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Chapter 2: Origins of American Government Section 1: The Colonial Period.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: Origins of American Government Section 1: The Colonial Period."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2: Origins of American Government Section 1: The Colonial Period

2 Magna Carta: Great Charter Signed by King John in 1215  Stood for the principle of “limited government” Protected against unjust punishment & loss of life, liberty & property Also stated certain taxes could not be levied without popular consent  Originally applied to nobility After time it was applied to all Lets look at Pg. 802 in your book

3 Governance During the War States wanted a confederation  “League of Friendship” March 1781  All 13 States “ratified” Approved Articles of Confederation

4 Government Under the Articles Unicameral (single-chamber) system Executive positions chosen Powers remained with the states

5 Government Under the Articles Congressional Powers: 1. Make war & peace 2. Send & receive ambassadors 3. Enter into treaties 4. Raise & equip a Navy 5. Maintain an Army by requests from the states 6. Appoint senior military officers 7. Fix standards of weights & measures 8. Regulate Indian affairs 9. Establish post offices 10. Decide certain disputes among the States

6 Government Under the Articles Sovereign State Governments had Power to: 1. Enforce or impede national government policy 2. Control State militia 3. Withhold or grant revenues to the National Government 4. Veto amendments to the Articles of Confederation 5. Regulate foreign & interstate commerce

7 Weaknesses of the Articles Congress: 1. Couldn’t levy or collect taxes 2. Couldn’t regulate trade 3. Force anyone to obey laws 4. Needed 9 of 13 states to approve Each state only got 1 vote 5. Amending/changing needed consent of all states 6. Federal Government had no Executive Branch 7. No National Court system

8 Achievements Establishment of fair policy for the development of western lands  States ceded claims  Congress enacted 2 land ordinances Ordinance of 1785: surveys & divisions Northwest Ordinance (1787): new territories would be developed into statehood on equal basis with older states

9 Achievements Peace treaty with Great Britain  Signed 1783 Land acquired enlarged the Nation’s boundaries Congress set up these departments:  Foreign affaires  War  Marines  Treasury

10 Need for Stronger Government Growing Problems  Boundary lines & tariffs between states Fees people had to pay from state to state  Government owed money & couldn’t maintain an Army By 1787 over $40 million owed to foreign governments and soldiers from the war  Economic depression

11 Need for Stronger Government Shays’s Rebellion  Lead by Daniel Shay: former Captain in the Revolutionary Army Closed the Massachusetts State Supreme Court Pleas of help did nothing  1200 men gathered to fight the  Massachusetts militia put down the rebellion  Caused American leaders to become frightened by the armed rebellion  The people were ready to agree to a strong national Government

12 The Annapolis Convention Lead to the “Miracle in Philadelphia” 2 previous meetings between leaders inspired this convention  1 st : 1785: George Washington had a simple meeting at his residence between leaders from Maryland and Virginia...It went well causing the 2 nd meeting  2 nd : 1786: All States were invited but only 5 sent delegates to Annapolis Leaders in favor of a strong government asked for a 3 rd meeting Confederate leaders consented to a convention in Philadelphia to “revise the Articles”, but much more happened

13 The Constitutional Convention May 25, 1787 12 States sent Delegates  Rhode Island did not attend 74 Delegates were appointed from the 13 States  Only 55 attended

14 The Convention Begins Key Players  George Washington: just his presence caused people to believe the Convention would work  Benjamin Franklin: 81 year old Scientist actively participated  James Wilson: read Franklins speeches & was very important to the creation of the Constitution  James Madison: “Father of the Constitution” was the author of the basic plan of Government the Convention eventually adopted.

15 The Convention Begins Organization  Washington was chosen unanimously to preside over the meetings  No meeting held unless 7 of the 13 states were present  Slavery was not to be brought up Key Agreements  Former Government to be abandoned  All favored a limited & representative Government  Agreed the national government should have 3 branches

16 Decisions & Compromises The Virginia Plan The New Jersey Plan The Connecticut Compromise The 3/5 th Compromise Compromise on Commerce & the Slave Trade The Slavery Question Other Compromises

17 Decisions & Compromises The Virginia Plan  May 29, 1787: 15 resolution introduced by Edmond Randolph that were drafted by James Madison  Proposal of 3 Government principals: 1. A strong National legislature with 2 chambers Lower chamber chosen by the people Upper chamber chosen by the lower 2. A strong National executive chosen by national legislature 3. National judiciary appointed by legislature Smaller states wanted this revised so large states didn’t have more control than smaller states

18 Decisions & Compromises The New Jersey Plan  June 15, 1787: Led by William Paterson, made a counter proposal to the Virginia Plan Wanted to keep major features from the Articles of Confederation  Unicameral legislature  One vote for each state Congress could impose taxes & regulate trade Weak executive with one person elected by Congress National judiciary with limited power

19 Decisions & Compromises The Connecticut Compromise  Special committee led by Roger Sherman from Connecticut  Committee decided: Legislative have 2 branches  House of representatives: based on population  Lager states would have an advantage  Senate: 2 from each State  Smaller states would be protected All revenue laws be brought up in the House

20 Decisions & Compromises The 3/5 th Compromise  Decided how many representatives each state would have in the House Northern States wanted slaves to count as free people Southern State did not because of tax reasons  The compromise made it so 3/5 th of the enslaved people counted for both tax purposes and representation.

21 Decisions & Compromises Compromise on Commerce & the Slave Trade  North wanted government to have control over slave trade  South feared government control would hurt their farms & interfere with slave trade  Delegates decided Congress could not ban slave trade until 1808 Congress had power to regulate both  interstate commerce (trade among states)  Foreign commerce  Couldn’t impose export taxes

22 Decisions & Compromises The Slavery Question  Article IV, Section 2 of the Constitution only mentions that free slaves can not be returned to slaveholders  The North knew they could not address slavery because the South would not accept the new government that was badly needed

23 Decisions & Compromises Other Compromises  How to elect the President  How long would the President term be September 18, 1787  39 delegates stepped forward to sign the Constitution

24 Ratifying the Constitution 9 of the 13 States had to ratify it Ratification lasted until May 29, 1790  This is when Rhode Island finally approved it  The Constitution went into effect on June 21, 1788 when New Hampshire became the 9 th State to ratify

25 Ratifying the Constitution The Federalists & Anti-Federalists  Federalists Favored the Constitution Support came from merchants & people from coastal areas  Anti-federalists Criticized the Constitution  But felt we needed a strong federal government to prevent anarchy Said it was drafted secretly & was extralegal  Not sanctioned by law Convention was to revise the Articles, not abandon them No Bill of Rights  Felt this was needed to ensure the peoples rights were not violated or taken away

26 Ratifying the Constitution Progress Toward Ratification  Because of promised Bill of Rights, the delegates turned in favor of the Constitution  To help with ratification in New York, 80 essays were written to defend the Constitution These were later collected into a book called “The Federalist”

27 Launching a New State New York became the Nation’s temporary capital Congress met for the 1 st time on March 4, 1789 George Washington was elected President  took the oath of office on April 30, 1789 John Adams was elected Vice President There were 22 senators elected There were 59 representatives elected During the 1 st session the 12 amendments were approved, & the 1 st Ten became the Bill of Rights

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