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Datalink Access. Provides access to the datalink layer for an application Capabilities  Ability to watch the packets received by the datalink layer 

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Presentation on theme: "Datalink Access. Provides access to the datalink layer for an application Capabilities  Ability to watch the packets received by the datalink layer "— Presentation transcript:

1 Datalink Access

2 Provides access to the datalink layer for an application Capabilities  Ability to watch the packets received by the datalink layer  Run certain programs as applications instead of kernel. Ex: RARP

3 Access Methods 3 common methods  BSD Packet Filter (BPF)  SVR4 Datalink Provider Interface (DLPI)  Linux SOCK_PACKET interface Libpcap library  Publicly available packet capture library  Works with all the above three methods.  Writing programs with this makes them OS independent

4 BSD Packet Filter (BPF) Each datalink driver calls BPF  right before a packet is transmitted  Right after a packet is received Filter capability  Each application opens BPF device  Can load its own filter  Applied by BPF to each packet Filter can be as detailed as “only TCP segments to or from 80, only SYN, FIN or RST

5 BSD Packet Filter (BPF)

6 Three techniques to reduce overhead:  Filters within kernel. Avoids data copy into user appl.  Only a portion of each packet is copied. ( =96 bytes)  BPF buffers the data. It is copied to appl buffer only when full or read timeout expires.

7 Datalink Provider Interface (DLPI)

8 Similar to BPF Differences:  Filter implementation in BPF is 3 to 20 times faster than DLPI. Directed acyclic control flow graph an boolean expression tree.  BPF always make the filtering decision before copying the packet. DLPI may first copy the packet to pfmod and then make the decision.

9 Linux Two methods:  Socket of type:SOCK_PACKET  Socket of family: PF_PACKET Third argument must specify the frame type.  PF_PACKET: Type is SOCK_RAW to receive complete link layer packet. Socket(PF_PACKET, SOCK_RAW, htons(ETH_P_ALL));

10 Linux Differences with BPF and DLPI:  Provides no kernel buffering. Filtering is avaialble only with PF_PACKET.  Multiple frames can’t be buffered together. So it increase no. of sys calls.

11 libpcap Provides implementation independent access to the underlying packet capture facility.

12 Libpcap example int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { pcap_t *handle;/* Session handle */ char *dev;/* The device to sniff on */ char errbuf[PCAP_ERRBUF_SIZE];/* Error string */ struct bpf_program fp;/* The compiled filter */ char filter_exp[] = "port 23";/* The filter expression */ bpf_u_int32 mask;/* Our netmask */ bpf_u_int32 net;/* Our IP */ struct pcap_pkthdr header;/* The header that pcap gives us */ const u_char *packet;/* The actual packet */ /* Define the device */ dev = pcap_lookupdev(errbuf); if (dev == NULL) { fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't find default device: %s\n", errbuf); return(2); }

13 Libpcap example[1] /* Find the properties for the device */ if (pcap_lookupnet(dev, &net, &mask, errbuf) == -1) { fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't get netmask for device %s: %s\n", dev, errbuf); net = 0; mask = 0; } /* Open the session in promiscuous mode */ handle = pcap_open_live(dev, BUFSIZ, 1, 1000, errbuf); if (handle == NULL) { fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't open device %s: %s\n", somedev, errbuf); return(2); } /* Compile and apply the filter */ if (pcap_compile(handle, &fp, filter_exp, 0, net) == -1) { fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't parse filter %s: %s\n", filter_exp, pcap_geterr(handle)); return(2); }

14 Libpcap example[2] if (pcap_setfilter(handle, &fp) == -1) { fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't install filter %s: %s\n", filter_exp, pcap_geterr(handle)); return(2); } /* Grab a packet */ packet = pcap_next(handle, &header); /* Print its length */ printf(“Got a packet with length of [%d]\n", header.len); /* And close the session */ pcap_close(handle); return(0); }

15 Libpcap example[2]


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