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Section 1: The Articles of Confederation

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1 Section 1: The Articles of Confederation
CHAPTER 8 Forming a Government Section 1: The Articles of Confederation Section 2: Problems in the New Nation Section 3: The Constitution Section 4: Ratification of the Constitution

2 The Articles of Confederation
SECTION 1 The Articles of Confederation Ideas about Government The American colonies had taken a bold step in declaring their independence. Now they had to form a new government. To do so, they drew from a wide range of ideas. English law, Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, Enlightenment, New England Town Meetings, House of Burgesses, Great Awakening, Mayflower Compact, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

3 The State Constitutions
SECTION 1 The State Constitutions All of the ideas were put to quick use. During the war, each state wrote their own constitution with a belief in republicanism. Republicanism – a system of government called a republic. Where citizens elect representatives who are responsible for the people. Each state created a limited government – to keep individual leaders from gaining too much power. (Like who?) State Constitutions also protected the rights of individuals. In Virginia had the the Virginia Declaration of Rights. (Like our Bill of Rights) Thomas Jefferson also wrote the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. (to protect religious freedom) Many states expanded suffrage (some- owned land, some – taxpaying)

4 SECTION 1 Forming a Union
Creating only a state government was not enough for most people. A national government was needed to hold things together. On June 12, 1776, a committee of 13 (one from each colony )was created to run the country. This committee met to create the Articles of Confederation. Under the Articles of Confederation, the congress (1 from each state) would become the central or national government. The national government did not have a court system, or a president. All 13 States had to ratify the Articles. The confederation congress had only limited powers. It could make $$ & borrow $$. It could negotiate and make treaties. Settle conflicts between states. Could NOT force the states to pay taxes Could NOT force the states to provide troops.

5 The Northwest Territory
SECTION 1 The Northwest Territory The new government had to decide what to do with their new lands to the West. They also had to pay up debts from the War. They solved both issues with the Land Ordinance of (selling land out west) – broke up the new land into territories. Said there had to be a spot for a public school, land for veterans of the war, then the rest of the land could be sold as public lands. To set up a political system for these regions, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was passed. It created the Northwest Territory. It also created a way to bring the new territories into the Union as states. (60,000 people) Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin

6 SECTION 1 The Articles of Confederation Question: What were the key ideas, people, documents, and practices that contributed to the development of representative government?

7 The Articles of Confederation
SECTION 1 The Articles of Confederation American Government European Ideas American Practices Documents Magna Carta English Bill of Rights Parliament Enlightenment John Locke New England town meetings Virginia House of Burgesses Mayflower Compact Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Declaration of Independence republicanism limited governments Virginia Declaration of Rights Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom voting rights

8 Problems in the New Nation
SECTION 2 Problems in the New Nation A Lack of Respect Under the Articles of Confederation, the US was a very weak nation. Plus, the war had just ended and the US was in shambles. B/c of the lack of power in the US, the US was not given much respect by anyone in the world. They couldn’t stop the Indians. They couldn’t enforce the Treaty of Paris 1783 against the British. The Spanish were taking advantage of the weakness of the US. This was a time when a strong national government was needed… Under the Articles, that wasn’t possible. Some began to ask for change.

9 SECTION 2 Trouble with Trade
Before the war, the biggest buyer of American goods was Britain. After the war, they closed their ports to American ships. The one’s that didn’t place high taxes on American Exports. The confederation congress couldn’t help this situation, as they didn’t have the power to pass tariff’s of their own. One headline in a British newspaper read: “Dis-United-States”. The headline was right.

10 Economic Problems at Home
SECTION 2 Economic Problems at Home In addition to problems with international trade, trade at home was beginning to be a problem. The Confederation Congress had no power to regulate interstate commerce. Therefore, each state only looked out for their own well being. Trade laws were different from state to state. This made trade very difficult. Add to that, the fact that each state was printing their own $$ and you have major problems. Which is worth more, Pennsylvania $$ or Virginia $$? Some states just printed endless amounts of money with no gold to back it up. This causes inflation. These economic problems landed the US into a depression – pd. Of low economic activity.

11 SECTION 2 Debt in Massachusetts
Each state handled its economic problems by themselves. In Mass. They didn’t print off $$, they instead tried to pay off debts by collecting tax $$ for land sales. This hit farmers particularly hard. So farmers had to borrow $$ to pay off these taxes. Then b/c of the problems w/trade, the farmers were having a hard time selling their crops and repaying their debts. This leads to Shay’s Rebellion.

