2What led to FEUDALISM? URBAN people move to RURAL areas Germanic invaders raided the western half of the Roman Empire1. Constant fighting2. Disruptions in tradeCities no longer economic centers3. Downfall of citiesGovernments collapsedNobles retreat to rural areasURBAN people move to RURAL areas
3breakup of unified empire consequences of population shift to rural areasliteracy declinedloss of common languageGermanic invaders mixed with the Romansonly way to be educated was through Catholic Churchdifferent languages evolved from LatinFrenchSpanishbreakup of unified empirekings couldn’t defend landspeople loyal to local leaders with armies
4Lord- the landowner, he gave permission for people to use his land REMEMBER:the feudal system was based on rights and obligationsFeudalism- system of exchanging land for serviceFief- granted landLord- the landowner, he gave permission for people to use his landVassal- the person using the landManor- the lord’s estate
5Lords, Peasants, and Serfs The Manorial SystemThe feudal system was a political and social system. A related system governed medieval economics. This system was called the manorial system because it was built around large estates called manors.Manors owned by wealthy lords, knightsPeasants farmed manor fieldsWere given protection, plots of land to cultivate for selvesLords, Peasants, and SerfsMost peasants on farm were serfs, tied to manorNot slaves, could not be sold away from manorBut could not leave, marry without lord’s permissionSerfdomManors had some free people who rented land from lordOthers included landowning peasants, skilled workers like blacksmiths, millersAlso had a priest for spiritual needsFree People
8Noble Nobles granted use of land if they Powerful vassal Wealthy Swore loyalty to kingGave military services to kingPowerful vassalWealthyControlled Knights
9Noblewoman Could inherit estates her husband Held little property Land passed to sonsCould send knights to warIf husband was off fightingMilitary commanderWarriorBasic education
10Church Official Powerful vassal Church was the bond among the divided social classesPeasant families paid a tax of one-tenth of their income (tithe) to the church
11Knight Nobles were always fighting each other Needed skilled warriors to defend landPledged to defend land in exchanged for fiefsWealth from land allowed them to devote lives to warStarted training at age 7
12WarfareKnights in the Middle Ages wore armor in battle and were heavily armed.Armor was made of chain mail—small, interlocking metal links stitched to a knee-length leather shirt.The knight would also wear an iron helmet and carry a sword, a large shield, and a lance.
13WarfareWhen gunpowder was invented during the late Middle Ages, overlapping metal plates replaced chain mail.Plate armor was so heavy that knights had to be hauled onto their horses with cranes.
14Knight LifeTo become a knight, a boy had to belong to the noble class and had to pass through two stages of training.Page- The first stage began at about the age of seven.The page would learn knightly manners and how to use and care for weapons.Squire- the second stage usually the boy was a teenager.The squire would take care of the knight's horse, armor, and weapons.When ready, the squire would accompany the knight into battle.If the squire proved himself to be a skilled and courageous fighter, he would be knighted in an elaborate religious ceremony.
15Knight Life A knight's coat of arms identified him A coat of arms was a symbol that represented his personal characteristics.A coat of arms was passed along from one generation to the next.
16Peasant Worked land Cared for animals Maintained Estate Owed lord Several workdays a weekPortion of grain producedPaid high taxes to live on landMost traveled no more than 25 miles from where they were born
17Peasant Women Worked next to men in fields Ran households and had childrenGirls learned household skills
18Serf People who couldn’t leave the place they were born Not slaves Couldn’t be bought or sold- all labor produced belonged to lordLord providedHousingFarmlandProtection from banditsCreated everything the lord neededMost children didn’t survive till adulthoodThey were not allowed to hunt on the lord’s land so they rarely ate meat.Serfs had short life expectancies dueto disease, starvation, and frequentwarfare.Serf
20A Typical Manor Rotation Small Village In return for being able to work the land, the peasants gave the lord some of their crops (taxes) and helped to farm his land.Most of manor’s land occupied by fields for crops, pastures for animalsMiddle Ages farmers learned that leaving field empty for year improved soilIn time, practice developed into three-field crop rotation systemOne field planted in spring for fall harvestAnother field planted in winter for spring harvestThird field remained unplanted for yearRotationEach manor included fortified house (castle) for noble family, village for peasants, serfsGoal to make manor self-sufficientTypical manor also included church, mill, blacksmithSmall Village
24Daily Life in the Middle Ages Life in a CastleLife in Middle Ages not easy, did not have comforts we have todayEarly castles built for defense not comfortFew windows, stuffy in summer, cold in winter, dark alwaysSpaceNobles had to share space with others, including soldiers, servantsPrivate rooms very rareMain room the hall, large room for dining, entertainingBedroomsIn early castles, noble family bedrooms separated from main area by sheetsLater castles had separate bedrooms; latrines near bedroomsWooden bathtub outside in warm weather, inside near fireplace in winter
25CastlesA castle was a fortified base from which the lord enforced his authority and protected the surrounding countryside.In the early Middle Ages, castles were simple structures made from earth and wood, later they were made from stone.Castles were usually built on hills or other landforms that would prevent easy attack.If a castle was on flat land (difficult to defend) a moat and drawbridge were built
26BUILDING A MOTTE AND BAILEY CASTLE: The Normans had invented a way of building castles quickly. It was a bit like making sandcastles but on a much bigger scale.After digging a ditch, they raised a great mound in the middle. This was called a “motte” which is French for “mound”.On top of the mound they built a tower and surrounded it with a wooden fence. This was the strongest point of the castle.Below the motte there was another enclosure surrounded by a fence. This was called the “bailey’. The Normans built motte and bailey castles all over England
27CastlesThe keep was the main part of the castle. It was a strong tower that usually contained storerooms, workshops, barracks and the lord's living quarters.A castle's rooms had thick walls and small windows with no glass so they were usually dark and chilly.
28Life in a VillageDespite discomforts, life in a castle was preferable to life in a village. The typical village family lived in a small wooden one-room house. The roof was made of straw, the floor of dirt, and the furniture of rough wood. Open holes in the walls served as windows.Most families slept on beds of straw on floorAll shared one room with each other, animalsMost glad to have animals to provide extra heat in cold wintersBedroomsPeasant families cooked meals over open fire in middle of floorTypical meal: brown bread, cheese, vegetables, occasionally meatNo chimneys, house often full of smoke; fires commonMealsThe family rose before dawn. Men went to work in the fields; women did chores. During harvest, the entire family worked in the field all day.