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You have your independence... Now what?. “governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed”  What does it mean for  Landowners.

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Presentation on theme: "You have your independence... Now what?. “governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed”  What does it mean for  Landowners."— Presentation transcript:

1 You have your independence... Now what?

2 “governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed”  What does it mean for  Landowners ?  Merchants ?  Farmers ?  Wealthy ?  Poor ?  Women ?  Slaves ?  Free blacks?  Native Americans?

3 Politics and Government “Republicanism”  State Constitutions  Some radical  Strong Lower Houses  Weak Governors  No property requirements for voting  Education  Bills of Rights  Wealthy concerned  King George the First?

4 Politics and Government “Republicanism”  John Adams compromise  Thoughts on Government  Similar to British (without monarch)  Elected  Chief executive (governor)  Legislature (two houses)  Appointed  Judiciary  Checks and balances  Review legislation  Veto power

5 Republican Motherhood  Women?  Mary Wollstonecraft  A Vindication of the Rights of Woman  Equal social and political status for women  Some gains  Eased property loss in marriage  Educational opportunities  Still seen as subordinate  Abigail Adams:  “Don’t Forget the Ladies.“

6 The United States of America’s first government

7 Articles of Confederation  Drafted by John Dickinson (Olive Branch Petition)  States maintain sovereignty, independence, and freedom  Central government could  Declare war and peace  Conclude treaties with foreign nations  Settle disputes between states  Borrow and print money  Ask for funds for common defense  Central government  No Executive  No Judicial Branch  Couldn’t levy taxes  Each state had one vote  Required nine of thirteen states to make changes  Required ALL 13 states to amend

8 Articles of Confederation  Major problem: western lands  Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New Jersey had none  Others didn’t want to give land to government  With land cession, Articles of Confederation passed in 1781

9 Financial and Economic Problems  Congress:  Needed voluntary contributions during war  Bank of North America to stabilize currency  Plan to make debts proportional needed unanimous consent from all 13 states  1781 – Rhode Island no  1783 – New York no

10 Financial and Economic Problems  Lacked uniform Currency  No Regulation of Interstate Commerce  National tariff “too British”

11 Western Lands  Congress: sell land to pay debts  Violated Proclamation Line of 1763  Problems:  White squatters  new republic?  Spanish Louisiana  Southwest controlled by Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia  Northwest controlled by Congress (Northwest Territory)

12 British Forts on United States Territory

13 The Northwest Ordinance  Chersonesus, Franklin, Sylvania, Assenisipia, Metropotamia, Polypotamia, Pelisipia, Saratoga, Washington, Michigania and Illinoia?  Path to statehood  5000 settlers = territory  Congress appoints governor  Voters elect legislature  60,000 settlers = apply for statehood  Slavery Banned

14 The Northwest Ordinance  To acquire land  Government survey first  grid system of townships  Land purchased from government  A portion of each “township” set aside for education

15 Northwest Ordinance

16 NW Survey Ranges Townships, Sections, Quarter Sections, etc.

17

18 Post-War Problems  War debt  Other Financial Woes  Reaction

19 War Debt  States and Congress issued bonds  States and Congress issued paper money  War bonds worthless  Speculators bought up bonds (buy low, sell high)

20 Financial Woes  Farmers:  little or NO money to pay taxes/debts  useless war bonds for service  Merchants lost money; cheaper British imports  Tariffs to protect American producers  Taxes raised to pay debts  States – two choices  Ease up on taxes for farmers  Confiscate land from those who couldn’t pay

21 Shays’s Rebellion,  Massachusetts: high taxes  Farmers who couldn’t pay  forfeited property  went to jail  Daniel Shays  Continental army veteran  Farmer (western Massachusetts)  organized farmers into army  freed jailed farmers  Fought against taxation  Sound familiar?

22 Shays’s Rebellion,  Massachusetts: Riot Act (outlaw illegal assemblies)  Governor James Bowdoin sent militia  asked Congress for troops  Winter dispersed Shays’s men

23 Impact of Shays’s Rebellion  Bowdoin voted out  Farmers in other states revolt  Congress can’t fix economic problems  Showed weakness of central government  New nation’s survival at risk!

24 A More Democratic America?


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