Presentation on theme: " Dr. Allyson Hadwin Self-regulated learning In 21 st Century Classrooms Tweet your thoughts #SRLcanada."— Presentation transcript:
Dr. Allyson Hadwin Self-regulated learning In 21 st Century Classrooms Tweet your thoughts #SRLcanada
Warm up activity What do you know about self-regulated learning? K What do we know? W What do we want to learn? L New Surprising Confusing Exciting ✔✔✗
Who Am I? Associate professor in Educational Psychology Co-director of the Technology Integration & Evaluation Research Laboratory Instructor for ED-D101: Learning strategies for University Success Research: Regulation in learning Tools & Technologies Instructional Principles, Designs, and Strategies Support Student Engagement & Learning
What do I believe learning? COMMITTED TO EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE Learning is a lifelong process Learning involves cognitive work Learning requires reflection &metacognition Learning is social Learning grows from challenges 4
SRL Consortium “Self-regulation” has been researched since the 1970’s with a focus on classroom practices and learner processes that involve active, strategic learning and engagement in authentic classroom tasks SRL Canada: Canadian Consortium for Self-Regulated Learning (see includes many internationally renowned researchers working here in BC, with educators across multiple districts:http://srlcanada.ca/ Nancy Perry (UBC-Vancouver) Deb Butler (UBC-Vancouver) Allyson Hadwin (University of Victoria) Leyton Schnellert (UBC-Okanagan) Phil Winne (SFU) Slide Prepared by: Dr. Deborah Butler (UBC)
Examples of SRL Projects in BC Qualities of Elementary Classrooms that Support SRL Tools & Technologies for supporting Self-regulation Co-regulation Shared-regulation Developing SRL- Supportive Practices in Intermediate and Secondary Classrooms Supporting Pre- Service Teachers to Develop SRL- Supportive Practices Teachers in Schools Working Together to Develop SRL- Supportive Practices Supporting learners to adaptively regulate in the face of challenge
Why do I care about Self-regulation? Brings together critical aspects of motivation, cognition, behavior, and metacognition that are central to learning & engagement Empowers learners to take control and responsibility of learning (thinking, behaviour, motivation, and emotions) Tightly connected with 21 st century learning and personalized learning About lifelong learning – this is NOT just for success at school
Lets start with these questions 1. What is “self-regulation”, and why is fostering self-regulation important? 2. Where does SRL breakdown? 3. How can teachers support self- regulation? 4. How can teachers/schools work together to build practices supportive of self-regulation?
What is self-regulated Learning?
What is “Self-Regulation”? A narrow definition: Self regulation is the ability to respond effectively to various stressors and return to a state of equilibrium A robust and evidence-based classroom definition: Self-regulated learning is goal-directed strategic action that is guided by motivation and metacognition. It is a process of taking control of, and evaluating one’s own learning.
Self-regulation involves… SRL Attending to Features of the Environment Resisting distractions Persisting in the face of difficulty Responding Adaptively & flexibly Controlling or adapting thoughts, actions, emotions, & motivation Goal directedness Delaying gratification to meet a goal
Social process Other regulation Co- regulation Self- regulation SRL gradually appropriated Modelling Observation Imitation Self-control Instrumental feedback Metacognitive/motivational prompts Scaffolding
4 critical messages frame this talk While supporting students to be calm and focused (poised to learn) may be important, successful regulation of learning is much more than controlling attention and emotion. More than calm & focus Learning to regulate learning in dynamic classroom contexts is appropriate for all levels of learners from elementary right through to post-secondary Essential at ALL ages & levels It is about developing learner control Who is doing the regulating? If it is always you, there is something wrong! Student- centred Self-directed - taking control of the tasks, objectives, outcomes Self-regulated– taking control of your learning processes Not Self-directed learning
How do perspectives differ? Developmental Focus Educational Psychology Focus early years primarily basic (executive processes) behaviour & emotion control atypical development often situated in research labs & involving non- school tasks school years & beyond higher order processes (e.g., metacognition) Learning in academic tasks as well as social and emotional learning typical and atypical learners mainly situated in or oriented to classroom tasks & contexts
Controlling behavior & emotions are important
But SRL also involves… Knowing what you are supposed to do & why Having self-goals to aim for & monitor against Goal Directedness Reflecting on thinking, knowing strengths & weaknesses Monitoring and self-evaluating time, progress, performance Complex Metacognitive & Cognitive Processes Finding value or meaning Taking risks, confronting challenges Developing confidence and managing emotions Motivation & Emotion Learning from past experiences Drawing from awareness of knowledge, beliefs, experiences Personal history Selecting & modifying strategies to complete tasks. Regulating thinking, behavior, motivation and emotion when needed Adaptation & Strategic Action Tasks, teachers, peers, parents, contexts & cultures Adjusting learning processes, environments & interactions Dynamic social interaction
Self-Regulation in LEARNING SKILL Strategic Action REFLECTION Metacognition WILL Motivation To Learn
WILL Motivation Genuine interest in learning Belief that ability is incremental Focus on personal progress Willingness to try challenging tasks View that errors present opportunities to learn Belief that effort and effective strategy use will lead to success 18
