain; Jay’s Treaty made peace with England

81 There must be some mistake – this has nothing to do with George Washington – what did you say to this young lady?

82 The Bank and Constitutional Interpretation Hamilton’s program included a National bank to stabilize the economy, provide national currency. Jefferson – unconstitutional – strict construction; Hamilton – interstate commerce – loose construction/implied powers - elastic /necessary and proper clause

83 Elastic clause and implied powers Article I section 8, clause 18 Elastic clause/necessary and proper clause: “to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any Department or officer thereof”

84 review Name two ways Washington was different. Who was in Washington’s cabinet? What did Hamilton tax? What resulted? What did Washington do about it? What was the Neutrality Proclamation? What did Washington say in the Farewell Address?

85 IV. Political parties develop The Federalists formed a party led by Hamilton, Adams, and Madison – strong Federal government They believed in strong government, business, and the protective tariff, New England/urban centered, pro-Britain, Jay’s Treaty

86 Republicans/Jeffersonian Republicans/Democratic-Republicans Led by Jefferson, Republicans favored strong state governments and weaker national governments (a more democratic-republic), pro- France, anti Jay’s Treaty Also favored small farmers and debtors, South/agrarian centered Both sides had their press, taverns

87 Neutrality Citizen Genet headache; In his Farewell Address, Washington warned us to avoid political parties and permanent alliances; also set two term tradition Parties cause dissension; alliances pull countries into war.

88 review What were the first two political parties? What did the Federalists believe in? Who were the Federalist leaders? What did the Republicans believe in? Who was the Republicans’ leader?

89 I. President Adams John Adams (F), was Washington’s Vice President election – Jays Treaty, Whiskey Rebellion big issues; Adams (F)defeated Jefferson (D-R)for the Presidency, 71-68; Jefferson the VP

90 XYZ affair France – angry about Jays’ Treaty, seized 300 U.S. ships and wanted a bribe to negotiate Navy Dept, Marines created; Federalist calls for war, but Adams resisted; let the babies grow

91 Alien and Sedition Acts Adams got Congress to pass the Alien and Sedition Acts – 14 years to be a citizen, no criticizing the government; unconstitutional but popular Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions – states can to nullify (disobey) unconstitutional laws since the U.S. is a compact of states; later used by Calhoun/South

92 review What was Adams’ position before becoming President Who ran in 1796, from what party? What was the electoral vote, and from where did each party draw support? What was the XYZ Affair? Why did Adams resist his party’s calls for war? What did the Alien and Sedition Acts do? What was written in response?

93 II. Election of 1800

94 Nasty politics Federalist in fighting - Hamilton turned on Adams, who was called “Father of the American navy.” Jefferson was accused of fathering kids with his slaves (true – Sally Hemings); Federalist ladies hid their Bibles

95 Results/12 th amendment Jefferson won 73-65; election turned by New York (250 votes) and the 3/5 Compromise Jefferson and his running mate Burr tied; House breaks tie (Federalist controlled) 12 th amendment resulted; peaceful transfer of power

96 Label/match ‘em Urban support French allies Agricultural economy Loose construction Needless military spending Slave kids Aaron Burr House of Representatives Democratic-Republican Federalist Jefferson Breaks electoral tie Jefferson’s VP who tied him Adams

97 III. President Jefferson Inaugural Address: “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists…” - bipartisanship “No entangling alliances” “That government which governs least, governs best”

98 Jeffersonian politics Jeffersonian Democracy - yeoman farmer, pro- slavery, slippers, eventual suffrage, written State of the Union During lame duck period, Adams appointed 94 Federalist judges – the “midnight appointments

99 Marbury v. Madison Jefferson/Madison – no commission; citing Judiciary Act, Marbury took case to Supreme Court. Chief Justice Marshall, a Federalist, ruled: Judiciary Act unconstitutional, Judicial Review/nationalism for Supreme Court

100 review Give some famous Jefferson quotes. What was Jeffersonian democracy? What did Adams do during the lame duck period? How did Jefferson and Madison respond? Where did Marbury take the case? What was Marshall’s ruling? Why was the case important?

101 IV. Jefferson’s foreign policy Cut defense but sent marines to “shores of Tripoli” against Barbary pirates – Tripolitan War Louisiana was sold to France/Napoleon from Spain, who withdrew right to deposit – hurt farmers.

102 Louisiana War with France would require British allies, so pro-French Jefferson gave Monroe/Livingston $10m to France to buy New Orleans. Fearing British Louisiana and despairing of Haiti/Santo Domingo, Napoleon sold all of it for $15 million to Livingston/U.S.

103 Strict construction – purchase illegal, so why do it? 1. no time for amendment. 2. republican “empire of liberty” 3. isolationism possible – Europe out Lewis and Clark mapped it out – Missouri River, Rockies, Columbia River, Pacific Coast – eventually Oregon Trail

104 review Against whom did Jefferson go to war? In 1800, who sold Louisiana to whom? Why did we care? Whom did Jefferson send to buy New Orleans? Why did Napoleon sell all of Louisiana? Why did Jefferson violate the constitution (3 reasons)?


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