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Self-regulated learning

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1 Self-regulated learning
In 21st Century Classrooms Dr. Allyson Hadwin Tweet your thoughts #SRLcanada

2 ✔ ✗ Warm up activity What do you know about self-regulated learning? K
What do we know? W What do we want to learn? L New Surprising Confusing Exciting

3 Who Am I? Associate professor in Educational Psychology
Co-director of the Technology Integration & Evaluation Research Laboratory Instructor for ED-D101: Learning strategies for University Success Research: Regulation in learning Tools & Technologies Instructional Principles, Designs, and Strategies Support Student Engagement & Learning

4 What do I believe learning?
COMMITTED TO EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE Learning is a lifelong process Learning involves cognitive work Learning requires reflection &metacognition Learning is social Learning grows from challenges 4

5 SRL Consortium “Self-regulation” has been researched since the 1970’s with a focus on classroom practices and learner processes that involve active, strategic learning and engagement in authentic classroom tasks SRL Canada: Canadian Consortium for Self-Regulated Learning (see includes many internationally renowned researchers working here in BC, with educators across multiple districts: Nancy Perry (UBC-Vancouver) Deb Butler (UBC-Vancouver) Allyson Hadwin (University of Victoria) Leyton Schnellert (UBC-Okanagan) Phil Winne (SFU) 9:00 – 9:15 ALLYSON Slide Prepared by: Dr. Deborah Butler (UBC)

6 Examples of SRL Projects in BC
Qualities of Elementary Classrooms that Support SRL Developing SRL-Supportive Practices in Intermediate and Secondary Classrooms Tools & Technologies for supporting Self-regulation Co-regulation Shared-regulation 9:00 – 9:15 ALLYSON Nancy Perry’s new work on struggling youth Supporting Pre-Service Teachers to Develop SRL-Supportive Practices Teachers in Schools Working Together to Develop SRL-Supportive Practices Supporting learners to adaptively regulate in the face of challenge

7 Why do I care about Self-regulation?
Brings together critical aspects of motivation, cognition, behavior, and metacognition that are central to learning & engagement Empowers learners to take control and responsibility of learning (thinking, behaviour, motivation, and emotions) Tightly connected with 21st century learning and personalized learning About lifelong learning – this is NOT just for success at school

8 Lets start with these questions
What is “self-regulation”, and why is fostering self-regulation important? Where does SRL breakdown? How can teachers support self- regulation? How can teachers/schools work together to build practices supportive of self-regulation? 9:00 – 9:15 ALLYSON

9 What is self-regulated Learning?

10 What is “Self-Regulation”?
A narrow definition: Self regulation is the ability to respond effectively to various stressors and return to a state of equilibrium A robust and evidence-based classroom definition: Self-regulated learning is goal-directed strategic action that is guided by motivation and metacognition. It is a process of taking control of, and evaluating one’s own learning. 9:00 – 9:15 ALLYSON

11 Self-regulation involves…
SRL Attending to Features of the Environment Resisting distractions Persisting in the face of difficulty Responding Adaptively & flexibly Controlling or adapting thoughts, actions, emotions, & motivation Goal directedness Delaying gratification to meet a goal

12 Social process Other regulation Co-regulation Self-regulation
SRL gradually appropriated Modelling Observation Imitation Self-control Instrumental feedback Metacognitive/motivational prompts Scaffolding CO-REGULATING WITH PEERS Story of the morning message

13 4 critical messages frame this talk
While supporting students to be calm and focused (poised to learn) may be important, successful regulation of learning is much more than controlling attention and emotion. More than calm & focus Learning to regulate learning in dynamic classroom contexts is appropriate for all levels of learners from elementary right through to post-secondary Essential at ALL ages & levels It is about developing learner control Who is doing the regulating? If it is always you, there is something wrong! Student- centred Self-directed - taking control of the tasks, objectives, outcomes Self-regulated– taking control of your learning processes Not Self-directed learning