SKILL: Metacognition Awareness of self (learning strengths and weaknesses, motivation & emotions) Awareness of tasks & environments, (the demands of tasks/activities) Strategy knowledge Knowing how to choose and use the right strategy for the job: matching strategies to challenges Monitoring progress & Processes Recognizing when things are going sideways and doing something about it What do I know? What don’t I know? How am I doing? How did I figure that out? 19
Strategic Action-Control Experimenting with new approaches Adapting in the face of new challenges Applying strategies effectively and efficiently Choosing strategies suited to you & the situation 20
What do we Self-Regulate? Choosing a quiet place to study (library) Asking the teacher for help Turning my off because it is grabbing my attention Behaviour Drive to get going Persistence to keep going How much you value the task Confidence in your ability to do well Feelings that pose challenges to your work Motivation and Emotions Making connections between ideas Relating things to what I already know Translating ideas into my own words or images Re-directing attention Cognition (Thinking & Attention)
Why is Self-Regulation Important? Self-regulated learners are successful in and beyond school. Higher motivation and confidence Productive thinking skills & strategies(cognition) Task relevant behaviour Achievement All students benefit from instructional contexts that support SRL, including students with exceptional learning needs. I can do it
SRL develops over a lifetime Early Years Middle Years Secondary & Beyond Professional Practice (Teachers Regulate too)
For Early Success in School Low levels of self-regulation before school predict academic difficulties in school. Emotional regulation (coping with frustration, persisting) Behaviour regulation (following directions, working independently) Children with poor regulation have problems with behaviour, completing academic tasks, and relating to peers and their teachers. Performing well on tasks that require self-regulation predicts early school achievement even more powerfully than IQ scores and knowledge of reading and math. Successful self-regulation in kindergarten predicts achievement through grade 6.
For Success in Middle Years … StageEnvironmentImplications for SRL Desire for autonomyTighten controlFewer opportunities Self-consciousnessIncrease social comparison Lower motivation We need to create environments that are psychologically safe and intellectually challenging—encourage autonomy but provide appropriate levels of support. See J. Eccles & Colleagues writings on the topic stage-environment fit.
For Success in High School… Learning to take responsibility for their learning and motivation Preparing for transitions to work or post- secondary where they will need to work and learn independently –Learn to grapple with complex tasks –Experience learning challenges – challenges are opportunities to learn to SRL –Effort appropriately applied not just more effort –Context of tasks – bigger purpose, not just “things the teacher needs to have a grade”
SRL is important inside & outside school…
But students may need help with SRL
Top 4 challenges students identify ChallengeDescriptionExamplesN= X 10 wks Motivation & Procrastination Not having the will or desire to do my work (includes procrastination) “I didn’t feel like studying” “I kept putting it off” “I wasn’t interested in the work” “I was too lazy to do it” “It didn’t seem valuable or useful” 787 Goal & Time management Setting unhelpful goals and/or not managing my time to accomplish my goals “I didn’t have a clear goal for learning” “My goal that was too big or too much” “I didn’t organize my time well enough” “I didn’t prioritize things” “I ran out of time” 702 Attention, Learning & remembering Having trouble focusing attention or maintaining attention; understanding or remembering the information “I kept losing my focus or attention” “I couldn’t make connections between course ideas or theories” “I couldn’t explain concepts in my own words” “I couldn’t remember” “I couldn’t apply or use what I studied” “I couldn’t figure out what was important” 647 Emotions Experiencing feelings that interfered with my work “I was anxious or worried” “I was stressed out…” “I was feeling bad about it” “I was too excited to focus” “I was bored” “I felt hopeless about it” 431
Next 4 challenges students identify ChallengeDescriptionExamplesN= X 10wks Task & Metacognitive Challenges Challenging concepts or tasks, unclear about what should be done. “I didn’t know what we were supposed to do””…why we were doing it” I didn’t know how to study” “I didn’t know how to [critique, apply, etc] 320 Choosing or using strategies Having trouble knowing what strategies to use or in using appropriate strategies for the task “I didn’t know a strategy to use for this” “I chose the wrong strategy for my work” “I didn’t know how to fix my strategy for the task” “I wasn’t sure about the best way to do this work” 285 Finding the right place & situation to study Studying in the wrong environment or studying with the wrong people “I couldn’t concentrate because it was too noisy” “My friends distracted me” “Other activities distracted me” “I couldn’t find a good place to work” 284 Life & Self- management Having trouble with my health, sleep, or other life events “I was feeling sick” “I was distracted by other things going on in my life” “I was hungry” “I was sleepy” 267
Self-regulated learning is about… STUDENTS Knowing what to do when these challenges emerge STUDENTS Responding adaptively & flexibly in the face of challenge STUDENTS Learning how to learn from mistakes
What do we need to know to help? How to help students figure out where in the SRL process things are breaking down How to design instruction and assessment that creates opportunities for multiple cycles of regulation to unfold (A) Classroom tasks & contexts (B) Assessment & feedback processes (C) Interactions & relationships Next time Creating safe spaces to make mistakes Creating opportunities to learn from mistakes and be rewarded for that
Break time – Think pair share 1. What are 2 ways SRL is implicated in this classroom scenario? 2. What are some of the strengths and weaknesses you see in terms of self- regulated learning?
