Presentation on theme: "You have your independence... Now what?. “governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed” What does it mean for Landowners."— Presentation transcript:
You have your independence... Now what?
“governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed” What does it mean for Landowners ? Merchants ? Farmers ? Wealthy ? Poor ? Women ? Slaves ? Free blacks? Native Americans?
Politics and Government “Republicanism” State Constitutions Some radical Strong Lower Houses Weak Governors No property requirements for voting Education Bills of Rights Wealthy concerned King George the First?
Politics and Government “Republicanism” John Adams compromise Thoughts on Government Similar to British (without monarch) Elected Chief executive (governor) Legislature (two houses) Appointed Judiciary Checks and balances Review legislation Veto power
Republican Motherhood Women? Mary Wollstonecraft A Vindication of the Rights of Woman Equal social and political status for women Some gains Eased property loss in marriage Educational opportunities Still seen as subordinate Abigail Adams: “Don’t Forget the Ladies.“
The United States of America’s first government
Articles of Confederation Drafted by John Dickinson (Olive Branch Petition) States maintain sovereignty, independence, and freedom Central government could Declare war and peace Conclude treaties with foreign nations Settle disputes between states Borrow and print money Ask for funds for common defense Central government No Executive No Judicial Branch Couldn’t levy taxes Each state had one vote Required nine of thirteen states to make changes Required ALL 13 states to amend
Articles of Confederation Major problem: western lands Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New Jersey had none Others didn’t want to give land to government With land cession, Articles of Confederation passed in 1781
Financial and Economic Problems Congress: Needed voluntary contributions during war Bank of North America to stabilize currency Plan to make debts proportional needed unanimous consent from all 13 states 1781 – Rhode Island no 1783 – New York no
Financial and Economic Problems Lacked uniform Currency No Regulation of Interstate Commerce National tariff “too British”
Western Lands Congress: sell land to pay debts Violated Proclamation Line of 1763 Problems: White squatters new republic? Spanish Louisiana Southwest controlled by Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia Northwest controlled by Congress (Northwest Territory)
British Forts on United States Territory
The Northwest Ordinance Chersonesus, Franklin, Sylvania, Assenisipia, Metropotamia, Polypotamia, Pelisipia, Saratoga, Washington, Michigania and Illinoia? Path to statehood 5000 settlers = territory Congress appoints governor Voters elect legislature 60,000 settlers = apply for statehood Slavery Banned
The Northwest Ordinance To acquire land Government survey first grid system of townships Land purchased from government A portion of each “township” set aside for education
NW Survey Ranges Townships, Sections, Quarter Sections, etc.
Post-War Problems War debt Other Financial Woes Reaction
War Debt States and Congress issued bonds States and Congress issued paper money War bonds worthless Speculators bought up bonds (buy low, sell high)
Financial Woes Farmers: little or NO money to pay taxes/debts useless war bonds for service Merchants lost money; cheaper British imports Tariffs to protect American producers Taxes raised to pay debts States – two choices Ease up on taxes for farmers Confiscate land from those who couldn’t pay
Shays’s Rebellion, Massachusetts: high taxes Farmers who couldn’t pay forfeited property went to jail Daniel Shays Continental army veteran Farmer (western Massachusetts) organized farmers into army freed jailed farmers Fought against taxation Sound familiar?
Shays’s Rebellion, Massachusetts: Riot Act (outlaw illegal assemblies) Governor James Bowdoin sent militia asked Congress for troops Winter dispersed Shays’s men
Impact of Shays’s Rebellion Bowdoin voted out Farmers in other states revolt Congress can’t fix economic problems Showed weakness of central government New nation’s survival at risk!