12 SECTION 2 Debt in Massachusetts
September 1786, farmers revolt b/c of their land being taken b/c they couldn’t pay their debts. Daniel Shays was the main leader. Ended when they tried to take a federal weapon’s arsenal. Shay’s rebellion lasted for several months. This embarrassed many American Leaders. Proved that the Articles wasn’t working. Why couldn’t they raise an army to protect the US? B/c the Articles didn’t give the Confederation Congress the power to do so.

13 SECTION 2 A Push for Change Annapolis Convention – convention called to discuss the problems with the Articles. Decided that the Articles needed fixing. Annapolis Convention Flag

14 Question: What were the causes and consequences of Shay’s Rebellion?
SECTION 2 Problems in the New Nation Question: What were the causes and consequences of Shay’s Rebellion?

15 Shay’s Rebellion Problems With the A.o.C. SECTION 2 Your Left Palm
Border Finger – Couldn’t settle border disputes between states Ring Finger – Couldn’t raise $$ by taxing Guns – Couldn’t raise an army Shay’s Rebellion Weak Finger – Weakness of Federal Govt. Loser / No Respect

16 Problems in the New Nation
SECTION 2 Problems in the New Nation Causes Consequences Farmers had to pay new taxes. Farmers could not pay their debts. Many farmers were forced to sell their property. Some farmers were sent to debtors’ prison. Some farmers had to sell themselves as indentured servants. closed the Massachusetts Supreme Court worried political leaders showed the weaknesses of the Confederation government increased the call for a stronger central government Shays’s Rebellion

17 The Constitution SECTION 3 Constitutional Convention
Time to change the Articles was here. Delegates met in Philadelphia in May 1787. 12 states (not Rhode Island) sent 55 delegates to Independence Hall for this event. Delegates were the “cream of the crop” in America. Franklin was the oldest at 88 yrs. James Madison proved to be one of the most important, b/c of his note taking. (Father of the Constitution) Washington was the president of the Convention.

18 SECTION 3 The Great Compromise
At first, the question came up to how they should change the Articles. Should they slightly change or scrap and restart a new one. The later was chosen. A major issue during the convention was slavery. Should slaves count as population. South – yes. North – no. (property or not) Virginia Plan (large states)– 3 branches of govt. Congress would have 2 houses (bicameral). Both based on a states population. New Jersey Plan (small states) – 3 branches of govt. Congress would have 1 house based on equality for each state. Great Compromise – combined these two plans. 3 branches. Congress – bicameral (1 house based on population, other based on equality)

19 SECTION 3 The 3/5 Compromise
The debate over representation also involved some regional differences. Southern delegates wanted slaves to count towards their population, thus giving them more representatives in Congress. Northern delegates said they treated the slaves like property, therefore they couldn’t count. The compromise that was struck was called the 3/5 compromise. You could say that every slave was worth 3/5 of a man. Or you could say for every 5 slaves, you could count them as 3 real people.

20 Our Living Constitution
SECTION 3 Our Living Constitution Most of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention wanted a strong central (national) government to replace the Articles of Confederation. But, they wanted to protect popular sovereignty. Popular sovereignty – the idea that political authority belongs to the people. They also wanted to balance the power between the national & state governments (federalism) Federalism – sharing of powers between a central & state government. Ex. Under the constitution, states have control over government functions not specifically assigned to the federal government.

21 SECTION 3 US A Delicate Balance
The constitution also balances power within the federal government. The power of the federal government is split up into 3 branches. Legislative Branch – (Congress) Makes the Laws. Is made up of the House of Representatives (based on a states population) and the Senate (each state has 2 representatives). Executive Branch – (President) Carries out or Executes the Laws. Also includes the Vice President, and the cabinet. Judicial Branch – (Supreme Court) Interpret or Judge the Laws. Made up of all the national courts. The Framers of the Constitution created a system of Checks & Balances to keep any one branch from becoming too powerful. The delegates knew the Constitution was not a perfect document. They did believe however, that they had founded a strong government that still protected the ideas of Republicanism. US

22 SECTION 3 Checks & Balances Legislative Branch Executive Branch
Judicial Branch Makes a law Pass the law or Veto it. Override Pres. Veto Constitutional Or Not President Appoints Sup. Crt. Judges Life time appointments Congress ok’s appointment

23 SECTION 3 The Constitution Question: Which delegates participated in the Constitutional Convention, and what were the positions and contributions of each?