14 How do perspectives differ?
Developmental Focus Educational Psychology Focus early years primarily basic (executive processes) behaviour & emotion control atypical development often situated in research labs & involving non- school tasks school years & beyond higher order processes (e.g., metacognition) Learning in academic tasks as well as social and emotional learning typical and atypical learners mainly situated in or oriented to classroom tasks & contexts 9:00 – 9:15 NANCY

15 Controlling behavior & emotions are important
9:00 – 9:15 ALLYSON

16 Dynamic social interaction
But SRL also involves… Knowing what you are supposed to do & why Having self-goals to aim for & monitor against Goal Directedness Reflecting on thinking, knowing strengths & weaknesses Monitoring and self-evaluating time, progress, performance Complex Metacognitive & Cognitive Processes Finding value or meaning Taking risks, confronting challenges Developing confidence and managing emotions Motivation & Emotion Learning from past experiences Drawing from awareness of knowledge, beliefs, experiences Personal history Selecting & modifying strategies to complete tasks. Regulating thinking, behavior, motivation and emotion when needed Adaptation & Strategic Action Tasks, teachers, peers, parents, contexts & cultures Adjusting learning processes, environments & interactions Dynamic social interaction 9:00 – 9:15 ALLYSON

17 Self-Regulation in LEARNING
SKILL Strategic Action REFLECTION Metacognition WILL Motivation To Learn 17 NP

18 WILL Motivation Genuine interest in learning
Belief that ability is incremental Focus on personal progress Willingness to try challenging tasks View that errors present opportunities to learn Belief that effort and effective strategy use will lead to success NP 18

19 How did I figure that out?
What do I know? What don’t I know? How am I doing? How did I figure that out? SKILL: Metacognition Awareness of self (learning strengths and weaknesses, motivation & emotions) Awareness of tasks & environments, (the demands of tasks/activities) Strategy knowledge Knowing how to choose and use the right strategy for the job: matching strategies to challenges Monitoring progress & Processes Recognizing when things are going sideways and doing something about it NP 19

20 Strategic Action-Control
Experimenting with new approaches Adapting in the face of new challenges Applying strategies effectively and efficiently Choosing strategies suited to you & the situation NP - comic 20

21 What do we Self-Regulate?
Choosing a quiet place to study (library) Asking the teacher for help Turning my off because it is grabbing my attention Behaviour Drive to get going Persistence to keep going How much you value the task Confidence in your ability to do well Feelings that pose challenges to your work Motivation and Emotions Making connections between ideas Relating things to what I already know Translating ideas into my own words or images Re-directing attention Cognition (Thinking & Attention) Which of the following can students learn to self-regulate? Choose one answer. Thinking b. Motivation and beliefs c. Behaviour and strategy use d. A & C e. A, B, & C 21

22 Why is Self-Regulation Important?
Self-regulated learners are successful in and beyond school. Higher motivation and confidence Productive thinking skills & strategies(cognition) Task relevant behaviour Achievement All students benefit from instructional contexts that support SRL, including students with exceptional learning needs. Keira’s grade 2 dictee note. I can do it

23 SRL develops over a lifetime
Early Years Middle Years Secondary & Beyond Professional Practice (Teachers Regulate too) 9:15-9:30 NANCY

24 For Early Success in School
Low levels of self-regulation before school predict academic difficulties in school. Emotional regulation (coping with frustration, persisting) Behaviour regulation (following directions, working independently) Children with poor regulation have problems with behaviour, completing academic tasks, and relating to peers and their teachers. Performing well on tasks that require self-regulation predicts early school achievement even more powerfully than IQ scores and knowledge of reading and math. Successful self-regulation in kindergarten predicts achievement through grade 6. 9:15-9:30 NANCY

25 For Success in Middle Years …
Stage Environment Implications for SRL Desire for autonomy Tighten control Fewer opportunities Self-consciousness Increase social comparison Lower motivation We need to create environments that are psychologically safe and intellectually challenging—encourage autonomy but provide appropriate levels of support. See J. Eccles & Colleagues writings on the topic stage-environment fit. 9:15-9:30 NANCY

