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Birth of a Nation  For 150 yrs., the King and Parliament had little interest in colonial gov’t  Colonies seen as a market for goods/ resources.

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Presentation on theme: "Birth of a Nation  For 150 yrs., the King and Parliament had little interest in colonial gov’t  Colonies seen as a market for goods/ resources."— Presentation transcript:

1 Birth of a Nation  For 150 yrs., the King and Parliament had little interest in colonial gov’t  Colonies seen as a market for goods/ resources

2 Settlements  Roanoke- 1 st settlement  Jamestown-1607, 1 st permanent Eng. settlement, and governed self

3 Settlments  Plymouth-1620, 41 men signed an agreement - Mayflower Compact- a social contract binding them to the gov’t on land

4 Limited Government  Set the precedent that governing authority requires the consent of the people, and it remained  1732: 13 colonies are established with limited gov’t / local rule

5 Limited Government  The colonies had legislative bodies that were popularly elected  They passed laws, levied taxes, set policies, and followed something like a constitution - i.e. Connecticut: Fundamental Orders, Massachusetts: Body of Liberties

6 Lessons from England  The Magna Carta- forced on King John by the nobles when he raised their taxes  Established ideas of limited gov’t, protection form loss of life, liberty, or property except according to law  Took time to fully implement

7 Lessons from England  English Bill of Rights (Glorious Revolution): - no divine right, cannot interfere with Parliaments duties - right to fair speedy trials; no cruel and unusual punishment  Petition of Right: no taxes without Parliament’s consent, no marshal law outside of war  Representative gov’t: bi-cameral legislature, upper and lower house -House of Lords: Aristocrats -House of Commons: merchants (elected)

8 The Philosophy  John Locke’s Ideas: all born free, equal, independent, all have natural right to life, liberty, and property  Social contract: people form and give gov’t power to protect these rights & seek change if it doesn’t  Thomas Hobbes: Social Contract theory  Montesquieu: Separation of powers

9 The Road to Resentment  From Jamestown (1607) and Plymouth (1620), to the French and Indian War( ), the colonies ruled themselves with little interference from Eng.  Following the war and French defeat, things changed

10 Road to Resentment  The colonies don’t need England’s protection  England wanted colonies to help pay the debt from the war  King George III and Parliament levied taxes -Stamp Act: 1765, taxed printed materials - taxed items like tea, sugar, glass Revenue increased along with resentment -27 main grievances emerged (listed in Declaration) - colonies protested, boycotted British goods- Boston Tea Party

11 Road to Resentment  British response: Coercive Acts, or Intolerable Acts, according to colonists -Closed Boston Harbor, Massachusetts couldn’t govern itself  Sparked unification/separation movements in the colonies

12 Uniting for Independence  Prior to 1770’s, most colonists thought themselves British subjects  The colonies were not united together  Early attempts to unite failed

13 Uniting for Independence  Albany Plan of Union -French attacks on frontier lead to plan -Ben Franklin’s idea, but it was rejected by colonies -Thought it gave too much power to the assembly of representitives -British policy would begin to cause colonies to turn away

14 Uniting for Independence Stamp Act Congress -1765, nine colonies sent delegates to NY -First organized meeting of the colonies to protest King George III -They sent a petition to the king arguing who could impose direct taxes

15 Uniting for Independence Committees of Correspondence: -Began around 1773, increased colonial communication and urged resistance of Britain -Samuel Adams was the leader

16 Uniting for Independence  1 st Continental Congress: -The Intolerable Acts prompted meeting of the colonies -In Philadelphia, September of 1774, 12 of the 13 colonies sent delegates -Georgia did not attend, but agreed to go along with the decisions -An embargo was suggested against England, resulted in no change -Sam Adams, John Adams, George Washington, and Patrick Henry were some well-known delegates

17 Uniting for Independence  The king’s reaction was the colonies were in a state of rebellion  King George stated “Blows must decide whether they are to be subject to this country or independent”  First blow, April 19, 1775, “the shot heard ‘round the world” -Battle of Lexington and Concord