24 Positions and Contributions
SECTION 3 The Constitution Delegate Positions and Contributions James Madison took good notes, joined many talks, wrote most of the Virginia Plan George Washington elected president of the Convention Edmund Randolph presented the Virginia Plan William Patterson presented the New Jersey Plan Gouverneur Morris spoke strongly against counting slaves in determining congressional representation George Mason/John Dickinson wanted to stop the slave trade John Rutledge supported the slave trade Elbridge Gerry/ Edmund Randolph/ George Mason refused to sign the Constitution

25 Ratification of the Constitution
SECTION 4 Ratification of the Constitution Federalists & Antifederalists Once the constitution was made, a great debate began among Americans. Antifederalists Federalists Antifederalists – people who opposed the constitution. Believed the convention had gone to far in creating a new govt. (only supposed to change the Articles) Constitution gave too much power to the central government. There was no bill of rights to protect our freedoms. Most federalists believed that the constitution offered a good balance of power. They thought it was a careful compromise between various political views.

26 SECTION 4 The Federalist Papers
The most important arguments in favor of the Constitution appeared in a series of widely read essays that became known as the Federalist Papers. The authors of the essays were: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay. Together they wrote about 85 essays. The Federalist Papers were widely reprinted and strongly influenced the debate over the Constitution. The Federalist Papers were like: “The Constitution for Dummies”

27 The Ratification Fight
SECTION 4 The Ratification Fight The true test of the Constitution’s support came during the debate over state ratification, or approval. The Articles of Confederation had needed the approval of all 13 states to go into effect. The Constitution only needed 9 states to ratify it. Each state except Rhode Island held special state conventions to give citizens the chance to discuss the Constitution. Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution.

28 Articles of Confederation
Constitution Executive Branch No executive to administer & enforce laws; Congress has the sole authority to govern. - Executive committee to oversee government when Congress is out of secession. - President administers & enforces the laws. Legislative Branch Unicameral legislature Each state has one vote Need 9 of 13 votes to enact laws Bicameral Legislature Equal representation in Senate. House based on population. Simple majority to enact laws. Judicial Branch No National court system Congress to establish temporary courts to hear cases of piracy. National Court system headed by Supreme Court. Courts to hear cases involving: national laws, treaties, about Constitution, between states, between citizens, between state and people. Other Matters Admission to the Confederation by 9 of 13 votes Amendment of the Articles by unanimous vote The states retain independence Congress admits new states; all must have same for of govt. as US does. Amendment of the Constitution by 2/3 votes of both houses or by national convention, followed by ratification by ¾ vote of all states. The states accept the Constitution as the supreme Law..

29 Demanding a Bill of Rights
SECTION 4 Demanding a Bill of Rights Several state ratified the Constitution only after they were promised that a bill of rights would be added to it. So, in Congress’s first session, legislators put together a proposed bill of rights. Amendment – official change or correction to the Constitution. The Framers believed amendments would be necessary to reflect the will of the people. They designed the process to be difficult, however. Proposed amendments must be approved by 2/3 majority of both houses of Congress. Then they must be ratified by ¾ of the states before going into effect. There were 12 amendments proposed. Only 10 were ratified (Bill of Rights) These 10 amendments added to the strength of the constitution. The Bill of Rights also set a clear example of how to amend the Constitution to address the needs of the nation. The flexibility of the US Constitution has allowed it to survive for more than 200 years. It is the worlds oldest written national constitution.

30 SECTION 4 Ratification of the Constitution Question: What were the important events that led to the ratification of the Constitution and the addition of the Bill of Rights?

31 Ratification of the Constitution
SECTION 4 Ratification of the Constitution September 17, 1787 The Constitutional Convention gives its approval to the U.S. Constitution. Debate begins among Antifederalists and Federalists. Debate over state ratification begins. The Federalist Papers appear. Legislators create a list of 12 amendments to send to the states for ratification, which will add strength and flexibility to the Constitution. In Congress’s first session, Madison encourages legisla-tors to put together a bill of rights. Rhode Island is the last state to ratify the Constitution. Delaware is the first state to ratify the Constitution. December 1791 Three fourths of the states have ratified 10 of the proposed amendments as a bill of rights.

32 Chapter Wrap-Up CHAPTER 8
1. How did the Articles of Confederation affect the new national government’s ability to conduct foreign policy? 2. Why did many Americans want a federal bill of rights? 3. How does the Constitution guard against the misuse of power?

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