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Exploring Black Holes A NASA EPO Project Brad Armosky Karl Gebhardt Mary Kay Hemenway MJ Tykoski UT Austin EXES Teachers © 2005 The University of Texas.

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Presentation on theme: "Exploring Black Holes A NASA EPO Project Brad Armosky Karl Gebhardt Mary Kay Hemenway MJ Tykoski UT Austin EXES Teachers © 2005 The University of Texas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exploring Black Holes A NASA EPO Project Brad Armosky Karl Gebhardt Mary Kay Hemenway MJ Tykoski UT Austin EXES Teachers © 2005 The University of Texas at Austin McDonald Observatory Illustration: NASA/CXC/M. Weiss; X-ray: NASA/CXC/MPE/S. Komossa et al.; Optical: ESO/MPE/S. Komossa)

2 Fast Write What do you think are the most important characteristics of a black hole?

3 NEWS FLASH! Astronomers Astounded by Super- Luminous Objects and Fast Moving Stars Inside the Cores of Galaxies

4 Where is the quasar? Where is the galaxy?

5 Markarian 205 Quasar NGC 4319 Barred spiral galaxy (system of billions of stars, gas, and dust) 80 million light-years away 1 billion light-years away

6 Markarian 205 Quasar NGC 4319 Barred spiral galaxy (system of billions of stars, gas, and dust) 80 million light-years away 1 billion light-years away Foreground star inside our galaxy thousands of light-years away Distant background galaxy ??? light-years away

7 What is one property of a quasar? Compare the brightness of the galaxy core and the quasar.

8 Where is the quasar 3C-273? Thanks to Sloan Digital Sky Survey A B CD E

9 Where is the quasar 3C-273? Thanks to Sloan Digital Sky Survey A B CD E

10 Where is the quasar 3C-273? Thanks to Sloan Digital Sky Survey A B CD E

11 Where is the quasar 3C-273? Thanks to Sloan Digital Sky Survey A B CD E

12 Markarian 205 Quasar 1 billion light-years NGC 4319 Barred spiral galaxy 80 million light-years What is a quasar? How could it be related to a black hole?

13 The First Quasar The Moon lines up with one of the most famous objects in the sky tonight – a quasar known as 3C 273 in the constellation Virgo. But in the early 1960s, there was an even better alignment – the Moon eclipsed the quasar, making a bit of astronomical history. At the time, 3C 273 was known as a "radio star." Though astronomers could detect it with radio telescopes, they couldn't pinpoint its location well enough to SEE it with optical telescopes. But that changed the day the Moon passed between the radio star and Earth, blocking its radio signals and allowing astronomers to pinpoint its location. With this information, they could find the object with optical telescopes for the first time. Even then, they couldn't quite fathom what they saw. Photographic plates showed only an inconspicuous blue star. But when astronomers split the star's light into its individual wavelengths, they found that it was unlike any known star, galaxy, or nebula. Further study eventually revealed that it's billions of light-years away, which means it must be incredibly bright. It's also small, which means its energy source must be incredibly powerful. Today, astronomers believe that 3C 273 and the thousands of other known quasars are monstrous black holes encircled by disks of gas. As gas spirals into the black hole it's heated, so it glows brightly -- bright enough to see across most of the universe. Script by Bruce McClure, Copyright 2001 Bruce McClure StarDate Copyright 2001 The University of Texas McDonald Observatory

14 Compare these two images. What structure do they have in common? Hurricane Katrina Barred spiral galaxy

15 Compare these two images. What structure do they have in common? Hurricane Katrina Spiral galaxy Gemini Observatory - AURA

16 Thought Experiment What does an object look like if its escape velocity is the speed of light? That’s the kind of question that John Michel asked about stars in Michel wondered about a star and light. He wondered if a star’s escape velocity is the speed of light, then what is the star’s radius and mass?

17 What is a Black Hole? In Newtonian gravity, the escape velocity from a spherical body depends on its size and mass. As the size decreases and the mass increases, escape velocity goes up. For the escape velocity to equal the speed of light (186,000 miles (299,000 km) per second), nature requires a certain size for a given mass. If an object contracts to this critical size, light can no longer escape from its surface to the distant universe. This is the essence of a black hole. A Daring Journey by Dr. Gregory Shields

18 Credit: Tony and Daphne Hallas Where are super-massive black holes? Andromeda Galaxy - a nearby giant galaxy

19 Where are super-massive black holes? BulgeDisk Foreground stars in our galaxy Andromeda Galaxy - a nearby giant galaxy 100,000 light-years Inside the bulge at the core

20 How observed Credit: NASA, A. Feild, and R. Van Der Marel (STScI)

21 How Observed Gas, stars moving toward us Gas, stars moving away from us Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph spectrogram Image of M84 Area STIS observes Gas, stars moving across Spectrogram of gas and stars moving around the core

22 Black Hole Movies M87 black hole Black hole and star close encounter. Tidal forces pull the star apart. Andromeda Galaxy Black HoleMatter Falling into a Black Hole


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