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Happy Monday!!! F Take out your vocab so I can come around a check it F Did you know: there are 216 noodles in a can of Campbell’s Chicken Noodle Soup.

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Presentation on theme: "Happy Monday!!! F Take out your vocab so I can come around a check it F Did you know: there are 216 noodles in a can of Campbell’s Chicken Noodle Soup."— Presentation transcript:

1 Happy Monday!!! F Take out your vocab so I can come around a check it F Did you know: there are 216 noodles in a can of Campbell’s Chicken Noodle Soup F Take out your vocab so I can come around a check it F Did you know: there are 216 noodles in a can of Campbell’s Chicken Noodle Soup

2 F Can you identify these 1920s slang word? 1. Applesauce6. Flat tire 2. Big cheese7. Lounge Lizard 3. Bee’s knees8. Sheba 4. Giggle water9. Shiek 5. Jalopy 10.The Real McCoy F Can you identify these 1920s slang word? 1. Applesauce6. Flat tire 2. Big cheese7. Lounge Lizard 3. Bee’s knees8. Sheba 4. Giggle water9. Shiek 5. Jalopy 10.The Real McCoy

3 Interwar Period the Roaring 20’s

4 Postwar Trends F League of Nations left much of America divided F Returning soldiers faced unemployment or took jobs away from women and African- Americans F Many responded by becoming fearful of outsiders F Nativism- prejudice against foreign-born people F Isolationism- policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs F League of Nations left much of America divided F Returning soldiers faced unemployment or took jobs away from women and African- Americans F Many responded by becoming fearful of outsiders F Nativism- prejudice against foreign-born people F Isolationism- policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs

5 Communism F People feared the spread of communism- economic and political system based on a single- party government ruled by a dictatorship F In order to equalize wealth and power, communism would put an end to private property, substituting gov’t ownership of factories, RR, and other businesses F The panic in the US began in 1919 after revolutionaries in Russia (Bolsheviks) overthrew the czarist regime F A Communist party formed in the US and 70,000 joined F Called it the “Red Scare” F People feared the spread of communism- economic and political system based on a single- party government ruled by a dictatorship F In order to equalize wealth and power, communism would put an end to private property, substituting gov’t ownership of factories, RR, and other businesses F The panic in the US began in 1919 after revolutionaries in Russia (Bolsheviks) overthrew the czarist regime F A Communist party formed in the US and 70,000 joined F Called it the “Red Scare”

6 Limiting Immigration F “Keep America for Americans” became the attitude of most Americans F As a result of the Red Scare and anti-immigrant feelings, the KKK rose again F Devoted to “100% Americanism” F Targeted African-Americans, Roman Catholics, Jews and other foreign-born people F Congress responded to the nativist pressure by limiting immigration from certain countries F The Emergency Quota Act 1921 set up a quota system that established a maximum number of people who could enter the US from each country F Law prohibited Japanese immigration F “Keep America for Americans” became the attitude of most Americans F As a result of the Red Scare and anti-immigrant feelings, the KKK rose again F Devoted to “100% Americanism” F Targeted African-Americans, Roman Catholics, Jews and other foreign-born people F Congress responded to the nativist pressure by limiting immigration from certain countries F The Emergency Quota Act 1921 set up a quota system that established a maximum number of people who could enter the US from each country F Law prohibited Japanese immigration

7 Harding struggles for peace F Problems surfaced regarding arms control, war debts and reconstruction of war-torn countries F 1921, President Warren G. Harding invited several nations to the Washington Naval Conference F Sec. of State urged no more warships be built for 10 years, suggested that the 5 major powers (US, GB, Japan, France and Italy) scrap many of their largest warships F Later in 1928, 15 countries signed the Kellog- Briand Pact which denounced war as a national policy (unfortunately there was not way to enforce) F Problems surfaced regarding arms control, war debts and reconstruction of war-torn countries F 1921, President Warren G. Harding invited several nations to the Washington Naval Conference F Sec. of State urged no more warships be built for 10 years, suggested that the 5 major powers (US, GB, Japan, France and Italy) scrap many of their largest warships F Later in 1928, 15 countries signed the Kellog- Briand Pact which denounced war as a national policy (unfortunately there was not way to enforce)

8 High Tariffs and Reparations F New issues arose when it was time for GB and France to pay back the $10 million they borrowed from the US F They had 2 options:(1) selling goods to the US (2) collecting reparation from Germany F 1921, America adopted the Fordney-McCumber Tariff which raised taxes on US imports to 60% F Made it impossible for GB and France to sell enough goods to pay the debt F GB and France looked to Germany F When Germany failed to make the payments, France marched in F US Banker Charles G. Dawes steps in and came up with the Dawes Plan- US investors loaned Germ $2.5 billion to pay back GB and France who would then pay back the US F New issues arose when it was time for GB and France to pay back the $10 million they borrowed from the US F They had 2 options:(1) selling goods to the US (2) collecting reparation from Germany F 1921, America adopted the Fordney-McCumber Tariff which raised taxes on US imports to 60% F Made it impossible for GB and France to sell enough goods to pay the debt F GB and France looked to Germany F When Germany failed to make the payments, France marched in F US Banker Charles G. Dawes steps in and came up with the Dawes Plan- US investors loaned Germ $2.5 billion to pay back GB and France who would then pay back the US

