Presentation on theme: "American Revolution. The Causes The American people were strongly independent. They wanted to do things for themselves. Great Britain was a long way."— Presentation transcript:
The Causes The American people were strongly independent. They wanted to do things for themselves. Great Britain was a long way away. The American people didn't want people an ocean away telling them how to live their lives.
Building of the Revolution The road to revolution built slowly over time. Many events fed the growing desire of the thirteen colonies for independence.
French and Indian War The British government decided to make the American colonies pay a large share of the war debt from the French and Indian War.
The Colonists LoyalistsPatriots They wanted to remain loyal to Britain and thought they would eventually get representation in Parliament They resisted British taxation and felt the colonies should declare independence
Proclamation of 1763 This prohibited settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains. While Britain did not intend to harm the colonists, many colonists took offense at this order.
Taxes The British tried to collect taxes that the American people considered harsh.
Sugar Act The Sugar Act taxed sugar made in the colonies or any plantation in America, coffee, molasses, rum, and wines.
Quartering Act Britain ordered that colonists were to house and feed British soldiers if necessary.
Stamp Act The stamp tax was a tax that was imposed on every document or newspaper printed or used in the colonies.
Townshend Acts These taxes were imposed to help make the colonial officials independent of the colonists and included duties on glass, paper, and tea. Smugglers increased their activities to avoid the tax… leading to more troops in Boston This Act assigned duties on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. This led to some “tar and feathering.”
Boston Massacre The colonists and British soldiers openly clashed in Boston. This event was used as an example of British cruelty despite questions about how it actually occurred.
Tea Act To assist the failing British East India Company, the Company was given a monopoly to trade tea in America.
Boston Tea Party A group of colonists disguised as Indians dumped tea overboard from three ships in Boston Harbor.
Intolerable Acts These were passed in response to the Boston Tea Party and placed restrictions on the colonists including outlawing town meetings and the closing of Boston Harbor.
“Taxation without Representation" The American people also thought that they should be able to send their own people to Britain's Parliament or at least vote for Britain's lawmakers. The combination of the harsh taxes and the lack of an American voice in Parliament gave rise to the famous phrase "taxation without representation."
Liberty The colonists called for an independent America, colonies free from British rule and interference.
Preparing for War Americans started stockpiling guns and ammunition in violation of British laws. Their defense of such a stockpile led to shots being fired. The Shot Heard ‘Round the World
Lexington and Concord In April, British troops were ordered to Lexington and Concord to seize stores of colonial gunpowder and to capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock.
Captain John Parker "Stand your ground; don't fire unless fired upon, but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here.”
In the end, the American Revolution grew out of increasing restrictions placed upon the colonies by the British. It is estimated that only one- third of the colonists were in favor of rebellion. One-third continued to side with the British. The last third were neutral concerning the rebellion and break from Great Britain.
Governing a New Nation
Articles of Confederation This plan was adopted in 1777 but wasn’t ratified until 1781 It contained : A central government A one-house Congress Each state had one vote Congress could declare war and make peace It could deal with other nation and settle disputes between the states
Articles of Confederation The plan was weak… it was intentional Americans feared a strong central government It couldn’t enforce laws (approved by 9 states) It couldn’t levy taxes It couldn’t regulate trade There was no chief executive The only courts were the state courts
Articles of Confederation The Articles were designed to place the power into the individual states They were seen as closer to the people and popular will They feared a repressive government However, Americans realized that this was not the way to build an effective and stable government
The Constitution People were unhappy with the weak government Delegates met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles They realized that it would not work They decided to write a constitution
The Constitution They unanimously chose George Washington as presiding officer They adopted a federal system of government The central or federal government could: Declare war Raise armies Make treaties Coin money Regulate trade with foreign governments
Three Branches of Government Executive Branch, president, enforced laws Legislative Branch, Congress, made laws Judicial Branch, federal courts, interpreted the laws Each branch acted as a check on the power of the others It was ratified and went into effect in 1789
Bill of Rights Some Americans didn’t like the Constitution They feared it didn’t protect the rights of individuals As a result, ten amendments were added known as the Bill of Rights Freedoms guaranteed: Religion Speech Press Assembly Petition Freedom from Illegal search and seizure The right to a jury trial
Effects It was a major world event It put into the practice the ideas of political philosophers of the Enlightenment The American democratic government was a landmark in world history and an important influence Because of the American Revolution, it gave people still under absolute monarchies and privileged classes… HOPE!