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Unit 11: World War 2 and Aftermath The Turbulent Twenties and Thirties.

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1 Unit 11: World War 2 and Aftermath The Turbulent Twenties and Thirties

2  A. World War I marked a period where the technology of the Industrial Revolution finally caught up to the building tensions and nationalistic feelings that permeated society. This left scars across Europe and the world, ones that never truly healed after the Treaty of Versailles was signed. The inter-war years of 1918-1939 are marked by incredible economic growth and collapse, along with the complete ineffectiveness of the League of Nations to prevent another global conflict.  1. As World War I ended, a devastating ___________ pandemic struck the world. Nicknamed the Spanish Flu, this disease killed almost 6% of the world’s population (____________________________.) Even though doctors emphasized personal hygiene, the disease spread like wildfire throughout Europe, China, and North America. Of those infected, ________ would die. However, the disease disappeared almost as quickly as it appeared, and had completely died out by 1921. flu 100 million people 20%

3  2. In October 1918, the German government, under the leadership of Kaiser Wilhelm II fell apart. In its place came the ____________________________, a government based on the British style. Weimar Republic

4  a. However, almost immediately, the government faced revolts from the navy and soldiers in the army. Supporting these forces were the __________________________, who used fears of a communist takeover, to gain popular support.  b. However, pro-war and anti-war political parties fought for control of the Parliament. They even went as far as declaring their own governments in the early part of November 1918. Eventually, both groups settled on _____________________ to run the government as President. In January 1919, Ebert announced the formation of the Weimar Republic. Social Democrats Friedrich Ebert

5  c. Immediately, an economic crisis threatened to topple the new government. Because of the harsh economic sanctions placed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles, Germany’s economy suffered. Left and Right Wing extremists clamored for power, based on the assumption that democracy couldn’t help solve the problems facing the nation. Several attempts to overthrow the government took place, including the ___________________ in 1920, and the ____________________________ in 1923 (which was led by a burgeoning political statesman named Adolf Hitler.) Kapp PutschMunich Putsch

6  d. The largest economic burden facing Germany revolved around paying war reparations. There was no economic growth. By 1923, the government couldn’t continue to make the payments. Therefore, France, angered by this, took control of the ____________________, closing off any industrial production Germany had made. Workers across the nation responded by striking. This strike lasted for 8 months. Ruhr Valley

7  e. Because of the strike, no goods were being produced to export to other countries, and the government needed money. Therefore, the Government decided to print more money and make the payments. ________________________, where 1 US dollar was worth 1,000,000 German marks occurred. This obviously couldn’t continue, and the government decided to “reset” the economy by issuing new money in late 1923. Combined with the ____________________ (where the US banks funded the German government) the economy began to grow and the inflation ended. Hyperinflation Dawes Act

8  f. In 1926, the ___________________________ admitted Germany as a member with full standing. However, the Stock Market Crash of 1929 destroyed any economic progress that had been made, and inflation resumed throughout the nation. League of Nations

9  3. Even though Italy sided with the Allies during World War I, Italian nationalists felt the terms of the Treaty of Versailles impeded their path to “_________________________” status. One of the biggest slights towards Italy at the Versailles Conference took place when the Allied powers convinced them to give up the port city of Rijeka to the new nation of Yugoslavia. Great Power

10  a. Left wing nationalist and leader of the National Fascist Party ___________________________ exploited this to his benefit. He began to gain popular support by announcing he wished to reestablish Italy as a world power by making a modern “_________________________.” Benito Mussolini Roman Empire

11  b. In the immediate aftermath of World War I, labor discontent raced across Italy. The war created inflation and unemployment in Italy, and the government couldn’t do anything to help. Riots erupted across Italy as a result.  c. The national government couldn’t put down these riots, therefore Mussolini and his “___________________________” (unemployed World War I veterans) stepped up and put the riots down. This gained even more popular support for Mussolini, and in 1922, King Victor Emmanuel III appointed Mussolini to be _____________________. Black Shirts Prime Minister