9 Scandal Hits Harding F Harding cabinet included the “Ohio gang”, some of Harding’s poker buddies who soon caused embarrassment F Used their offices to become wealthy through graft F EX: head of Vet. Bureau was caught illegally selling gov’t and hospital supplies to private companies F The worst example was the Teapot Dome Scandal F Gov’t had set aside oil-rich lands at Teapot Dome, WY and Elk Hills, CA for use by the US Navy F Sec. of Interior got the reserves transferred to the Interior Dept. and then leased the land to 2 private oil companies F Harding dies of a stroke in 1923 and Calvin Coolidge become president (and reelected the next year) F Harding cabinet included the “Ohio gang”, some of Harding’s poker buddies who soon caused embarrassment F Used their offices to become wealthy through graft F EX: head of Vet. Bureau was caught illegally selling gov’t and hospital supplies to private companies F The worst example was the Teapot Dome Scandal F Gov’t had set aside oil-rich lands at Teapot Dome, WY and Elk Hills, CA for use by the US Navy F Sec. of Interior got the reserves transferred to the Interior Dept. and then leased the land to 2 private oil companies F Harding dies of a stroke in 1923 and Calvin Coolidge become president (and reelected the next year)

10 Industry flourishes F Calvin Coolidge (R ) was very pro- business F He and his successor (Herbert Hoover) favored gov’t policies that kept taxes down and business profits up F Goal was the keep gov’t interference minimal F High tariffs on imports, wages rose and so did productivity F Calvin Coolidge (R ) was very pro- business F He and his successor (Herbert Hoover) favored gov’t policies that kept taxes down and business profits up F Goal was the keep gov’t interference minimal F High tariffs on imports, wages rose and so did productivity

11 Impact of Automobile F With the automobile came paved roads F Route 66- from Chicago to California with little towns on the way F New houses had garages or carports and a driveway F Gas stations, repair shops, motels, tourist camps and shopping centers, Traffic signals early 1920s, Holland Tunnel (1st underwater tunnel) in 1927 F Liberated rural families to travel into the city for shopping and entertainment F Urban sprawl -cities spreading in all directions F Became a status symbol F With the automobile came paved roads F Route 66- from Chicago to California with little towns on the way F New houses had garages or carports and a driveway F Gas stations, repair shops, motels, tourist camps and shopping centers, Traffic signals early 1920s, Holland Tunnel (1st underwater tunnel) in 1927 F Liberated rural families to travel into the city for shopping and entertainment F Urban sprawl -cities spreading in all directions F Became a status symbol

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13 Airplane Industry F Began as a mail carrying service for the USPS F With the development of weather forecasting, planes began carrying radios and navigation instruments F 1927 Pan American Airways inaugurated the 1st transatlantic passenger flight F Began as a mail carrying service for the USPS F With the development of weather forecasting, planes began carrying radios and navigation instruments F 1927 Pan American Airways inaugurated the 1st transatlantic passenger flight

14 Electrical convenience F Gasoline powered much of the economic boom of the 20’s but electricity transformed the nation F Electricity was no longer restricted to central cities but spread to the suburbs F By the end of the 1920’s more and more homes had electric irons and wealthier homes had refrigerators, cooking ranges and toasters F Gasoline powered much of the economic boom of the 20’s but electricity transformed the nation F Electricity was no longer restricted to central cities but spread to the suburbs F By the end of the 1920’s more and more homes had electric irons and wealthier homes had refrigerators, cooking ranges and toasters

15 Mass Advertising F Advertising agencies hired psychologists to study how to appeal to people’s desire for youthfulness, beauty, health and wealth F Brand names became familiar and luxury items soon became necessities F Mouthwash was a big example F Advertising agencies hired psychologists to study how to appeal to people’s desire for youthfulness, beauty, health and wealth F Brand names became familiar and luxury items soon became necessities F Mouthwash was a big example

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17 Superficial Prosperity F During the 20’s most Americans believed prosperity would go on forever F Industries provided another solution to the problem of luring customers F Easy credit or “a dollar down and a dollar forever” F The “installment plan” enabled people to buy goods over an extended period of time without having to put down much money at the time of purchase F During the 20’s most Americans believed prosperity would go on forever F Industries provided another solution to the problem of luring customers F Easy credit or “a dollar down and a dollar forever” F The “installment plan” enabled people to buy goods over an extended period of time without having to put down much money at the time of purchase

