Presentation on theme: "Germanic invaders raided the western half of the Roman Empire 1. Constant fighting 2. Disruptions in trade Cities no longer economic centers 3. Downfall."— Presentation transcript:
Germanic invaders raided the western half of the Roman Empire 1. Constant fighting 2. Disruptions in trade Cities no longer economic centers 3. Downfall of cities Governments collapsed Nobles retreat to rural areas URBAN people move to RURAL areas
consequences of population shift to rural areas literacy declined loss of common language GGermanic invaders mixed with the Romans different languages evolved from Latin -French -Spanish breakup of unified empire kings couldn’t defend lands people loyal to local leaders with armies only way to be educated was through Catholic Church
REMEMBER: the feudal system was based on rights and obligations Feudalism- system of exchanging land for service Lord- the landowner, he gave permission for people to use his land Vassal- the person using the land Fief- granted land Manor- the lord’s estate
The feudal system was a political and social system. A related system governed medieval economics. This system was called the manorial system because it was built around large estates called manors. Manors owned by wealthy lords, knights Peasants farmed manor fields Were given protection, plots of land to cultivate for selves Lords, Peasants, and Serfs Most peasants on farm were serfs, tied to manor Not slaves, could not be sold away from manor But could not leave, marry without lord’s permission Serfdom Manors had some free people who rented land from lord Others included landowning peasants, skilled workers like blacksmiths, millers Also had a priest for spiritual needs Free People The Manorial System
King Nobles & Church Officials Knights Peasants Serfs
The land legally belonged to the king
Nobles granted use of land if they Swore loyalty to king Gave military services to king Powerful vassal Wealthy Controlled Knights
Noblewoman Could inherit estates her husband Held little property Land passed to sons Could send knights to war If husband was off fighting Military commander Warrior Basic education
Church Official Powerful vassal Church was the bond among the divided social classes Peasant families paid a tax of one-tenth of their income (tithe) to the church
Nobles were always fighting each other Needed skilled warriors to defend land Pledged to defend land in exchanged for fiefs Wealth from land allowed them to devote lives to war Started training at age 7
Warfare Knights in the Middle Ages wore armor in battle and were heavily armed. Armor was made of chain mail—small, interlocking metal links stitched to a knee-length leather shirt. The knight would also wear an iron helmet and carry a sword, a large shield, and a lance.
Warfare When gunpowder was invented during the late Middle Ages, overlapping metal plates replaced chain mail. Plate armor was so heavy that knights had to be hauled onto their horses with cranes.
Knight Life To become a knight, a boy had to belong to the noble class and had to pass through two stages of training. Page- The first stage began at about the age of seven. The page would learn knightly manners and how to use and care for weapons. Squire- the second stage usually the boy was a teenager. The squire would take care of the knight's horse, armor, and weapons. When ready, the squire would accompany the knight into battle. If the squire proved himself to be a skilled and courageous fighter, he would be knighted in an elaborate religious ceremony.
Knight Life A knight's coat of arms identified him A coat of arms was a symbol that represented his personal characteristics. A coat of arms was passed along from one generation to the next.
Worked land Cared for animals Maintained Estate Owed lord Several workdays a week Portion of grain produced Paid high taxes to live on land Most traveled no more than 25 miles from where they were born
Worked next to men in fields Ran households and had children Girls learned household skills
People who couldn’t leave the place they were born Not slaves Couldn’t be bought or sold - all labor produced belonged to lord Lord provided Housing Farmland Protection from bandits Created everything the lord needed Most children didn’t survive till adulthood They were not allowed to hunt on the lord’s land so they rarely ate meat. Serfs had short life expectancies due to disease, starvation, and frequent warfare.
king Noble Church Official Knights Peasants/Serfs
In return for being able to work the land, the peasants gave the lord some of their crops (taxes) and helped to farm his land. Most of manor’s land occupied by fields for crops, pastures for animals Middle Ages farmers learned that leaving field empty for year improved soil In time, practice developed into three-field crop rotation system One field planted in spring for fall harvest Another field planted in winter for spring harvest Third field remained unplanted for year Rotation Each manor included fortified house (castle) for noble family, village for peasants, serfs Goal to make manor self-sufficient Typical manor also included church, mill, blacksmith Small Village A Typical Manor
Life in a Castle Life in Middle Ages not easy, did not have comforts we have today Early castles built for defense not comfort Few windows, stuffy in summer, cold in winter, dark always Bedrooms In early castles, noble family bedrooms separated from main area by sheets Later castles had separate bedrooms; latrines near bedrooms Wooden bathtub outside in warm weather, inside near fireplace in winter Space Nobles had to share space with others, including soldiers, servants Private rooms very rare Main room the hall, large room for dining, entertaining Daily Life in the Middle Ages
Castles A castle was a fortified base from which the lord enforced his authority and protected the surrounding countryside. In the early Middle Ages, castles were simple structures made from earth and wood, later they were made from stone. Castles were usually built on hills or other landforms that would prevent easy attack. If a castle was on flat land (difficult to defend) a moat and drawbridge were built
BUILDING A MOTTE AND BAILEY CASTLE: The Normans had invented a way of building castles quickly. It was a bit like making sandcastles but on a much bigger scale. After digging a ditch, they raised a great mound in the middle. This was called a “motte” which is French for “mound”. On top of the mound they built a tower and surrounded it with a wooden fence. This was the strongest point of the castle. Below the motte there was another enclosure surrounded by a fence. This was called the “bailey’. The Normans built motte and bailey castles all over England
Castles The keep was the main part of the castle. It was a strong tower that usually contained storerooms, workshops, barracks and the lord's living quarters. A castle's rooms had thick walls and small windows with no glass so they were usually dark and chilly.
The family rose before dawn. Men went to work in the fields; women did chores. During harvest, the entire family worked in the field all day. Despite discomforts, life in a castle was preferable to life in a village. The typical village family lived in a small wooden one-room house. The roof was made of straw, the floor of dirt, and the furniture of rough wood. Open holes in the walls served as windows. Most families slept on beds of straw on floor All shared one room with each other, animals Most glad to have animals to provide extra heat in cold winters Bedrooms Life in a Village Peasant families cooked meals over open fire in middle of floor Typical meal: brown bread, cheese, vegetables, occasionally meat No chimneys, house often full of smoke; fires common Meals