12  d. However, the lack of __________________________________ output hampered Italian economic growth. Mussolini, in an attempt to distract the Italian people, turned his attention towards empire building and nationalism. During this period, Mussolini increased his ties with Hitler’s racial ideology. heavy industrial

13  4. Japanese militarism started at the onset of the Meiji Restoration. Many of the political leaders during this period were ______________________________. However, due to the drastic changes implemented by the Meiji government, numerous uprisings by different groups in the early part of the Meiji Restoration led to an increased military presence in the government.  a. Japan’s lack of natural resources and desire for an empire to gain them led to a more militaristic style government. This eventually became ___________________________, with an ultra-nationalistic ideology. The driving force behind this was the military, as demonstrated by the first Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War. ex-samurai Japanese Statism

14  b. One of the driving forces behind this fanaticism was __________________________. Based upon emperor worship, it gave justification to the totalitarian government. Essentially the emperor was a deity on Earth, and every citizen owed absolute loyalty to him. In 1926, that became Emperor Showa, or more commonly, _____________________. State Shintoism Hirohito

15  c. Anger towards the West began with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. Even though Japan served as a full-fledged member, the Big Three refused to recognize Japanese territorial claims. Japan also participated in several naval reduction treaties in the 1920’s, which limited their navy, but at lower levels than the West. The US and Europe imposed strict __________________________________ guidelines and limited the immigration from Japan. This furthered the racial divide between nations. immigration

16  d. This and other examples of Western ethnocentric views towards Japan led to several attempts by the military to overthrow Hirohito. However, he dealt with each attempt swiftly and harshly. Nonetheless, the military gained increasing government power during the 1930’s.  5. However, in October 1929, the __________________________________ crashed, and sent the world’s economy into a downward spiral. While the Western democracies in the US and Great Britain suffered in their own ways, any economic progress made in Italy and Germany disappeared. This made worse the economic crisis of the early 1930’s. US Stock Market

17  B. The Rise of Fascist and Militaristic States Characteristics of Fascism Cultural Social Chief Examples Economic Political Basic Principles

18  Basic Principles  Authoritarian  State more important than the individual  Charismatic leadership  Action oriented Political Nationalist Racist (Nazism) One-party rule Supreme leader

19  Economic: Economic functions controlled by state corporations or by the state  Cultural  Censorship  Indoctrination  Secret police

20  Social: supported by middle class, industrialists, and military  Chief Examples  Italy  Spain  Germany

21  C. The Rise of Adolf Hitler  1. The Great Depression in the US had ripple effects across the world. The US economy had been growing at a substantial rate, and when that stopped, so too did economies across the globe that were reliant on the US. Germany was deeply damaged, as the US banks, who had been stabilizing the German economy, withdrew their support. Inflation began yet again in Germany.  a. The Weimar Government was not prepared for this collapse. As the economy began to self- destruct, government leaders attempted to fix the problems. One solution was to create _______________________, where the government cut state spending drastically. Another was to abandon the _____________________, used to value money, hoping to stop the spiral. deflation gold standard

22  b. Nothing worked. During this 3 year period, the ___________________, which had been growing in popularity, began to gain more and more representatives in the German legislature. By January 1933, the party had enough representatives and influence in the German ________________________ to allow ________________________ to become Chancellor of Germany. Nazi Party Reichstag Adolf Hitler

23  2. Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-German who fought for Germany during WW1. He was a dispatch runner, and then an infantry soldier. He received numerous medals for bravery during his time in the war. However, as the war came to a conclusion, Hitler was again hospitalized, blinded by a mustard gas attack. It was in the hospital that Hitler learned of the armistice. According to his own account, when Hitler learned of the armistice, he broke down in tears.

