3Puritanism“Puritanism. The haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy.” H.L. Mencken
4Puritans Vs. Pilgrims Pilgrims: Puritans: Small group of Puritans who traveled on the Mayflower in 1620 to establish a “purified” church.Settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony about 10 years after Mayflower Pilgrims came over. Also pilgrims, as in seeking a new home because of religious convictions.Reconstruct not only church, but man and man’s institutions as well.
5Puritanism: A New Start in America Persecuted in England for going against the Protestant church/governmentReligion was an individual, personal, and internal experience.The individual’s relationship with God was not determined by a member of the clergy or the government—it was directBelieved that all humans were damned (depravity), but that some were meant to be saved.
6Only God’s grace was an individual’s salvation. Even More Major Ideas:Fate was pre-determined-- one couldn’t “save” oneself, but if one led a good life, one would be able to see the “signs” that meant one were savedOnly God’s grace was an individual’s salvation.Dissenters were punished severely: flogging, banishment, death (Salem Witch Trials)Business was an important part of community, as was education
7Puritan Community/Values: Contract-based (like convenant with God) government—beginnings of democracyValued: self-awareness, industriousness, temperance, and simplicity
10Salem Witch Trials: 169219 men and women (5 men) convicted and hung for witchcraftDaughter and niece of a prominent reverent fell ill. People called “witchcraft” and the witch hunt beganPeople accused others by “calling out names” in fits, or sickness=panicFear of the devil and his workings, paranoia born out of uncertainty and fear, factions in villages, competition with nearby towns, epidemic of smallpoxAfter less than a year, the court disbanded, all those in prison for witchcraft were pardoned and the “witch hunt” was overFamilies were eventually given apologies and restitution
11Puritan WritingBible=model as people searched for connections between their lives and biblical eventsEach individual’s life was a spiritual journey, so recorded in diaries and historical documents describing the workings of God.Known for plain style of writing emphasizing clarity and avoiding complicated figures of speech
12Puritan Writers Anne Bradstreet William Bradford Mary Rowlandson Reverend Jonathan Edwards
13Anne Bradstreet Born in England in 1612 Well-educated Married Simon Bradstreet at 16, emigrated to Colonies in 1630Wrote of her family, love for her husband, and love for GodWrote privately, but brother-in-law brought some poems to England where they were publishedUnusual for her to write poetry in this fashion as women were in more traditional roles in this society, but Bradstreet blended “depravity” with “hope” and didn’t challenge authority with her writing
14Image Analysis: Benjamin Franklin Drawing Electricity from the Sky What do you notice about Franklin in this painting? What is the viewer supposed to think about him? What is he doing?What subjects or ideas are highlighted in this painting?What do you notice in the background?How does this image contrast with the ideals of Puritanism that we discussed?Based on this image (and it’s title), what can you glean or infer about the time period this painting is meant to represent?
15“The Age of Reason”: Rationalism The belief that human beings can arrive at truth by using reasonResponse to Puritanism starting around the end of the 17th centuryInfluenced by European “Enlightenment” (17th and 18th centuries)New ideas about God: “clockmaker” who gave humans the gift of reason which allows them to discover scientific and spiritual truth
16Changing Trends… Puritans Rationalists God=actively and mysteriously involved in the workings of the universeEveryone’s fate is pre-determined.Humans are inherently “sinners”.Bible contains all truth.God=clockmaker of the universeGod=gave humans the gift of reason aka the ability to think in an ordered, logical manner that allows them to discover both scientific and spiritual truth.Everyone has the capacity to regulate and improve his or her own lifeDeism—humanity’s goodness, God desires human happiness, basis for social welfareScientific growth in order to discover “natural law”/improve lives
18Franklin: Rationalist Henry Steele Commager: "In Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat.”Poor Richard’s Almanac, The Autobiography (self-made American, progress)
19Famous “Tinkers,” Rationalist Writers, and Rationalist Literature: Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, Patrick HenryDeclaration of Independence and related writings (Iroquois Constitution, Declaration of Sentiments)Persuasive political writings/speeches: ethos, logos, pathosInstruct upon values for self-improvement (Poor Richard’s Almanac)
21“The American Dream”“We will walk on our own feet; we will work with our own hands; we will speak with our own minds.” --Ralph Waldo EmersonIn what ways does this quote epitomize the idea of the “American Dream” during this time period? What is your definition of the American Dream?
22American Romanticism: 1800-1860 Developed as a reaction to Rationalism/Industrial RevolutionInfluenced by German Romantic movements beginning in the second half of 18th centuryRomantics saw the negative sides of progress (poverty, over-crowding, child labor, disease, dangerous living conditions) and responded with a call for intuition, freedom, imagination, individuality, nature, and poetry.
