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How does peer-listening foster learner autonomy and autonomous learning in a Japanese as a second language (JSL) classroom? Yoshio Nakai Osaka University.

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Presentation on theme: "How does peer-listening foster learner autonomy and autonomous learning in a Japanese as a second language (JSL) classroom? Yoshio Nakai Osaka University."— Presentation transcript:

1 How does peer-listening foster learner autonomy and autonomous learning in a Japanese as a second language (JSL) classroom? Yoshio Nakai Osaka University

2 Outline of this presentation Background Data collection Findings drawn from the data Micro level of learner autonomy

3 Background Learners’ perception of a listening class Learners felt that a listening class was monotonous and that they tended to consider leaning results more important than learning process. A listening class is.. boring. sleepy. so difficult that I can’t answer correctly.

4 Background(cont’d) In order to change their beliefs and attitude toward a listening class through learning collaboratively. Peer-listening makes learners to develop listening skills working collaboratively with others by explaining what they listened to and by solving problems on listening.

5 Collaborative learning Currently out of reach ZPD Current knowledge and skills Learning

6 Theoretical framework Learner autonomy as socially oriented agency (Toohey and Norton, 2003)  Learner autonomy in collaborative learning is oriented to a social interactive context which learners interact to help others.  Peer assistance and learner autonomy are interdependent elements in collaborative learning.

7 Collaborative learning Currently out of reach ZPD Current knowledge and skills Assistance Learner autonomy Learning Learner autonomy develops through interaction between learner and more capable other who offers the learner various types of assistance that enable the learner to move through ZPD (Little, 2000).

8 Theoretical framework Micro level of learner autonomy (Aoki, 2009)  Aoki shedded a light on micro level of learner autonomy promoted by learning helper founded in interaction between learner and helper. is related to microgenesis which is the process of development that occurs moment-by-moment through social interaction (Ohta, 2001)

9 Purpose of this research ・to investigate micro level of learner autonomy fostered among learners ・to reveal how learners’ interactions assist their learning

10 Institution  Japanese Culture and Language Program at University Listening class for JSL students (15times for six months) Intermediate level 11 learners (mostly exchange oversea students from Europe and Asia) Listening contents (chosen by learners from materials below) Popular listening textbooks for JSL learners DVDs and YouTube Research Participants

11 Step1. group activity Discussion theme in two group Step2. individual activity Listen individually to the content using a PC with resources Step3. peer activity ①Checking what they listened to ②Telling peer who listened to a different content what they listened to Step4. individual activity Listening to a different content Step5. reflection Procedure of peer listening A C B D

12 Data collected from April to July in 2012  Recorded peer activities at random(210minitues)  Took notes of peer-activities  Recorded learners’ interview on time of reflection(65minitues) Analyze interactions in peer-activities  Based on some methods of assistance occurring during classroom peer interaction (Ohta, 2001 : 89) Data collection and analysis

13 ①waiting one partner gives the other time to complete an utterance without making any contribution ②Co-construction Partner contributes a word, phrase, or grammatical particle that completes or works toward completion of the utterance. ③explaining Partner explains in native language +time to finish activity to understand without making any contribution Some methods of assistance occurring during classroom peer interaction (Ohta, 2001 : 89) +toward construction of understanding +explain what was listened to in Japanese using some resources

14 Some methods of assistance occurring during classroom peer interaction (Ohta, 2001 : 89) ④ questioning peer partner gives the other some questions to confirm whether the others understood or not ⑥ taking initiative to interrupt others’ interaction and start an utterance to construct their understanding. ⑤ confirming peer partner confirm his understanding by asking the other

15 Findings

16 Student A  A female student from China  20 years old  Intermediate lever of Japanese proficiency  Preparing to enter the University Student G  A female student from Finland  23 years old  Intermediate level of Japanese proficiency  A exchange student (Stayed for one year) Profile of Participants

17 Student A Paired with B Paired with G after 4 th lesson from 1 st to 3 rd lesson Student G Paired with K From 1 st to 3 rd lesson Change in learners’ behavior Case1( in a 3 rd lesson ) Interaction between A and B Case3( in a 11 th lesson ) Interaction between A and G Case2 ( in a 2 nd lesson ) Interaction between G and K I shuffled leaners’ pairs considering their proficiency and learning style Case4( in a 11 th lesson ) voluntary learning with G

18 In 1 st lesson  I couldn’t understand, so I didn’t say anything. I want someone to teach me.(IN02)  She never participated in peer activity keeping listening to content alone.(FN02) In 3 rd lesson  She became able to use the handouts when she listened to content, and to take part in peer activity and solve problems with handouts and peer assistance.(FN05) Case1(Interaction between A and B)