26 For Success in High School…
Learning to take responsibility for their learning and motivation Preparing for transitions to work or post-secondary where they will need to work and learn independently Learn to grapple with complex tasks Experience learning challenges – challenges are opportunities to learn to SRL Effort appropriately applied not just more effort Context of tasks – bigger purpose, not just “things the teacher needs to have a grade” 9:15-9:30 NANCY

27 SRL is important inside & outside school…
9:15-9:30 ALLYSON

28 But students may need help with SRL
Effort appropriately applied Failure as an opportunity On-task behavior Choosing and using appropriate strategies

29 Top 4 challenges students identify
Description Examples N=4201 400 X 10 wks Motivation & Procrastination Not having the will or desire to do my work (includes procrastination) “I didn’t feel like studying” “I kept putting it off” “I wasn’t interested in the work” “I was too lazy to do it” “It didn’t seem valuable or useful” 787 Goal & Time management Setting unhelpful goals and/or not managing my time to accomplish my goals “I didn’t have a clear goal for learning” “My goal that was too big or too much” “I didn’t organize my time well enough” “I didn’t prioritize things” “I ran out of time” 702 Attention, Learning & remembering Having trouble focusing attention or maintaining attention; understanding or remembering the information “I kept losing my focus or attention” “I couldn’t make connections between course ideas or theories” “I couldn’t explain concepts in my own words” “I couldn’t remember” “I couldn’t apply or use what I studied” “I couldn’t figure out what was important” 647 Emotions Experiencing feelings that interfered with my work “I was anxious or worried” “I was stressed out…” “I was feeling bad about it” “I was too excited to focus” “I was bored” “I felt hopeless about it” 431

30 Next 4 challenges students identify
Description Examples N=4201 400 X 10wks Task & Metacognitive Challenges Challenging concepts or tasks, unclear about what should be done.  “I didn’t know what we were supposed to do””…why we were doing it” I didn’t know how to study” “I didn’t know how to [critique, apply, etc] 320 Choosing or using strategies Having trouble knowing what strategies to use or in using appropriate strategies for the task “I didn’t know a strategy to use for this” “I chose the wrong strategy for my work” “I didn’t know how to fix my strategy for the task” “I wasn’t sure about the best way to do this work” 285 Finding the right place & situation to study Studying in the wrong environment or studying with the wrong people “I couldn’t concentrate because it was too noisy” “My friends distracted me” “Other activities distracted me” “I couldn’t find a good place to work” 284 Life & Self-management Having trouble with my health, sleep, or other life events “I was feeling sick” “I was distracted by other things going on in my life” “I was hungry” “I was sleepy” 267 Students know they run into difficulties – but they may not always be good at: (a) figuring out why those challenges arise (source) or (b) choosing strategies that will address those challenges.

31 Self-regulated learning is about…
STUDENTS Knowing what to do when these challenges emerge STUDENTS Responding adaptively & flexibly in the face of challenge STUDENTS Learning how to learn from mistakes This doesn’t mean teachers have nothing to do with this, but it does mean that we need to scaffold Other regulate to co-regulate , to self-regulate

32 What do we need to know to help?
How to help students figure out where in the SRL process things are breaking down How to design instruction and assessment that creates opportunities for multiple cycles of regulation to unfold Classroom tasks & contexts Assessment & feedback processes Interactions & relationships Next time I will hint at these things throughout…but I will come back in the spring to do a full day workshop on these things Today, my focus will be on .. Creating safe spaces to make mistakes Creating opportunities to learn from mistakes and be rewarded for that

33 Break time – Think pair share
What are 2 ways SRL is implicated in this classroom scenario? What are some of the strengths and weaknesses you see in terms of self- regulated learning?