18 City Life F Between , nearly 2 million people left rural areas for cities every year F City dwellers read and argued about major issues F City dwellers tolerated drinking, gambling, and casual dating F Major battle between traditional and modern values F Between , nearly 2 million people left rural areas for cities every year F City dwellers read and argued about major issues F City dwellers tolerated drinking, gambling, and casual dating F Major battle between traditional and modern values

19 Prohibition F 18 th amendment went into effect in January 1920 F Manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages was illegal F However, alcohol was allowed for medical and religious purposes F Reformers thought drinking led to crime, wife and child abuse, accidents on the job and other serious social problems F Support came from south and west and Protestants F Was very hard to fund and enforce! F 18 th amendment went into effect in January 1920 F Manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages was illegal F However, alcohol was allowed for medical and religious purposes F Reformers thought drinking led to crime, wife and child abuse, accidents on the job and other serious social problems F Support came from south and west and Protestants F Was very hard to fund and enforce!

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21 Speakeasies and Bootleggers F To get liquor illegally, drinkers went underground to hidden saloons called speakeasies F Spoke quietly inside to avoid detection F Had to have a card or a secret password F People also learned to distill alcohol in secret F Bootleggers (smuggled in boot legs) F To get liquor illegally, drinkers went underground to hidden saloons called speakeasies F Spoke quietly inside to avoid detection F Had to have a card or a secret password F People also learned to distill alcohol in secret F Bootleggers (smuggled in boot legs)

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23 Organized Crime F Prohibition contributed to organized crime in every major city F Chicago was notorious because of Al Capone F Bootlegging empire netted over $60 million/year F Prohibition contributed to organized crime in every major city F Chicago was notorious because of Al Capone F Bootlegging empire netted over $60 million/year

24 Science v. Religion F Fundamentalists-skeptical of scientific knowledge F Literal interpretation of the Bible F Rejected to theory of evolution F Strong support in south and west F Fundamentalists-skeptical of scientific knowledge F Literal interpretation of the Bible F Rejected to theory of evolution F Strong support in south and west

25 Scopes Trial F March 1925, Tennessee passed that nation’s first law that made it a crime to teach evolution F The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) promised to defend any teacher who challenged the law F John T. Scopes, a young biology teacher, accepted the challenge F Was arrested and put in jail for reading an article in class about evolution F March 1925, Tennessee passed that nation’s first law that made it a crime to teach evolution F The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) promised to defend any teacher who challenged the law F John T. Scopes, a young biology teacher, accepted the challenge F Was arrested and put in jail for reading an article in class about evolution

26 Scopes Trial cont. F The ACLU hired Clarence Darrow to defend Scopes F William Jennings Bryan served as special prosecutor F Trial was a fight over evolution and the role of science and religion in public schools and American society F Bryan was questioned for his religious beliefs F Ended up admitting that the Bible might be interpreted in different ways F Scopes was found guilty and fined $100 F The ACLU hired Clarence Darrow to defend Scopes F William Jennings Bryan served as special prosecutor F Trial was a fight over evolution and the role of science and religion in public schools and American society F Bryan was questioned for his religious beliefs F Ended up admitting that the Bible might be interpreted in different ways F Scopes was found guilty and fined $100

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28 Women of the 20s F In the rebellious, pleasure-loving atmosphere of the 20s, many women began asserting their independence and demanded the same freedom as men F Flapper-an emancipated young woman who embraced new fashions and urban attitudes F Close-fitting hats, waist less dresses an inch above the knee, skin toned stockings, boyish bob hairstyles F Began smoking cigarettes, drinking in public, talking openly about sex F Danced the foxtrot, tango, Charleston F In the rebellious, pleasure-loving atmosphere of the 20s, many women began asserting their independence and demanded the same freedom as men F Flapper-an emancipated young woman who embraced new fashions and urban attitudes F Close-fitting hats, waist less dresses an inch above the knee, skin toned stockings, boyish bob hairstyles F Began smoking cigarettes, drinking in public, talking openly about sex F Danced the foxtrot, tango, Charleston

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30 Pop culture F More people went to high school- taxes to finance schools increased F Increased literacy F Radio became the most powerful communication medium F Heard news as it happened, sports, radio shows F Spent time working crossword puzzles, playing mahjong, dance marathons, sports F Negro National baseball league F Babe Ruth- Yankees F More people went to high school- taxes to finance schools increased F Increased literacy F Radio became the most powerful communication medium F Heard news as it happened, sports, radio shows F Spent time working crossword puzzles, playing mahjong, dance marathons, sports F Negro National baseball league F Babe Ruth- Yankees

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32 Entertainment and Art F Movies- first without sound then with sound called “talkies” F Jazz music F Literary boom- F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway F Movies- first without sound then with sound called “talkies” F Jazz music F Literary boom- F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway

33 Harlem Renaissance F Literary and artistic movement celebrating African-American culture F Great Migration brought African Americans to the north F Many moved to Harlem, a neighborhood on the Upper West Side of NYC F Became the world’s largest black urban community F Suffered overcrowding, unemployment, and poverty F Literary and artistic movement celebrating African-American culture F Great Migration brought African Americans to the north F Many moved to Harlem, a neighborhood on the Upper West Side of NYC F Became the world’s largest black urban community F Suffered overcrowding, unemployment, and poverty

