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Understanding and Using Imagery in Sport Robin S. Vealey and Samuel T. Forlenza Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding and Using Imagery in Sport Robin S. Vealey and Samuel T. Forlenza Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding and Using Imagery in Sport Robin S. Vealey and Samuel T. Forlenza Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Chapter 13 “Nothing is impossible. With so many people saying it couldn’t be done, all it takes is imagination, and that’s something I learned and something that helped me.” -Michael Phelps

2 What Is Imagery? Using one’s senses to re-create or create an experience in the mind Allows athletes to practice sport skills, strategies, and mental skills without physically being in the training or competitive environment Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

3 Re-creating or Creating Re-creating Uses imagery in a productive and controlled manner to learn from performance mistakes Helps to program the mind and body to respond optimally Creating Build images of new images from pieces of memory Develop effective responses to questions like “What will it be like?” and “How will you respond?” Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

4 Imagery as a Polysensory Experience Successful imagery should involve all relevant senses: Visual Auditory Olfactory Gustatory Tactile Kinesthetic - the feel or sensation of the body as it moves in different positions Should also work through emotions associated with various sport experiences Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

5 Imagery as a Mental Training Tool Imagery as a mental training tool involves the systematic practice and use of imagery to engage in vivid and controllable polysensory images to enhance performance Controllability : the ability to imagine exactly what you intend to imagine PLUS the ability to manipulate aspects of the images you wish to change Vividness: how clear and detailed the image appears INCLUDING whether the image is in color, how many senses are being used, and the emotion or physical sensations experienced when engaging in imagery Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

6 Internal and External Imagery Perspectives INTERNAL Seeing the image from inside their bodies the way their eyes normally see EXTERNAL Seeing the image from outside their bodies as if they are viewing themselves The only way kinesthetic imagery can be experienced Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Imagery can be effective using both perspectives

7 Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

8 Mental Practice Research Using imagery to perform a specific sport skill repetitively in the mind Occurs across a period of time in an intermittent learning style Complements physical practice Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

9 Preparatory Imagery Using imagery immediately before performance can help athletes perform better Can “psych up,” calm down, or focus on relevant aspects of the task Helps with strength tasks, muscular endurance tasks, and golf putting Treat it as part of the preperformance routine Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

10 Multimodal Mental Training Interventions Implement with athletes over a period of time Works well in combination with other interventions Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

11 Enhancing Competition- Related Thoughts and Emotions A basic objective of sport psychology is to help athletes manage their thoughts and emotions effectively to create a productive competitive focus Imagery can affects: Self-confidence Motivation Attentional control Athletes’ perceptions of anxiety from harmful and negative to facilitative and challenging Precompetitive anxiety when combined with other mental training methods The self-confidence of coaches Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

12 How Does Imagery Enhance Athletes’ Performance? Bioinformational Explanation Functional Equivalence Explanation Mental Readiness Explanation Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

13 Can Imagery Hurt Athletes’ Performance? Imagery can hurt athletes’ performance if they focus on the wrong images at the wrong times Negative imagery – systematically imagine bad performance When individuals were told what not to image, they performed poorly Successful imagery = a mental blueprint for perfect responses, NOT a mental blueprint for disastrous responses Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

14 Setting Up an Imagery Training Program 1.Introduce imagery to athletes Hook ’em Define and give evidence Explain how it works String and bolt Arm as iron bar Give specifics about how imagery will be used Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

15 Setting Up an Imagery Training Program (cont.) 2.Help athletes evaluate their imagery ability Sport Imagery Evaluation Take the athletes through some Basic Training 3.Basic Training Similar to a preseason physical conditioning program Three types of imagery exercises athletes should become proficient in: Vividness Controllability Self-awareness Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

16 Setting Up an Imagery Training Program (cont.) 4.Implement a systematic program Build the imagery program into the athletes’ routine Fit the needs of the athlete Follow the KISS principle (keep it simple and systematic) Choose a sport skill or strategy that is easy to control Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17 Ways to Use Imagery Learning and practicing sport skills Mental practice Use verbal triggers and symbolic images Also helpful for athletes in a slump or having technique problems Correcting mistakes Use imagery each time they receive feedback from the coach Can you see it? Can you feel it? Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

18 Ways to Use Imagery (cont.) Learning and practicing performance strategies Coaches lead athletes in mentally rehearsing before competition Preparing a mental focus for competition Coaches should help athletes answer two questions: “What will it be like?” “How will I respond?” Creates a sense of expectancy Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

19 Ways to Use Imagery (cont.) Automating preperformance routines Preplanned, systematic sequence of thoughts and behaviors in which an athlete engages prior to performing a specific skill Makes routines more automatic Building and enhancing mental skills Self confidence Energy management Stress management Increasing self-awareness Aiding in the recovery from injuries Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

20 Times to Use Imagery Daily practice Pre-performance routine Post-performance review Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

21 Strategies to Enhance Imagery Practice Athletes should practice imagery in many different places and positions Locker room, on the field, in the pool, during practice, during competition Know when to use real-time, slow motion, and fast motion imagery Help athletes use technology to enhance their images Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

22 Strategies to Enhance Imagery Practice (cont.) Remember that athletes should imagine vivid mental, physiological, and behavioral responses to situations Image performance and outcome Be specific in all uses of imagery Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


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