34 Regulation unfolds over phases
You need to be willing and able to adapt or make changes during and after…learning from your history (seizing the opportunity that failure presents) Conditions→Operations→Products→Evaluations→Standards → Monitoring Evaluating Task Perceptions Goals & Plans Large Scale Adaptation Task Enactment You need to know what your job REALLY is….and WHY. You need to be able to recognize when things are going sideways First thing we need to recognize is that SRL unfolds across recursively linked phases You need to be able to break things into specific task goals/standards that are challenging but achievable You need to engage, drawing upon a tool kit of strategies to get in there, try it and take some risks Winne & Hadwin (1998) 34

35 Problems in planning cannot be fixed with task enactment strategies (study skills)
Incomplete or inaccurate Task Perceptions Planning Co Lack of monitoring or inaccurate self-evaluation Failure to adapt or turn challenges into opportunities Goals-Plans without precision or commitment 9:45-10:15 ALLYSON Where we usually intervene Weak strategy choices or no strategy

36 Tasks are layered with information
What is my job here? Identifying what I have to do r demonstrate Interpreting instructions & terms What tools have been provided Explicit Provided information (instructions, terms, grading scheme, details) Why are we doing this? Why do I need to know this stuff What should I know or learn What does this have to do with what we did last week? What are some tools and resources that might help me? Implicit Information to be reasonably inferred (purpose, fit with other things we have done, kind of thinking) What does the teacher really care about when we are doing this? What does this have to do with how historians/electricians/etc think and work? What kind of thinking is valued here? Socio-contextual Disciplinary & teacher beliefs & values that give shape to this 9:45-10:15 ALLYSON

37 Students often have inaccurate or incomplete task understandings
Why do you have a Midterm test in this class? So I can figure out if I understand and if my studying working while I still have time to fix it So you have something to grade us on? So know what you need to teach us again for the final? Last week, after introducing task understanding in my course for pre-service teachers, I gave them an observation task for their Wed classroom experiences. During any course activity, ask a student: What is your job here? Why do you think you are being ask to do this? What is your goal for this work session It was interesting on two fronts….they had the opportunity to hear about classroom tasks from the student perspective. Second, these simple questions quickly revealed at least three kinds of students, beyond the obvious disengaged learner that we worry about: (1) The FAKER - student who looked really hard at work, but just didn’t have a clue. (2) The BUSY task-focused kit who is getting the task done “properly” without much meaningful learning, (c ) The MEANINGFUL learner who is engaging in this task with an eye to the bigger picture. ED-D 401 Hadwin

38 Task Understanding Gr. 2 (Stephanie Helm)
Good knowledge test scores Good task understanding Weak but improving test scores Weak task understanding

39 Developing TU is essential to learning
Big Improvement Strong emerging task understanding

40 Butler’s (2003) findings 9:45-10:15 ALLYSON Based on 100 case studies of post-secondary learners (Butler, 2003) Slide prepared by: Dr. Deborah Butler (UBC)

41 But they don’t realize this is the problem
Instructor Assessment of Problem Task Understanding Goal setting-planning Enacting No Evaluation 13 Goal setting -planning 6 3 1 8 Student Assessment of Problem Task undertanding is a big problem far more often than students realize

42 What can teachers do? Facilitate task understanding
Don’t do the interpretation for them Guide them through a process of co-constructing perceptions of tasks and task features Ask students about tasks What is your job here? Why are we doing this? What do I want you to learn? How does this relate to what we did last week? 9:45-10:15 ALLYSON

43 What can teachers do? Group/Peer discussion Assess task understanding
Have students compare task perceptions Compare plans for completing work Peer read and discuss drafts Assess task understanding Quiz 2 minute free write Formal task analysis Model thinking & how you find TU answers What am I being asked to do? How am I being asked to think? Why are we doing this? Modelling – story about Keira and Tara…Last year, I was working in my office and I asked Keirane (10) to help her sister (6) prepare her show and tell written journal entry. Taryn looked at what the other children did, Keirane looked at the instructions at the front of the journal. Keira: What do you think you should write about for your hints Tara: [In french] It is blue. It is red. It is black. Keira: Mmm, I wonder if there are some other things you could write instead of just hints about colour. Tara. Nope, it says three things…those are my three things. Keira: Why do you think Mme is asking you to write about your show and tell…Is it just to give 3 hints or is there something else she wants to get you to do (Keirane was thinking about the examples the teacher had provided). DO you think it is so you have just any old three hints written down or do you think it is to get you to practice saying all kinds of different things in french Tara: It doesn’t matter, I have my 3 things. I am done.