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35 Authors F Harlem Renaissance encouraged a new pride in African-American experiences F Wrote about the trials of being black in a white world F Claude McKay-novelist, poet, urged African Americans to resist prejudice and discrimination. Wrote of the pain of life in the black ghettos F Langston Hughes-poet, described difficult lives of working-class African Americans F Zora Neale Hurston-portrayed the lives of poor Southern blacks F Harlem Renaissance encouraged a new pride in African-American experiences F Wrote about the trials of being black in a white world F Claude McKay-novelist, poet, urged African Americans to resist prejudice and discrimination. Wrote of the pain of life in the black ghettos F Langston Hughes-poet, described difficult lives of working-class African Americans F Zora Neale Hurston-portrayed the lives of poor Southern blacks

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37 Jazz F Born in the early 20 th century in New Orleans F Blended instrumental ragtime and vocal blues F Joe “King” Oliver and his Creole Jazz Band brought it north F Famous jazz musicians: Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith F Born in the early 20 th century in New Orleans F Blended instrumental ragtime and vocal blues F Joe “King” Oliver and his Creole Jazz Band brought it north F Famous jazz musicians: Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith

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39 Happy Wednesday!! F Take out your 20s packet so I can come around and check it F Did you know: The “ZIP” in zip code stands for zone improvement plan F Take out your 20s packet so I can come around and check it F Did you know: The “ZIP” in zip code stands for zone improvement plan

40 Interwar Period Causes of the Great Depression

41 The Good Times F The 1920’s were a time of superficial prosperity F Businesses were doing well F Wages were increasing F People bought all kinds of “luxury” items F Cars, toasters, washers, vacuums, sewing machines F People thought the good times would continue forever and bought fancy items on credit or with installment plans, assuming they would just pay it later F The 1920’s were a time of superficial prosperity F Businesses were doing well F Wages were increasing F People bought all kinds of “luxury” items F Cars, toasters, washers, vacuums, sewing machines F People thought the good times would continue forever and bought fancy items on credit or with installment plans, assuming they would just pay it later

42 Trouble Ahead F As the 1920s advanced, economic prosperity slowed, but few noticed 1. Industries were in trouble F Railroads, lumbering and mining industries were no longer making profits F Companies had to start laying people off F People without jobs do not have money to spend, which hurts other businesses F People were also laid off b/c a lot of companies began using machines to do the work F As the 1920s advanced, economic prosperity slowed, but few noticed 1. Industries were in trouble F Railroads, lumbering and mining industries were no longer making profits F Companies had to start laying people off F People without jobs do not have money to spend, which hurts other businesses F People were also laid off b/c a lot of companies began using machines to do the work

43 Trouble Ahead 2. Farmers were in Debt F During WWI, farmers produced a lot of crops and sold a lot of crops F After WWI farmers should have slowed production, but they didn’t F They were unable to sell all their crops F Farmers needed money and took out loans F Many farmers never repaid their loans which caused rural banks to fail F Many farms were foreclosed on F Congress tried to help and passed price-supports (McNary- Haugen Bill) F Gov’t would buy excess for and sell it overseas F President Coolidge vetoed the bill 2. Farmers were in Debt F During WWI, farmers produced a lot of crops and sold a lot of crops F After WWI farmers should have slowed production, but they didn’t F They were unable to sell all their crops F Farmers needed money and took out loans F Many farmers never repaid their loans which caused rural banks to fail F Many farms were foreclosed on F Congress tried to help and passed price-supports (McNary- Haugen Bill) F Gov’t would buy excess for and sell it overseas F President Coolidge vetoed the bill

44 Trouble Ahead 3. Consumers had less money to spend F As businesses failed, wages were cut and people could not spend money on “extra” items F Since nobody was buying, more businesses failed, causing more unemployment, which caused even less money to be spent in stores 3. Consumers had less money to spend F As businesses failed, wages were cut and people could not spend money on “extra” items F Since nobody was buying, more businesses failed, causing more unemployment, which caused even less money to be spent in stores

45 Trouble Ahead 4. Living on credit F People were living above their means F People could not afford to buy items out right so they paid for them on credit and assumed they would pay it back later F Credit Cards F Installment Plans -paying off the total cost in monthly payments F Buying Stocks on the Margin- many wanted to invest in the stock market, but could not afford to pay the full amount of the stock so they borrowed from a broker (took out a loan to pay for it) F Many couldn’t pay back the full amount of their loans or were so strapped for cash they couldn’t spend money on other items, which hurt other businesses, causing more people to become unemployed 4. Living on credit F People were living above their means F People could not afford to buy items out right so they paid for them on credit and assumed they would pay it back later F Credit Cards F Installment Plans -paying off the total cost in monthly payments F Buying Stocks on the Margin- many wanted to invest in the stock market, but could not afford to pay the full amount of the stock so they borrowed from a broker (took out a loan to pay for it) F Many couldn’t pay back the full amount of their loans or were so strapped for cash they couldn’t spend money on other items, which hurt other businesses, causing more people to become unemployed

