Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation when it came to foreign policy? What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation."— Presentation transcript:
Bell Ringer What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation when it came to foreign policy? What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation when it came to domestic policy? What does the phrase “separation of power” mean?
Articles of Confederation When the US declared its independence on July 4 th 1776 the Continental Congress needed a system of rules to govern by. This would be the Articles of Confederation, our first constitution (Alliance). Meanwhile, each State would create their own constitution, each saying something different. The Articles were extremely weak (as they couldn’t get the states to do anything), and they soon needed to be replaced.
Achievements Though the Articles were pretty bad, Congress did achieve a few things: – Land Ordinance of 1785: Surveyed (mapped) and divided new territory gained from the Treaty of Paris. – Northwest Ordinance: Organized those new lands government (MI, OH, IN, IL, WI) 5,000 men= elect a legislature 60,000 men= could write a constitution & form a government
Failures The Articles were weak, which made foreign policy a nightmare. Foreign nations questioned the US’ financial stability. For this reason trade would decline. Britain also refused to remove troops from the US as they saw the Articles were weak, and aided Indians & Spanish in Attacking the Colonies in hopes of a collapse
Failures Part II The Articles also did not regulate interstate commerce (trade between states). States would charge each other tariffs, which caused issues. States would also ignore Congress as they thought they were bothering them. All this led to: high debt + weak currency + falling trade = economic depression
Shay’s Rebellion Farmers suffered the worse from these conditions. Summer 1786: Angry farmers started to occupy court houses. Soon 1,200 farmers tried to seize weapons from the state, but the militia stopped them. The State needed money to pay the militia, but Congress couldn’t give them money (couldn’t raise taxes) so private citizens paid for the militia.
1787 Constitutional Convention Alexander Hamilton (NY) & James Madison (VA) would call for a Constitutional Convention replace the Articles. (Stronger Gov’t) George Washington was “in charge,” but was there to insist he would not be a king. Every state but RI would attend. Though they were instructed to “fix” the articles many believed a new system was needed. – All 55 members were, “the well-bred, the well-fed, the well- read, and the well-wed.” (White, avg 42)
People of Note Ben Franklin: 81, oldest member George Washington: Hero of the Revolution Alexander Hamilton: Brilliant up and comer James Madison: Political Genius Thomas Jefferson & John Adams were out of the country (France & England) – Samuel Adams refused to go because he didn’t want a strong government.
Making the Constitution Madison will be hugely influential in the forming of the Constitution (Father of Constitution). Delegates favor: – Separation of Powers: 3 branch government – Checks & balances: each branch being able to limit another branches power
Plans & Compromise The Virginia Plan wanted a bicameral legislature (2 houses) Population Based New Jersey Plan wanted a unicameral legislature (1 house) Every state equal Great Compromise: A bicameral legislature where each house had different representation. (House: Population & Senate: Every State has 2 members)
Divisive Issues Slavery: Northern states wanted it abolished, the south opposed. (Representation & Taxes) – 3/5s Compromise: 5 Slaves = 3 Whites Commerce: Northern wanted the government to have control over Trade, South opposed (Slave Trade) – Compromise: Congress could regulate foreign & interstate trade, but couldn’t outlaw slavery until 1808
Electoral College After deciding on a having a single President, there were debates on how to elect them. Electoral College: a special body of voters from each state who would elect the president. – Equal to number of members in Congress. – These “voters” tended to vote the way the state voted. The Convention closes Sept 1787
Bill of Rights 9 of 13 states needed to ratify the Constitution By January 1788 DE, PA, NJ, GA, & CN have ratified the Constitution. MA called attention to the fact there was no Bill of Rights, and the peoples’ rights could be infringed upon. MA & other states ratify on the condition that a Bill of Rights is added. The new Congress will form the Bill, and by 1791 10 states ratified it. (10 B.R. + 17 = 27Amendments)
Bill of Rights Article I: Freedom of Religion, Assembly, Speech, Press, & Petition Article II: A well regulated Militia has the right to keep and bare arms. Article III: No soldier, in a time of peace, shall be quartered in a house without the owners consent Article IV: No unreasonable search and Seizure
Article V: No Double Jeopardy (not the game) Article VI: Right to a fair and speedy trial Article VII: Any case, where the value is more than $20, shall have the right to a trial by jury. Article VIII: No excessive bail or cruel and unusual punishments Article IX: Can not deny constitutional rights Article X: Anything not covered in the constitution is left up to the States to handle.
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