44 Phase 2: Goal Setting What are Goals?
What you are aiming to accomplish or learn Standards for work Commitment to a particular outcome Taking what you know about a task (your task understanding) and turning it into a plan of action standard to achieve -so what is a goal? -it is a commitment to a particular outcome or result -it is taking what you know about a task and turning that into a plan of action and creating a standard to work towards -as humans, we are goal-directed, so even if our goals are not explicit, we all have them and they influence what we do; in school, these goals guide our studying and learning processes 44

45 Why are goals important for SRL?
Good goals help you... Deal with 1 little piece at a time Know how to get started Know which strategies to use Generate feedback on how well you’re doing Get motivated Plan & manage your time 9:45-10:15 ALLYSON

46 Goals play a central role in regulating…
9:15-9:30 ALLYSON

47 Goal Setting Video – Ian Thorpe
Important for progress Motivating Challenging but achievable Distal to proximal...right down to this training session Important to reflect on goals Learn from past goals and experiences -the processes that we engage in to SR our learning are the same processes that we engage in other areas, such as sports or at work -we have a video in which Australian swimmer and Olympic goal medalist, Ian Thorpe, talks about the importance of goal setting – and what he says about the goals he sets can be applied to the academic goals we set -so take out a piece of paper and try to write down 2 or 3 key points about goal setting -play for about 3 min -have students write down 3 things, have some share their thoughts -here are the main points I took away from the video: Goals are really important for his progress as a swimmer; they play a large part in motivating him to keep going and to improve Goals should be challenging, but achievable - this is what motivates him – well supported in literature, whether academic performance or outside of this context It is important to set goals and it is equally important to reflect on those goals – evaluate whether or not you have achieved them and why Learn from past goals and experiences – -not every goal is always going to work for you, especially when you’re setting goals for things that are unfamiliar to you – you don’t necessarily know what is challenging but achievable, so you reflect on what has worked and what hasn’t, then adjust your next goal -all of these things that he mentions can be applied to academic goals as well....academic experience is to train the mind in a particular academic disciplinary area.... 47

48 Goals become important …
In all tasks and academic work When choices are made available When there are multiple ways to demonstrate mastery Work extends over time (multiple classes) Student self-evaluation & peer evaluation are promoted 9:45-10:15 ALLYSON Personalized learning contexts

49 Not all goals are effective
Low Study Moderate Read pages this in class High Explain 4 factors contributing to World War 2 using the in my own words. I should be able to explain it to my classroom buddy. I could draw a fishbone cause and effect diagram while I am reading to help me get things in the right sequence

50 What Are Good Goals in SRL?
TASC Goals What Are Good Goals in SRL? Good goals for your academic tasks include ALL the following characteristics: Time (day, time, duration – 2 hours max) Action(s) (thinking process or ways of thinking) Standard (to what degree, amount, standard) Content (what specific course ideas/concepts) -what are good goals for self-regulating your learning? -we can all set goals for our school work, but some of those goals are going to be more useful than others when it comes to learning and studying -lots of research has been done in this area and this has revealed a set of properties that are important for creating high quality goals -a good goal identifies -the specific course content or concepts you need to know or learn -the actions you need to take – how you will work with the material -when you will work on the goal, so this is the day, time, and duration -a good goal includes a standard for your learning or studying – this is a concrete indication of what you have achieved -finally, a good goal is realistic – it is something that is challenging but not impossible -we’ll go into more detail about each of these attributes and use an example of goal that progressively gets better with each attribute 50

51 Maladaptive Motivation Cycle
Danger of Weak goals Lower efficacy for next goal MOT CHLG:  This past week i found it difficult to do as much work at home as i should have. I didn't have any deadlines in the near future. I found it difficult to keep myself motivated and focused on my course work for more than about half an hour at a time. In this past week i had a hard time motivating myself to get ahead in my classes. I found that i was pushing things of and procrastinating. Experience Motivational Challenge Set a behavior-focused goal The goal is usually not specific or proximal This next week i would like to finish catching up on my political sciences reading and also get a head start on my computer science project. My goal for the end of next week is to be up to date on the readings and create an outline for my computer science project Maladaptive Motivation Cycle 9:45-10:15 ALLYSON