24  a. Hitler’s experiences in WW1 created the _________________________ that became a signature of Nazi Germany. Along with many of his supporters, Hitler began to think the Weimar Government had “______________________________________” by agreeing to the armistice, and eventually the Treaty of Versailles.  b. Disillusioned at Germany’s treatment during the Versailles conference, Hitler turned his attention to politics. Working essentially as a _____________ for the German Military, he joined the _________________________ (precursor to the Nazi Party) and immediately felt a strong pull towards the ultranationalist, anti-Semitic, and anti-Marxist views. In September 1919, Hitler became the 55 th member of the party. As the party became more popular, the name changed to the ______________________________________, and it was Adolf Hitler who designed the party banner, which became the symbol of Nazi Germany. ultra-nationalism stabbed the army in the back spy German Worker’s Party National Socialist German Workers Party

25  c. Hitler soon rose through the ranks of the Nazi Party, mainly through his________________________ abilities. As a result, he began to gain more and more supporters throughout the party, eventually becoming a leading member. Encouraged by events in Italy with the Fascist take-over, and the severe hyper-inflation Germany experienced, Hitler and his core group of followers attempted the Munich Putsch, declaring a new government in November 1923. But, he did not have the support, and was arrested and sentenced to jail for treason. At this point, the Nazi Party was on the verge of collapse as public support disappeared. public speaking

26  d. During his time in jail, Hitler dictated _________________________, his autobiography and expose on his ideology. In it, Hitler blamed numerous groups for Germany’s economic problems, including the Weimar Government and anyone of ___________ descent. He also proposed creating a new Germany based along _______________ groups, and for a large German empire in central Europe, which he called _________________. Even though he was sentenced to 7 years in jail, Hitler served just about _______________ of time. Mein Kampf Jewish racial lebensraum one year

27  e. Once he was released from jail, Hitler worked to rebuild the Nazi Party. Making a deal with the government to not attempt another coup again legalized the Nazi Party in Germany. The Nazi’s soon began to gain popular support throughout Germany as the economic crisis began to deepen. Finally, in January 1933, President Hindenburg (an old WW1 General) appointed Hitler as chancellor of Germany, based on the support in the Reichstag for the Nazi Party.

28  3. In the first two months in power, two events allowed Hitler to claim complete authority over Germany.  a. Hitler had many political opponents who were threatened by his growing power and support. However, in order to remove him from the Chancellorship, members of the Reichstag needed to form a ____________________, which Hitler continued to block as the Nazis gained different supporters in the Legislature. On February 27, the Reichstag building caught fire. Hitler and his supporters blamed ___________________, because one of the men implicated in starting the fire was a communist. As a result, President Hindenburg issued the _________________________, essentially suspending basic civil rights, and allowed detention without trial. 4000 Communists were arrested as a result. majority government communists Reichstag Fire Decree

29  b. In early March 1933, the Reichstag held another round of elections; however, Hitler and the Nazis still did not gain an absolute majority. Therefore, to maintain his power, Hitler had to make a coalition with the Prussian aristocracy that was led by President Hindenburg.  c. In order to fully consolidate his power, Hitler proposed the __________________, which allowed Hitler to create laws and policy without the consent of the Reichstag for the next four years. To appease the different parties in the German government, Hitler promised that President Hindenburg had ___________________ over all decisions. Enabling Act veto power

30  d. Once the Enabling Act passed the Reichstag, Hitler essentially became the legalized ________________ of Germany, and moved to eliminate any threats to his power. All labor union leaders were arrested and sent to concentration camps. During this period, Hitler also purged the Nazi Party of any threats to his power with what historians call the ________________________. He also slowly instituted his racial purification policy, pushing his fully German supporters into positions of power, while diminishing the role of other racial groups. dictator Night of the Long Knives

31  e. In late July 1934, Hitler’s government issued the ____________________________________________, basically stating that once Hindenburg died, he would not be replaced, and all the powers he had would be given to Hitler. Hindenburg died on August 2, 1934, making Hitler not only Chancellor, but Head of State, ________________. Once this occurred, Hitler then took steps to implement his goals for Germany. Law Concerning the Highest State Office of the Reich the Fuhrer

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