19 Peer activity to check what they listened to in 3 rd lesson  B:So, now, let’s start. Well, this is the price of coffee. (explain using pictures in handouts) A:Yes.(looking at the handout) B:This is 120 yen, but it should be cheap, because ingredients are cheap. But it costs carrying, and making something… That’s why it costs a lot. Hmm, it is difficult to explain. (explain using pictures in handouts) B:Ingredients are these. And they carry them by car. This. (explain using pictures in handouts) A:Yes, you are right.(looking at the handout) Case1(Interaction between A and B)(cont’d)

20 Student A Paired with B Paired with G after 5th lesson from 1st to 3rd lesson Student G Paired with K From 1 st to 3 rd lesson Changed from independent problem solving to problem solving under peer instruction and pictures in the handouts Case3( in 11 th lesson ) Interaction between A and G Case2 ( in 2 nd lesson ) Interaction between G and K Case4( in 11 th lesson ) voluntary learning with G Case1(Interaction between A and B)(cont’d)

21 In 1st lesson  They are good at listening, so they finished the task more quickly than any other students in a class. After finishing, they only checked their answers and never made any mistakes.(FN08) In 2nd lesson  Once G found that their answers were correct, but she misunderstood a small part of story content, she questioned K many times in order to confirm her understanding.(FN05) Case2(Interaction between G and K)

22 Peer activity to check what they listened to in 2nd lesson (after checking their answers)  G:My answers are all same as K’s. OK. T:Good! Well, why did you choose this answer? G:Because he couldn’t help canceling his appointment with his friend. K:Did he? Is it because he didn’t want to go? T:Ok, so let’s check this part. Why did he decide not to go? (After they listened to the content again) K:Yes, I’m right. He said he couldn’t help cancelling. T:K, he couldn’t go, because? K:He wanted to go but he had a lot of things to do this weekend. T:What did he need to do this weekend? Case2(Interaction between G and K)(cont’d)

23 Peer activity to check what they listened to in 2nd lesson  G:He had to write a report for his company. T:Yes, and? K? K:Ah,,He had an appointment to meet his customer?(confirming) G:Yes. K:So, He wanted to meet his friend, but he was too busy to meet his friend, right?(confirming) G:Yes, he was busy. K:That’s why he couldn’t help cancelling. Not because he didn’t want. G:Right. K:I could answer correctly, but misunderstood the story. Case2(Interaction between G and K)(cont’d)

24 Did not contribute to peer activities but interactions (such as questioning) was increased to confirm her understanding Student A Paired with B Paired with G after 4 th lesson from 1 st to 3 rd lesson Student G Paired with K From 1 st to 3 rd lesson Changed from independent problem solving to problem solving under peer instruction and pictures in the handouts Case3( in a 11 th lesson ) Interaction between A and G Case4( in a 11 th lesson ) voluntary learning with G Case2(Interaction between G and K)(cont’d)

25 In 11th lesson  When A listened to the content individually, she took notes of the time indicating on media player. In peer session, they reproduced collaboratively the story of the content they listened to. Every time A found the point she missed, she listened to the content again.(FN33 ) Case3(Interaction between A and G)

26 Peer activity to check what they listened to in 11th lesson  A:One woman came to an old man’s house, then, cigarette? because she hated cigarette, she went back to the mountain. (explanation) G:Yeah, Because she doesn’t like cigarette, she went out from the house. Next day, she brought money to him. This old man is so clever, isn’t he?(co-construction) A:why?(questioning) G:Because the old man was asked what scared him, he answered ‘money’. That’s why brought him, you understand? To tell the truth, he loved money but told a lie.(explanation) A:・・・(A:listening again G:waiting) Case3(Interaction between A and G)(cont’d)

27  T:Are you alright, A? A:um,, I can’t understand. G:One woman came to an old man’s house, OK? (taking initiative) A:Yes. G:It was a Tanuki(raccoon dog), wasn’t it?(questioning) A:OK. G:And the old man asked it what scares you, and the answer? (questioning) A:It said cigarette scares me. G:Yes, right. Then Tanuki asked the old man the same question, didn’t it?(questioning) A:Really?(A:listening again G:waiting) Case3(Interaction between A and G)(cont’d)

28 A:Ok. I’ve got it. G:The old man said he hated money. You know, he wanted to get money, right?(questioning) A:So did he. I understand. G:So it brought much money on the next day, didn’t it? (questioning) A:Right! That’s why the old man was so happy. (co-construction) G:I want, too. A:Haha. Case3(Interaction between A and G)(cont’d)

29 Student A Paired with B Paired with G after 4 th lesson from 1 st to 3 rd lesson Student G Paired with K From 1 st to 3 rd lesson Changed from independent problem solving to problem solving under peer instruction and pictures in the handouts Came to solve problem in collaboration with her peer using some resources to help her understanding Did not contribute to peer activities but interactions (such as questioning) was increased to confirm her understanding Case4( in a 11 th lesson ) voluntary learning with G Case3(Interaction between A and G)(cont’d)