Regulation unfolds over phases Monitoring Evaluating Task Perceptions Goals & Plans Large Scale Adaptation Task Enactment You need to know what your job REALLY is….and WHY. You need to be able to break things into specific task goals/standards that are challenging but achievable You need to be willing and able to adapt or make changes during and after…learning from your history (seizing the opportunity that failure presents) Winne & Hadwin (1998) You need to engage, drawing upon a tool kit of strategies to get in there, try it and take some risks You need to be able to recognize when things are going sideways
Problems in planning cannot be fixed with task enactment strategies (study skills) Lack of monitoring or inaccurate self- evaluation Incomplete or inaccurate Task Perceptions Goals-Plans without precision or commitment Failure to adapt or turn challenges into opportunities Weak strategy choices or no strategy Where we usually intervene Planning
Tasks are layered with information What is my job here? Identifying what I have to do r demonstrate Interpreting instructions & terms What tools have been provided Explicit Provided information (instructions, terms, grading scheme, details) Why are we doing this? Why do I need to know this stuff What should I know or learn What does this have to do with what we did last week? What are some tools and resources that might help me? Implicit Information to be reasonably inferred (purpose, fit with other things we have done, kind of thinking) What does the teacher really care about when we are doing this? What does this have to do with how historians/electricians/etc think and work? What kind of thinking is valued here? Socio-contextual Disciplinary & teacher beliefs & values that give shape to this
ED-D 401 Hadwin Students often have inaccurate or incomplete task understandings Why do you have a Midterm test in this class? So you have something to grade us on? So know what you need to teach us again for the final? So I can figure out if I understand and if my studying working while I still have time to fix it
Task Understanding Gr. 2 (Stephanie Helm) Good knowledge test scores Weak but improving test scoresWeak task understanding Good task understanding
Developing TU is essential to learning Big ImprovementStrong emerging task understanding
Based on 100 case studies of post-secondary learners (Butler, 2003) Slide prepared by: Dr. Deborah Butler (UBC) Butler’s (2003) findings
But they don’t realize this is the problem Task Understanding Goal setting- planning EnactingNo Evaluation Task Understanding 13 Goal setting - planning 631 Enacting 83 No Evaluation 16 Instructor Assessment of Problem Student Assessment of Problem
What can teachers do? Facilitate task understandin g Don’t do the interpretation for them Guide them through a process of co-constructing perceptions of tasks and task features Ask students about tasks What is your job here? Why are we doing this? What do I want you to learn? How does this relate to what we did last week?
What can teachers do? Group/Peer discussion Have students compare task perceptions Compare plans for completing work Peer read and discuss drafts Assess task understand ing Quiz 2 minute free write Formal task analysis Model thinking & how you find TU answers What am I being asked to do? How am I being asked to think? Why are we doing this?