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47 Trouble Ahead 5. Uneven distribution of wealth F Rich got richer, poor got poorer F Most earned less than $2,500 a year F Had no savings F Relied on credit 5. Uneven distribution of wealth F Rich got richer, poor got poorer F Most earned less than $2,500 a year F Had no savings F Relied on credit

48 Hoover takes over F Hoover wins the election F Little focus on the economy F People think the good times will continue F People believed investing in the stock market was the key to riches F Dow Jones Industrial Average was high (Bull Market) F People began engaging in Speculation F Buy low, sell high F Make quick money F Many didn’t realize the risk, thought the market would continue to increase F People began buying Stocks on the Margin F Many couldn’t afford to pay the full amount of the stock so they borrowed money from a broker F Makes the market appear stronger than it actually is F If Stock price declines, people have no way of paying off the loan F The government did little to discourage excessive borrowing F Hoover wins the election F Little focus on the economy F People think the good times will continue F People believed investing in the stock market was the key to riches F Dow Jones Industrial Average was high (Bull Market) F People began engaging in Speculation F Buy low, sell high F Make quick money F Many didn’t realize the risk, thought the market would continue to increase F People began buying Stocks on the Margin F Many couldn’t afford to pay the full amount of the stock so they borrowed money from a broker F Makes the market appear stronger than it actually is F If Stock price declines, people have no way of paying off the loan F The government did little to discourage excessive borrowing

49 The Stock Market Crashes F By early September 1929 many began to question the strength of the market F People began selling their stocks F Black Tuesday- October 29, 1929 F Confidence in the market collapsed F People began selling their stocks for pennies F 16 million stocks sold F Could not pay back their loans F Caused banks to close, by November investors had lost 30 billion dollars F By early September 1929 many began to question the strength of the market F People began selling their stocks F Black Tuesday- October 29, 1929 F Confidence in the market collapsed F People began selling their stocks for pennies F 16 million stocks sold F Could not pay back their loans F Caused banks to close, by November investors had lost 30 billion dollars

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51 Stop and Think! F How did the stock market crash help cause the Great Depression?

52 The Great Depression Begins F time period where the economy plummeted and unemployment rose F Banks Failed F People panicked and went to their banks demanding their money F Many banks invested the money in the stock market and did not have the money to give back F Many lost their entire life savings F The government did not insure bank accounts F Today, FDIC up to $250,000 F By ,000 of 25,000 banks failed F Businesses Failed F The Gross National Product (total output of goods) was cut from 104 billion to 59 billion F 90,000 businesses failed F Unemployment Rose F From 3%-25% F time period where the economy plummeted and unemployment rose F Banks Failed F People panicked and went to their banks demanding their money F Many banks invested the money in the stock market and did not have the money to give back F Many lost their entire life savings F The government did not insure bank accounts F Today, FDIC up to $250,000 F By ,000 of 25,000 banks failed F Businesses Failed F The Gross National Product (total output of goods) was cut from 104 billion to 59 billion F 90,000 businesses failed F Unemployment Rose F From 3%-25%

53 The Great Depression F The Depression Spread throughout the world F European nations were still trying to recover from WWI F Wall Street was the center of the financial world F Many nations relied on the US for loans F Many also relied on the US to buy goods F US passed the Hawley Smoot Tariff Act F Highest protective tariffs in US History F Designed to protect American farmers and businesses F It failed- F It stopped Europeans from buying American goods F Increased unemployment F encouraged other nations to pass similar tariffs F The Depression Spread throughout the world F European nations were still trying to recover from WWI F Wall Street was the center of the financial world F Many nations relied on the US for loans F Many also relied on the US to buy goods F US passed the Hawley Smoot Tariff Act F Highest protective tariffs in US History F Designed to protect American farmers and businesses F It failed- F It stopped Europeans from buying American goods F Increased unemployment F encouraged other nations to pass similar tariffs

54 Hardships and Suffering F The Depression in Cities F Many lost their homes, jobs F Homelessness increased F Shanty towns emerged- little towns consisting of shacks F Soup kitchens F Bread lines F There was no direct relief for families F Cash payment or food provided by the gov’t F African-Americans and minorities were hit even harder F The Depression in Cities F Many lost their homes, jobs F Homelessness increased F Shanty towns emerged- little towns consisting of shacks F Soup kitchens F Bread lines F There was no direct relief for families F Cash payment or food provided by the gov’t F African-Americans and minorities were hit even harder

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57 Hardships and suffering F The Depression in Rural Areas F Farms were foreclosed on F The Dust Bowl F drought struck in the 1930s F For decades farmers in the Midwest broke up farmland, removing the protective grass covering, exposing dirt F Leaving a lot of land unusable F When the drought struck and winds picked up dust became unbearable F Hardest hit was Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado F Many abandoned their farms and moved to California F The Depression in Rural Areas F Farms were foreclosed on F The Dust Bowl F drought struck in the 1930s F For decades farmers in the Midwest broke up farmland, removing the protective grass covering, exposing dirt F Leaving a lot of land unusable F When the drought struck and winds picked up dust became unbearable F Hardest hit was Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado F Many abandoned their farms and moved to California

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59 Stop and Think!! F Why did many farm families leave their land during the Great Depression?