23The Downsides of “Progress” Over-crowded Living ConditionsSickness/Poverty
26ROMANTICISMBelief that through imagination, one can discover truths that the rational mind couldn’tImagination, individual feelings, and wild nature were > reason and logicPoetry=highest embodiment of imagination. Often contrasts science with nature.Escaping the “dull realities” to a realm of higher truth.
27Romanticism’s “Siblings”: TranscendentalismDark RomanticismEverything in the physical world is a reflection of the Divine Soul.Valued intuition over logic, and the ideas of self-reliance and self-improvementNature is path to “transcend” the dull realities—signs and symbols in events/natureOptimistic/Utopian ideas about improving society (Brook Farm/Fruitlands)Valued intuition over logic and reason Saw signs and symbols in all events Made the connection between the spiritual existing in nature’s appearance Thought that Tran. ignored the “dark side” of Puritanism: original sin, good vs. evil, psychological effects of guilt/sin, madness.
28Romantic Writers Romantics: Dark Romantics: “Fireside poets”—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier, Oliver Wendell Holmes, James Russell LoweRalph Waldo Emerson, H.D. Thoreau and other T’sJames Fenimore CooperWashington IrvingEdgar Allen PoeNathaniel HawthorneHerman Melville
29Poe’s Quote Corner: Edgar Allen Poe: Sonnet “To Science” Who alterest all things with thy peering eyes.Why preyest thou thus upon the poet's heart,Vulture, whose wings are dull realities?How should he love thee? or how deem thee wise?“They who dream by day are cognizant of many things which escape those who dream only by night.”
30Romantic Poetry Vs. Romantic Fiction Borrowed European style in order to show that Americans weren’t “hicks”.Sonnet formReflected on natural world until the “dull realities” fell away to reveal underlying beauty or truthDeveloped a new “hero” for American Literature and explored the America unknown to EuropeBorrowed some ideas/archetypes/folklore from Europe, but created an American “voice” in exploring them“It has been a marvel to my European readers, that a man from the wilds of America should express himself in tolerable English. I was looked upon as something new and strange […]” Washington Irving
31The Romantic Hero Youthful or possesses youthful qualities Innocent and pure of purposeHas a sense of honor based not on society’s rules but on some higher principleHas knowledge of people and life based on deep, intuitive understanding not on formal learningLoves nature and avoids town lifeQuests for some higher truth in the natural worldReaction to stereotypes about Americans from European lensDevelopment of American Romantic hero coincided with westward expansionVirtue in American innocence rather than European sophisticationStill creating these heroes today: Luke Skywalker, Indiana Jones, Superman, etc.
32Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: “The Cross of Snow” Isolates nature to understand a “truth”Written about his wife, Fanny, who died after a tragic accident (fire)Written 18 years after her death, not published until after hisPetrarchan Sonnet: Italian (iambic pentameter, octave, volta, sestet)
34Nathaniel Hawthorne: Dark Romantic “That blue-eyed darling Nathaniel knew disagreeable things in his inner soul. He was careful to send them out in disguise.” D.H. Lawrence
35Transcendentalism:Developed in the 1830s both in connection with, and in opposition to RomanticismTranscendentalism refers to the idea that in finding God, the universe, and the self/soul, one must transcend typical human experience in the physical worldMarked by a “return” to nature, and trust in intuition rather than deliberate rationality and intellectualism
36TranscendentalismBelieved that self-reliance and individualism must outweigh external authority, and self-improvement leads to social improvementWorked to find the “permanent reality that underlies physical appearance”Optimism about the potential of individual lives and the universe
38Famous Transcendentalists Ralph Waldo Emerson AKA Lead TranscendentalistHenry David Thoreau AKA neighbor and friend to L.T.Margret Fuller AKA one of the first major feminist writers in the USAmos Bronson Alcott AKA father to Louisa May Alcott
39Henry David Thoreau 1817-1862, born in Concord, MA. Went to Harvard, very well-read, but many felt he squandered his talents and connections (including Emerson)Influenced by EmersonWent “into the woods” to journey inwards in a T. fashion. Built a small cabin on Emerson’s land two miles from town. Lived there for three years, writing, thinking, and studying life
40ThoreauWrote “Resistance to Civil Government” while on Walden Pond after being arrested for not paying poll tax (supported Mexican-American War) because he felt it extended slavery.Died in Apparently asked on his deathbed if he’s made peace with God (by his aunt). His reply: “I didn’t know that we had ever quarreled.”
43“Resistance to Civil Government” Response to being jailed for one night for not paying poll taxDiscusses the role of the individual in society and to his/her governmentEmploys rhetoric devices of: ethos, logos, pathosInspired authors and thinkers like MLK and Gandhi around passive/non-violent resistance
44Ethos, Logos, PathosEthos is appeal based on the character of the speaker or moral or widely accepted values and/or standardsLogos is appeal based on logic or reason; it uses facts, examples, and well-reasoned arguments.Pathos: is an appeal based on emotion and language and anecdotes that arouse strong feelings.