2The Causes The American people were strongly independent. They wanted to do things for themselves. Great Britain was a long way away.The American people didn't want people an ocean away telling them how to live their lives.
3Building of the Revolution The road to revolution built slowly over time. Many events fed the growing desire of the thirteen colonies for independence.
4French and Indian WarThe British government decided to make the American colonies pay a large share of the war debt from the French and Indian War.
5The Colonists Loyalists Patriots They wanted to remain loyal to Britain and thought they would eventually get representation in ParliamentThey resisted British taxation and felt the colonies should declare independence
6Proclamation of 1763This prohibited settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains.While Britain did not intend to harm the colonists, many colonists took offense at this order.
7TaxesThe British tried to collect taxes that the American people considered harsh.
8Sugar ActThe Sugar Act taxed sugar made in the colonies or any plantation in America, coffee, molasses, rum, and wines.
9Quartering ActBritain ordered that colonists were to house and feed British soldiers if necessary.The Quartering Act of 1765 said that colonists had to quarter, cook, clean and clothe British soilders in thier own houses.
10Stamp ActThe stamp tax was a tax that was imposed on every document or newspaper printed or used in the colonies.
11Townshend ActsThese taxes were imposed to help make the colonial officials independent of the colonists and included duties on glass, paper, and tea.Smugglers increased their activities to avoid the tax… leading to more troops in BostonThis Act assigned duties on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. This led to some “tar and feathering.”
12Boston MassacreThe colonists and British soldiers openly clashed in Boston.This event was used as an example of British cruelty despite questions about how it actually occurred.
13Tea ActTo assist the failing British East India Company, the Company was given a monopoly to trade tea in America.
14Boston Tea PartyA group of colonists disguised as Indians dumped tea overboard from three ships in Boston Harbor.
15Intolerable ActsThese were passed in response to the Boston Tea Party and placed restrictions on the colonists including outlawing town meetings and the closing of Boston Harbor.
17“Taxation without Representation" The American people also thought that they should be able to send their own people to Britain's Parliament or at least vote for Britain's lawmakers.The combination of the harsh taxes and the lack of an American voice in Parliament gave rise to the famous phrase "taxation without representation."
18LibertyThe colonists called for an independent America, colonies free from British rule and interference.
19Preparing for WarAmericans started stockpiling guns and ammunition in violation of British laws.Their defense of such a stockpile led to shots being fired .The Shot Heard ‘Round the World
20Lexington and ConcordPressIn April, British troops were ordered to Lexington and Concord to seize stores of colonial gunpowder and to capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock.At Lexington, open conflict occurred and eight Americans were killed.At Concord, the British troops were forced to retreat with the loss of 70 men. This was the first instance of open warfare.
21"Stand your ground; don't fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here.”Captain John Parker
22In the end, the American Revolution grew out of increasing restrictions placed upon the colonies by the British.It is estimated that only one-third of the colonists were in favor of rebellion.One-third continued to side with the British.The last third were neutral concerning the rebellion and break from Great Britain.
24Articles of Confederation This plan was adopted in 1777 but wasn’t ratified until 1781It contained :A central governmentA one-house CongressEach state had one voteCongress could declare war and make peaceIt could deal with other nation and settle disputes between the states
26Articles of Confederation The plan was weak… it was intentionalAmericans feared a strong central governmentIt couldn’t enforce laws (approved by 9 states)It couldn’t levy taxesIt couldn’t regulate tradeThere was no chief executiveThe only courts were the state courts
27Articles of Confederation The Articles were designed to place the power into the individual statesThey were seen as closer to the people and popular willThey feared a repressive governmentHowever, Americans realized that this was not the way to build an effective and stable government
28The Constitution People were unhappy with the weak government Delegates met in Philadelphia to revise the ArticlesThey realized that it would not workThey decided to write a constitution
29The ConstitutionThey unanimously chose George Washington as presiding officerThey adopted a federal system of governmentThe central or federal government could:Declare warRaise armiesMake treatiesCoin moneyRegulate trade with foreign governments
30Three Branches of Government Executive Branch, president, enforced lawsLegislative Branch, Congress, made lawsJudicial Branch, federal courts, interpreted the lawsEach branch acted as a check on the power of the othersIt was ratified and went into effect in 1789
31Bill of Rights Some Americans didn’t like the Constitution They feared it didn’t protect the rights of individualsAs a result, ten amendments were added known as the Bill of RightsFreedoms guaranteed:ReligionSpeechPressAssemblyPetitionFreedom from Illegal search and seizureThe right to a jury trial
32Effects It was a major world event It put into the practice the ideas of political philosophers of the EnlightenmentThe American democratic government was a landmark in world history and an important influenceBecause of the American Revolution, it gave people still under absolute monarchies and privileged classes… HOPE!