60 Hardships and Suffering F Effects on the American family F Lots of extra time bc of unemployment F Hobos began wandering the streets F There was no Direct Relief for families F Cash payment or food provided by the govt F Some cities tried to provide some relief for families F New York City- $2.39 per family each week F Effects on the American family F Lots of extra time bc of unemployment F Hobos began wandering the streets F There was no Direct Relief for families F Cash payment or food provided by the govt F Some cities tried to provide some relief for families F New York City- $2.39 per family each week

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62 Hardships and Suffering F Poor diets increased F malnutrition increased F Overall health decreased F Schools shut down F “wild boys” –kids who rode the freight trains F Very dangerous F Depression increased F suicide increased F Poor diets increased F malnutrition increased F Overall health decreased F Schools shut down F “wild boys” –kids who rode the freight trains F Very dangerous F Depression increased F suicide increased

63 Happy Wednesday! F Take out your “Stormy Weather” movie sheets so we can finish the movie F Did you know: an ant can survive up to 2 days underwater F Take out your “Stormy Weather” movie sheets so we can finish the movie F Did you know: an ant can survive up to 2 days underwater

64 Interwar Period Hoover’s plan

65 Hoover’s approach F Hoover tried to reassure Americans that the nation’s economy was sound F Americans had to remain optimistic F Business as usual F Depression is a normal part of the business cycle F The economy will fix itself F Believed government’s role was to encourage and facilitate cooperation not control it F Americans values individualism therefore Hoover opposed any form of federal welfare or direct relief F Felt it would weaken peoples self-respect F His answer to the problem was to let individuals, charities and local organizations pitch in and help F Hoover tried to reassure Americans that the nation’s economy was sound F Americans had to remain optimistic F Business as usual F Depression is a normal part of the business cycle F The economy will fix itself F Believed government’s role was to encourage and facilitate cooperation not control it F Americans values individualism therefore Hoover opposed any form of federal welfare or direct relief F Felt it would weaken peoples self-respect F His answer to the problem was to let individuals, charities and local organizations pitch in and help

66 Stop and Think!! F Why was Hoover reluctant to help people during the Depression?

67 Cautious steps F Hoover called together key leaders in business, banking and labor F Urged them to work together to find a solution F Asked employers not to cut wages or lay off workers and asked laborers not to strike F Created a special organization to help private charities generate contributions F None of this worked F Shantytowns arose in every city and hobos continued to roam F Hoover called together key leaders in business, banking and labor F Urged them to work together to find a solution F Asked employers not to cut wages or lay off workers and asked laborers not to strike F Created a special organization to help private charities generate contributions F None of this worked F Shantytowns arose in every city and hobos continued to roam

68 Democrats Win Congress F As the difficulties increased the political tides turned against Hoover and the Republicans F The Democrats took advantage of the anti-Hoover sentiments to win more seats in Congress F As the difficulties increased the political tides turned against Hoover and the Republicans F The Democrats took advantage of the anti-Hoover sentiments to win more seats in Congress

69 People’s reaction to Hoover F Farmers burned their corn and wheat and dumped their milk on highways rather than sell it at a loss F People were calling shantytowns “Hoovervilles” F Hoover continued to hold firm to his principles F Farmers burned their corn and wheat and dumped their milk on highways rather than sell it at a loss F People were calling shantytowns “Hoovervilles” F Hoover continued to hold firm to his principles

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71 Hoover Takes Action F Backed the creation of the Federal Farm Board- intended to raise crop prices by helping members to buy crops and keep them off the market until prices rose F Federal Home Loan Bank Act (1932)- lowered mortgage rates for homeowners and allowed farmers to refinance to avoid foreclosure F Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) authorized up to $2 billion for emergency financing for banks, life insurance companies, RR, and other large businesses F Hoover believed that the money would trickle down to the average citizen through job growth and higher wages F Businesses still failed F Backed the creation of the Federal Farm Board- intended to raise crop prices by helping members to buy crops and keep them off the market until prices rose F Federal Home Loan Bank Act (1932)- lowered mortgage rates for homeowners and allowed farmers to refinance to avoid foreclosure F Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) authorized up to $2 billion for emergency financing for banks, life insurance companies, RR, and other large businesses F Hoover believed that the money would trickle down to the average citizen through job growth and higher wages F Businesses still failed