Phase 2: Goal Setting What are Goals? What you are aiming to accomplish or learn Standards for work Commitment to a particular outcome Taking what you know about a task (your task understanding) and turning it into a plan of action standard to achieve 44
Why are goals important for SRL? Good goals help you... o Deal with 1 little piece at a time o Know how to get started o Know which strategies to use o Generate feedback on how well you’re doing o Get motivated o Plan & manage your time
Goals play a central role in regulating…
Goal Setting Video – Ian Thorpe Important for progress Motivating Challenging but achievable Distal to proximal...right down to this training session Important to reflect on goals Learn from past goals and experiences 47
Goals become important … In all tasks and academic work When choices are made available When there are multiple ways to demonstrate mastery Work extends over time (multiple classes) Student self-evaluation & peer evaluation are promoted Personalized learning contexts
Not all goals are effective Low Study Moderate Read pages this in class High Explain 4 factors contributing to World War 2 using the in my own words. I should be able to explain it to my classroom buddy. I could draw a fishbone cause and effect diagram while I am reading to help me get things in the right sequence
What Are Good Goals in SRL? Good goals for your academic tasks include ALL the following characteristics: Time (day, time, duration – 2 hours max) Action(s) (thinking process or ways of thinking) Standard (to what degree, amount, standard) Content (what specific course ideas/concepts) TASC Goals 50
Danger of Weak goals Experience Motivational Challenge Set a behavior- focused goal The goal is usually not specific or proximal MOT CHLG: This past week i found it difficult to do as much work at home as i should have. I didn't have any deadlines in the near future. I found it difficult to keep myself motivated and focused on my course work for more than about half an hour at a time. In this past week i had a hard time motivating myself to get ahead in my classes. I found that i was pushing things of and procrastinating. Lower efficacy for next goal This next week i would like to finish catching up on my political sciences reading and also get a head start on my computer science project. My goal for the end of next week is to be up to date on the readings and create an outline for my computer science project Maladaptive Motivation Cycle
What happens when goal setting is taught? Goal quality increases They start achieving their goals They start believing they can achieve their goals 52
Requires task understanding Requires sustained practice Requires reflection Requires examples and scaffolding ED-D 401 Hadwin Developing Goal Setting Takes my 1 st year undergraduates 8 weeks of setting one goal every week, before we start to see change in the quality of goals and the outcomes of setting those kinds of goals
Example: TASC Goals Identify Actions Your goal says what action you will take to think about/learn the content The verb in your goal statement Gathering Information Processing Information Extending Information Define Describe Name Identify Recite Note List Compare Contrast Classify Sort Explain why Infer Sequence Analyze Evaluate Generalize Judge Predict If/Then Hypothesize Forecast Apply the principle Learning Verbs 54
Weak strategies or strategy choices To be strategic students need to know: when to use the strategy why the strategy works how to apply the strategy how to check if the strategy works Customize strategies IF……THEN…..ELSE
Reading tactics vs. strategies https://sites.google.com/a/fessenden.k12.nd.us/hov land/homework/reading-strategies ading-Strategies-Bulletin-Board-Set- p10860/?pstart=
“I read it over once and hope to retain it” For Studying “[I] just reread and reread and reread” “I just read and... hope I get it” For Reading “If I don’t understand I’ll keep going over it till I do” “[I] read, use rules, find a reasonable answer, cheat” “If I am using them [strategies], I’m not aware of it” For Learning Math “I write my thoughts as they flow through my mind, in sentences.” “I write down my point and at the end I have a mess.” For Writing Effort appropriately applied?
Relate to student’s experiences: a lack of confidence little sense of control over outcomes (i.e., low self-efficacy) frustration, boredom, anxiety Putting effort and seeing no results Students may: try but be “actively inefficient” give up Rebel Motivation & Self-confidence Taking an SRL approach to figuring out the problem: Reveals opportunities to turn challenges into successes
Where to go from here 1.Over the next couple of weeks in your school…..think about SRL. What do you see? 2.What resonates from todays introduction to SRL? 3.What are 2 kinds of self-regulation problems or challenges you observe
Where are your students struggling? Monitoring Evaluating Task Perceptions Goals & Plans Large Scale Adaptation Task Enactment You need to know what your job REALLY is….and WHY. You need to be able to break things into specific task goals/standards that are challenging but achievable You need to be willing and able to adapt or make changes during and after…learning from your history (seizing the opportunity that failure presents) Winne & Hadwin (1998) You need to engage, drawing upon a tool kit of strategies to get in there, try it and take some risks You need to be able to recognize when things are going sideways
Teachers as self-regulating learners Monitoring Evaluating Task Perceptions Goals & Plans Large Scale Adaptation Task Enactment What is really going on, what is the problem? What do I really care about? What do I want to learn? Breaking it down into manageable and achievable short term goals Identifying specific instructional strategies You need to be willing and able to adapt or make changes during and after…learning from your history (seizing the opportunity that failure presents) Winne & Hadwin (1998) Trying it out Systematic tracking How is it going?
Add to our wall… What do you know about self-regulated learning? K What do we know? W What do we want to learn? L New Surprising Confusing Exciting ✔✔✔ Or tweet your thoughts #SRL4life