52 What happens when goal setting is taught?
Goal quality increases They start achieving their goals They start believing they can achieve their goals 9:45-10:15 ALLYSON -- but it takes time and practice 52

53 Developing Goal Setting
Requires task understanding Requires sustained practice Requires reflection Requires examples and scaffolding Takes my 1st year undergraduates 8 weeks of setting one goal every week, before we start to see change in the quality of goals and the outcomes of setting those kinds of goals ED-D 401 Hadwin

54 Example: TASC Goals Identify Actions
Learning Verbs Your goal says what action you will take to think about/learn the content The verb in your goal statement Gathering Information Processing Information Extending Information Define • Describe • Name • Identify • Recite • Note • List • Compare • Contrast • Classify • Sort • Explain why • Infer • Sequence • Analyze Evaluate • Generalize • Judge • Predict • If/Then • Hypothesize • Forecast • Apply the principle -Example of what I do 54

55 Weak strategies or strategy choices
To be strategic students need to know: when to use the strategy why the strategy works how to apply the strategy how to check if the strategy works Customize strategies IF……THEN…..ELSE Taras dictee example Mommy guess what, guess what…..I figured it out.....(of course this has to be figured out in the morning chaos of getting out of the house)…you figured out what….I figured out the dictee problem……whenever it has a e (UNE) it has an e at the end (tulipe, lune).

56 Reading tactics vs. strategies
Why? When does it work? Why does it work? When doesn’t it work….and why?

57 Effort appropriately applied?
“I read it over once and hope to retain it” For Studying “[I] just reread and reread and reread” “I just read and ... hope I get it” For Reading “If I don’t understand I’ll keep going over it till I do” “[I] read, use rules, find a reasonable answer, cheat” “If I am using them [strategies], I’m not aware of it” For Learning Math “I write my thoughts as they flow through my mind, in sentences.” “I write down my point and at the end I have a mess.” For Writing Spontaneous strategies students provide (Deb Butler’s case study research) Not just about using strategies……its about effort appropriately applied….knowing something about this might work (or not) and knowing how to tell when it isn’t…….these are metacognitive skills we develop

58 Motivation & Self-confidence
Relate to student’s experiences: a lack of confidence little sense of control over outcomes (i.e., low self-efficacy) frustration, boredom, anxiety Putting effort and seeing no results Students may: try but be “actively inefficient” give up Rebel Taking an SRL approach to figuring out the problem: Reveals opportunities to turn challenges into successes

59 Where to go from here Over the next couple of weeks in your school…..think about SRL. What do you see? What resonates from todays introduction to SRL? What are 2 kinds of self-regulation problems or challenges you observe 10:15

60 Where are your students struggling?
You need to be willing and able to adapt or make changes during and after…learning from your history (seizing the opportunity that failure presents) Conditions→Operations→Products→Evaluations→Standards → Monitoring Evaluating Task Perceptions Goals & Plans Large Scale Adaptation Task Enactment You need to know what your job REALLY is….and WHY. You need to be able to recognize when things are going sideways First thing we need to recognize is that SRL unfolds across recursively linked phases You need to be able to break things into specific task goals/standards that are challenging but achievable You need to engage, drawing upon a tool kit of strategies to get in there, try it and take some risks Winne & Hadwin (1998) 60

61 Teachers as self-regulating learners
You need to be willing and able to adapt or make changes during and after…learning from your history (seizing the opportunity that failure presents) What is really going on, what is the problem? What do I really care about? What do I want to learn? Conditions→Operations→Products→Evaluations→Standards → Monitoring Evaluating Task Perceptions Goals & Plans Large Scale Adaptation Task Enactment Systematic tracking How is it going? First thing we need to recognize is that SRL unfolds across recursively linked phases Breaking it down into manageable and achievable short term goals Identifying specific instructional strategies Trying it out Winne & Hadwin (1998) 61

62 ✔ Add to our wall… What do you know about self-regulated learning? K
What do we know? W What do we want to learn? L New Surprising Confusing Exciting Or tweet your thoughts #SRL4life

63 Questions & Comments?

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