2BACKGROUND:Culmination of a century of conflict between Dutch settlers and British settlers/crown/empire Dutch forced north by Brits 1834 (Great Trek) First Boer War (Boer victory!)More gold & diamond mines found in region Increasing # of Brits in Transvaal & Orange Free StateBrits wanted more control of region; Afrikaners resented(Pssst! Boer= Dutch word for farmer; Afrikaner = Boer)
3Paul Kruger, President of Transvaal Affectionetly known as “Uncle Paul” (oom Paul, in Afrikinee)
4A double ultimatum:Brits demand full voting rights (the outnumbered the Boers at this point);Boers countered with a demand that all British military leave immediately. The British didn’t, and Boers declared war!If you want a fight, you will have it. This time to the FINISHExplain this cartoon. It works on MANY levels.
5500,000 GB & colonial troops vs. 85,000 Boer soldiers Explain this French postcard.A small Paul Kruger, President of the South African Republic, as David about to be bludgeoned by a British general as Goliath. Gold mines in the background. French postcard
6What’s happening in the German cartoon What’s happening in the German cartoon? What does it tell you about the view of the Boer War?
7Phase 1: Boer OffensiveThis is a German political cartoon from the earliest stage of the Boer war. What does it show? Why would the Germans take such pleasure in this scene?
10President Kruger is received in Paris by the French President. What message does this sort of diplomatic move send?
11Phase 3: Guerrilla Warfare Use of irregular tacticsDrains British manpower, money, and patienceBrits use “unseemly” methodsBritish population loosing enthusiasm for war
12What does this cartoon tell you about British attitudes towards the war? What are the competing ideologies?
13One British response to the guerrilla war was a 'scorched earth' policy. Here, Boer civilians watch their house as it is burned
14Concentration Camps:Exposed & brought to global attention by British journalist Emily Hobhouse
15What does this French depiction of a concentration camp tell you?
16After the war, the British formally annexed the two Boer Republics; this is a German cartoon depicting that event. What was the German attitude and why?
17Results:Transvaal & Orange Free State formally annexed with promise of independence Granted in 1906, creation of South African RepublicDemonstrated the excess of imperialism; first major war of Christian v. Christian since the Crimean War- attitudes about war & empire had changedGB isolated internationally- need friends!Germans see as weakness- Brits couldn’t control own colony, couldn’t win an easy victory with overwhelming numbersSignificant military lessons ***see below***Parliament noticed how unhealthy its population was 80% of men deemed unfit for duty! ***see below***Liberals ousted in 1906, Conservatives take controlNew journalism ***see below***
18Results:Significant military lessons *tech and modern combat played a significant role in the war* smokeless powder- unseen death from a distance* rifles with new magazines* no longer used volley & line formation* KEY- importance of defense with new weapons* stopped wearing bright colors- khakiParliament noticed how unhealthy its population was 80% of men deemed unfit for duty! * Increased call for health reform; gov’t responded w/ new lawsNew journalism *Formed public opinion as well as reporting news* Critical backlash against glorifying war & Empire