30 In a waiting time after finishing task  In a waiting time, A searched ‘Tanuki( raccoon dog)’ and old Japanese tales on internet. After that, A found the site which introduce old Japanese stories, and read them with G. Then, she watched some old stories on internet for a while. Finally she watched one old story she had chosen with G, and asked some questions about the story.(FN52) (http://www.douwa- douyou.jp/contents/html/douwa/douwa4_1.html) Case4(voluntary learning with G)

31 Student A Paired with B Paired with G after 4 th lesson from 1 st to 3 rd lesson Student G Paired with K From 1 st to 3 rd lesson Changed from independent problem solving to problem solving under peer instruction and pictures in the handouts Became able to solve problem in collaboration with her peer using some resources to help her understanding Did not contribute to peer activities but interactions (such as questioning) was increased to confirm her understanding Came to learn autonomously using resources on internet Case4(voluntary learning with G)(cont’d)

32 Discussion

33 Student A Paired with B Paired with G after 4 th lesson from 1 st to 3 rd lesson Student G Paired with K From 1 st to 3 rd lesson Changings of learners’ behavior Changed from independent problem solving to problem solving under peer instruction and pictures in the handouts Became able to solve problem in collaboration with her peer using some resources to help her understanding Did not contribute to peer activities but interactions (such as questioning) was increased to confirm her understanding Changes in A’s behavior is an evidence that A’s learner autonomy was exercised. Came to learn autonomously using resources on internet

34 A’s learner autonomy  Practical use of resource handouts, Internet, and Media player  Peer’s assistance Questioning, co-construction, and explanation Learner autonomy Resources Pee r Learner autonomy Interdependence with peers practical use of resources exercise learner autonomy

35 Student A Paired with B Paired with G after 4 th lesson from 1 st to 3 rd lesson Student G Paired with K From 1 st to 3 rd lesson Changings of learners’ behavior Changed from independent problem solving to problem solving under peer instruction and pictures in the handouts Became able to solve problem in collaboration with her peer using some resources to help her understanding Did not contribute to peer activities but interactions (such as questioning) was increased to confirm her understanding Imitationof peers’ strategies Imitation of teacher’s interaction Imitation of peer’s interaction and effective usage of resource Imitation is a key role to go beyond the limits of their own capabilities

36 Conclusion Imitation and Autonomy in peer listening  Imitation of peers’ assistances can increase learners’ interaction and enhance learners autonomy Imitation of how to use resources Imitation of peers’ assistance to construct understanding ‘technical’ version of autonomy(Benson, 1997)

37 Conclusion(cont’d) Communicative proficiency and Autonomy(Little, 1994)  Little(1994) claims the development of learner autonomy and communicative proficiency are interdependent.  In student A’s case, it would be fair to say she accommodate her communicative proficiency to the context of peer listening. ‘psychological’ and ‘political’ version of autonomy(Benson, 1997)

38 Conclusion(cont’d) Change of learners’ perceptions  Student A (Interview in case1)゛I can’t understand the content by myself, so it is better that teacher teaches me how to listen to.“(IN) (Self evaluation) I enjoyed listening with my classmates, but I was bad because I played with them during classes. And I’m still wondering if my listening proficiency became higher than before. In my opinion, I think teacher should conduct a lesson, because we tend to play with classmates. But I want to try listening at home in a same way as learned in this class.(IN) Student A’s learner autonomy was exercised through peer- listening, but it didn’t influence her beliefs about learning.

39 Conclusion(cont’d) Change of learners’ perceptions  Student G (Interview in case1)゛It is easy for me to listen to the content. So I don’t need to check my answer with my peer. In stead of peer activity, I think it would be better to listen to more contents.“(IN) (Self evaluation) It was a good chance to find my misunderstand by working with my peer. But it was a little difficult to support my peer, but very helpful to my peer (maybe) and me. I want to continue to study with my friends if I can.(IN) Student G was a independent learner but changed to a collaborative learner who is willing to support others.

40 Conclusion(cont’d) Teacher’s role However,  A’s learner autonomy was “dependent Learner autonomy on teacher”, Teacher needs to make a pair of learners in which create ZPD, and needs to play a role of a more capable peer if needed.

41 Conclusion(cont’d) Possibility of using internet in a listening class  In case 4, student A used internet as her own learning resource and work collaboratively with her peer.  Future research Case 4 shows her possibility of development of learning outside the classroom and exercising ‘independent learner autonomy of teacher’. It is necessary to investigate how this will develop outside the teachers’ authority.

42 Thank you for listening!


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