72 Bonus Army F In 1932, 10,000-20,000 WWI Vets and their families marched in Washington DC and called themselves the Bonus Army F Supported the Patman Bill under debate that authorized the gov’t to pay a bonus to WWI Vets who hadn’t be paid adequately for their service F Bill was approved in 1924 but was to be paid out in 1945 (cash and life insurance) but Vets wanted to be paid immediately F Built shantytowns in front of the Capitol F July 28- Hoover sent troops to disband the Bonus Army F Gassed more than 1,000 people including an 11 month old baby who died and an 8 yr old who was permanently blinded- Hoover’s image suffered and FDR easily won the next election F In 1932, 10,000-20,000 WWI Vets and their families marched in Washington DC and called themselves the Bonus Army F Supported the Patman Bill under debate that authorized the gov’t to pay a bonus to WWI Vets who hadn’t be paid adequately for their service F Bill was approved in 1924 but was to be paid out in 1945 (cash and life insurance) but Vets wanted to be paid immediately F Built shantytowns in front of the Capitol F July 28- Hoover sent troops to disband the Bonus Army F Gassed more than 1,000 people including an 11 month old baby who died and an 8 yr old who was permanently blinded- Hoover’s image suffered and FDR easily won the next election

73 Stop and Think!! F How did the treatment of the Bonus Army affect President Hoover?

74 Happy Thursday!!! F Take out your Economic Briefing Packet so I can come around a check it! F Did you know: Babe Ruth wore a cabbage leaf under his baseball cap to keep cool; he changed it every 2 innings F Take out your Economic Briefing Packet so I can come around a check it! F Did you know: Babe Ruth wore a cabbage leaf under his baseball cap to keep cool; he changed it every 2 innings

75 Interwar Period FDR and the New Deal

76 Franklin Delano Roosevelt F Democrat, elected in the election of 1932 F Inaugurated in March 1933 F 20th Amendment-move presidential inauguration to January (ratified in Feb so FDR missed it) F “lame duck” amendment- shortens time btwn election and inauguration F Between the time of election and the time he took office, FDR worked to pick advisers known as the “Brain Trust” F Came up with the “New Deal” F Democrat, elected in the election of 1932 F Inaugurated in March 1933 F 20th Amendment-move presidential inauguration to January (ratified in Feb so FDR missed it) F “lame duck” amendment- shortens time btwn election and inauguration F Between the time of election and the time he took office, FDR worked to pick advisers known as the “Brain Trust” F Came up with the “New Deal”

77 Hundred Days F Period of intense activity lasting from March 9- June 16, 1933 F Congress passed more that 15 major pieces of New Deal legislation F Expanded the fed. Gov’ts role in the nation’s economy F First step was the carry out reforms in banking and finance F Closed all banks (bank holiday) to prevent further withdrawals F Emergency Banking Relief Act- banks were to be inspected, if they couldn’t repay debts they would remain closed F Period of intense activity lasting from March 9- June 16, 1933 F Congress passed more that 15 major pieces of New Deal legislation F Expanded the fed. Gov’ts role in the nation’s economy F First step was the carry out reforms in banking and finance F Closed all banks (bank holiday) to prevent further withdrawals F Emergency Banking Relief Act- banks were to be inspected, if they couldn’t repay debts they would remain closed

78 Fireside Chats F Radio talks about issues of public concern, explaining in clear, simple language F Made people feel like he was talking directly to them F “We have nothing to fear but fear itself” F Radio talks about issues of public concern, explaining in clear, simple language F Made people feel like he was talking directly to them F “We have nothing to fear but fear itself”

79 The 3 R’s- Relief F Relief: bring immediate help to those who need it F CCC (Civilian Conservation Corp)- Provided jobs for young single males on conservation projects F Built new roads, strung telephone lines, planted trees F TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)- provided jobs building dams to bring running water and electricity to poor regions in the South F WPA (Works Progress Administration)- created as many jobs as quickly as possible in construction of airports, highways, and public buildings. F Also hired artists, musicians and actors F Relief: bring immediate help to those who need it F CCC (Civilian Conservation Corp)- Provided jobs for young single males on conservation projects F Built new roads, strung telephone lines, planted trees F TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority)- provided jobs building dams to bring running water and electricity to poor regions in the South F WPA (Works Progress Administration)- created as many jobs as quickly as possible in construction of airports, highways, and public buildings. F Also hired artists, musicians and actors

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81 3 R-s- Recovery F Recovery: “pump-priming” temporary programs to restart the flow of consumer demand F AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Act)- aid farmers by regulating crop production so prices would rise F NRA (National Recovery Administration)- reformed banking practices and established fair codes of competition for business F Recovery: “pump-priming” temporary programs to restart the flow of consumer demand F AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Act)- aid farmers by regulating crop production so prices would rise F NRA (National Recovery Administration)- reformed banking practices and established fair codes of competition for business