18 Uniting for Independence  2 nd Continental Congress: - Philadelphia, May of 1775, and assumed the powers of a central gov’t - John Hancock chosen as its leader on May 24 th, and George Washington as Commander of the Continental Army - Congress had no constitutional authority, but acted as our first central gov’t - Richard Henry Lee proposed a resolution that the colonies should be free/ independent

19 Uniting for Independence  Thomas Jefferson given the task of writing the Declaration - John Adams and Ben Franklin looked over the document and made few changes - The Declaration was full of John Locke’s ideas

20 Uniting for Independence  July 2, 1776, Lee’s resolution passed (independence declared) but the Declaration was not ready until July 4  On July 4, John Hancock was the first to sign with one other individual; the rest signed Aug. 2, 56 in all  The Declaration had 3 parts: - A statement of purpose - Grievances against King George, 27 main complaints -Stated determination to separate from Britain and declared war  By end of 1776, 8 states had constitutions, per Congress

21 Articles of Confederation  Developed between July 1776 & Nov.1777 during Rev. War  Ratified from Feb through March of South Carolina first - Maryland last

22 Articles of Confederation  George Washington not a fan, too weak  He called it “a half starved limping gov’t, that appears to be always moving upon crutches and tottering at every step.”

23 Articles of Confederation  Why this set up?  The colonists wary of strong central gov’t - b/c oppression under Britain  Wanted a system like that prior to the French and Indian War  Local rule and a league of friendships among colonies

24 Articles of Confederation  The Articles: -Unicameral congress, a Confederation Congress, an extension of the Cont. Congress -1 vote per state in congress regardless of size or population -Congress settled disputes between states- no federal court system -Congress to appoint officers to do jobs, but no executive branch

25 Articles of Confederation -Gave Congress the power to: - make war - send and receive ambassadors - enter into treaties and enforce them - raise and equip a navy - maintain an army by requesting troops from states - fix a standard of weights and measures - regulate Indian affairs - est. post office - other powers would rest with the states

26 Articles of Confederation  Achievements - Was a transition gov’t between war and US Constitution - Colonies moved from revolution mindset to one of reason -Lessons were learned from the shortcomings, and were addressed in the new gov’t -Land Ordinances of 1785, and the N.W. Ordinance of 1787: legislation that helped settle west

27 Articles of Confederation  Treaty with Britain post Rev. War (Treaty of Paris, 1783) - Recognized US independence - Gave US: land from Atlantic to the Mississippi River & Canada to Florida  Est. departments in gov’t that later become the president’s cabinet

28 Articles of Confederation  Weaknesses of the Articles: -States had the most power -No power to levy taxes -had to sell western lands to pay military -Couldn't reg. trade b/t states or nations -states had different money -Couldn’t enforce laws

29 Articles of Confederation  Laws needed approval by 9 of the 13 states, often 9 or 10 showed up to sessions -5 smaller states could block the 8 larger  Amending required all to agree, it never happened  There was no executive to promote unity and help coordinate policy between committees of Congress -wanted to avoid another king

30 Articles of Confederation  Evidence for a gov’t -boundaries and tariffs issues between states -$40 million in debt to soldiers and foreign nation after war, no revenue - Shays’ Rebellion: farmers in western Mass. faced jail or property loss marched on Boston -led by Daniel Shays and was put down

31 Articles of Confederation  George Washington invited reps. from Virginia and Maryland to Mt. Vernon to discuss issues between them -i.e. currency, taxes, waterway rights  Success, prompted proposal that all states meet at Annapolis to discuss commerce  5 showed up, had little meaning - Caused Alexander Hamilton to call for a convention in Philadelphia, May 1787

32 Constitutional Convention ► Const. Convention began in May of 1787 ► All but Rhode Island sent delegates, and 55 of 74 delegates attended (Washington, Franklin, Madison) ► Washington presided and Madison took notes ► Each state had 1 vote on issues