82 3 R’s- Reform F Reform: permanent programs to avoid situations causing contractions and Insurance for citizens against econ. Disaster F FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)- protected bank deposits up to $5,000 F Wagner Act-defined unfair labor practices and established the National Labor Relations Board to settle disputes between employers and employees F SSA (Social Security Act)- provided pension for retired workers and their spouses and helped people with disabilities F Reform: permanent programs to avoid situations causing contractions and Insurance for citizens against econ. Disaster F FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)- protected bank deposits up to $5,000 F Wagner Act-defined unfair labor practices and established the National Labor Relations Board to settle disputes between employers and employees F SSA (Social Security Act)- provided pension for retired workers and their spouses and helped people with disabilities

83 Regulating Banking and Finance F Glass-Steagall Act- established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) F Federal Securities Act- required corporations to provide complete information on all stock offerings and made them liable for any misrepresentation. F Established the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) F 21 st amendment (sell alcohol to raise gov’t revenue by taxing alcohol) F Glass-Steagall Act- established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) F Federal Securities Act- required corporations to provide complete information on all stock offerings and made them liable for any misrepresentation. F Established the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) F 21 st amendment (sell alcohol to raise gov’t revenue by taxing alcohol)

84 Results of the New Deal F By the end of the Hundred Days, millions of Americas had benefited from the New Deal programs F Public confidence in the nation’s future had rebounded F FDR practiced the policy of deficit spending- spending more money that the gov’t receives in revenue F Said it was a necessary evil to be used in an economic crisis F By the end of the Hundred Days, millions of Americas had benefited from the New Deal programs F Public confidence in the nation’s future had rebounded F FDR practiced the policy of deficit spending- spending more money that the gov’t receives in revenue F Said it was a necessary evil to be used in an economic crisis

85 Stop And Think!! F Look over the list of New Deal programs. Identify which programs addressed the different areas of need F You have a limited amount of time to do this so start working!!! F Look over the list of New Deal programs. Identify which programs addressed the different areas of need F You have a limited amount of time to do this so start working!!!

86 Critics of the New Deal F Many critics believed the New Deal interfered with the workings of a free-market economy F Fed. Gov’t had too much control over agriculture and industry F American Liberty League- believed the New Deal violated respect for rights of individuals and property F 3 of the toughest critics expressed views that appealed to the poor: Father Coughlin, Dr. Francis Townsend, and Huey Long F Many critics believed the New Deal interfered with the workings of a free-market economy F Fed. Gov’t had too much control over agriculture and industry F American Liberty League- believed the New Deal violated respect for rights of individuals and property F 3 of the toughest critics expressed views that appealed to the poor: Father Coughlin, Dr. Francis Townsend, and Huey Long

87 FDR and the Supreme Court F Schechter v. US (1935): struck down the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) as unconstitutional F Said it gave legislative power to the executive branch F Butler v. US (1937): struck down the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) saying that agriculture is a local matter and should be regulated by the states not the fed. Gov’t F Overall FDR’s New Deal was defeated in 7 of 9 SC decisions F Schechter v. US (1935): struck down the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) as unconstitutional F Said it gave legislative power to the executive branch F Butler v. US (1937): struck down the Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) saying that agriculture is a local matter and should be regulated by the states not the fed. Gov’t F Overall FDR’s New Deal was defeated in 7 of 9 SC decisions

88 FDR’s Response F Judiciary Reorganization Bill F Allowed him to appoint 6 new Supreme Court justices F Also called the “court packing bill” F Never happened F 1937, an elderly justice retired and FDR appointed a liberal justices, shifting the balance of the Court F Over the next 4 years because of resignations, FDR appointed 7 new judges F Judiciary Reorganization Bill F Allowed him to appoint 6 new Supreme Court justices F Also called the “court packing bill” F Never happened F 1937, an elderly justice retired and FDR appointed a liberal justices, shifting the balance of the Court F Over the next 4 years because of resignations, FDR appointed 7 new judges

89 End of the Great Depression? F In 1938, FDR scaled back on the New Deal policies and unemployment rose again F Production and unemployment wouldn’t match pre-1929 levels until the US entered WWII and industries began production of war materials F However, the New Deal DID provided short- term relief to many! F In 1938, FDR scaled back on the New Deal policies and unemployment rose again F Production and unemployment wouldn’t match pre-1929 levels until the US entered WWII and industries began production of war materials F However, the New Deal DID provided short- term relief to many!

90 Long Term Impact F People now looked to the gov’t for help in times of need F Gov’t is responsible for social welfare F Thousands of federal jobs were created to maintain new agencies F Gov’t became active in settling labor disputes F Greatly regulated business- 40 hr work week, minimum wage, etc. F Ushered in an era of increased taxes paid by citizens F People now looked to the gov’t for help in times of need F Gov’t is responsible for social welfare F Thousands of federal jobs were created to maintain new agencies F Gov’t became active in settling labor disputes F Greatly regulated business- 40 hr work week, minimum wage, etc. F Ushered in an era of increased taxes paid by citizens


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