33 Constitutional Convention ► Key Agreements: - abandon Articles - have limited rep. gov ’ t - separation of power - 3 branches (exc.,leg.,jud.) - states cannot coin/print money - need a stronger central gov ’ t - biggest question: how to put it into practice

34 Constitutional Convention ► The Plans of Gov ’ t  Virginia Plan : 15 resolutions drafted by Madison : 3 principles: 1. Strong natn’l leg. with 2 chambers, a lower chosen by the people, and an upper chosen by the lower; could block state laws 2. A strong natn ’ l exc. chosen by leg. 3. A natn ’ l judiciary appointed by leg.  Small states were concerned; larger ones would have more control; they wanted more state independence  Modified, it becomes the basis of the Const.

35 Constitutional Convention ► Plans of Gov ’ t cont… - The New Jersey Plan : a counter to the Virginia Plan - Wanted major features of the Articles to remain - Unicameral legislature, 1 state 1 vote, with power to levy taxes, regulate trade - A weak executive consisting of more than 1 person, picked by legislature. - A weak national judicial branch picked by the executive. - Wanted to protect smaller states

36 Constitutional Convention ► Issue ► Representation: should it be based on population (favors large states), or equal vote (favor small states)

37 Constitutional Convention ► The Connecticut Compromise : proposed a bicameral legislature - House of Representatives: rep. based on state population, and all laws dealing with spending / taxes start in the House - advantage/protection to large states - Senate: 2 senators for each state selected by the state ’ s legislature. - advantage/protection to small states ► The Three-Fifths Compromise : settled issues over population in slaves states ► - 1/3 of pop. in South were slaves, and these states wanted to count them to get more reps, but not for taxes. ► - Northern states said no, counted slaves as 3/5 a person for taxes and rep.

38 Constitutional Convention ► Compromise on Commerce, and Slave Trade : North wanted gov ’ t to control foreign trade; South feared it would hurt exports and slavery, agreed… - gov ’ t couldn ’ t ban slave trade until gov ’ t would reg. domestic and foreign trade - gov ’ t couldn‘t tax exports

39 Constitutional Convention ► Slavery? - “ slave ” doesn ’ t appear in the Constitution, only that escaped individuals may be returned - Northern states were outlawing slavery, but knew the South would not allow interference with slavery there - didn ’ t address the issue

40 Constitutional Convention ► Other Compromises: - Selecting an executive? - some said people should choose, others said citizens not educated enough - set up Electoral College- a body of electors picked by state legislature, they selected the president (pop. vote est ’ s) - “ EC ” : 538 votes: 435 House, 100 Senate, 3 D.C. (4 yr. term of office)

41 Constitutional Convention ► Sep. 17, 1787: Const. was ready, 39 of 42 delegates signed, but would states ratify? - Was the central gov ’ t too powerful? - 9 of 13 states needed for ratification - done by special conventions - 2 Camps: Federalists=pro-Constitution and Anti- federalists=suspicious of central gov ’ t, demanded Bill of Rights - Federalist wrote the Federalist Papers: 80 essays printed in newspapers, supporting a Cont. and a promise of B of R if ratified -written by Madison, Hamilton, Jay

42 Constitutional Convention ► Anti-Feds lead by Patrick Henry, S. Adams, Roger Mason, and James Monroe ► The Constitution was highly debated -feared the loss of rights ► Ratified: 1 st Delaware, New Hampshire 9 th on , & Rhode Island last (after Const. was effective)

43 Constitutional Convention ► New Gov ernmen t: -NYC temporary capital -Washington voted as 1 st Pres. and J. Adams as V.P. -22 senators, 59 reps; first met (RI and NC hadn’t ratified) -Madison presents Bill of Rights during the session -Congress approved 12 amendments, 10 were ratified -The 10 are the Bill of Rights


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