Presentation on theme: "Review of previous events and the period known as…………. “The Era of Good Feelings” 1817-1825."— Presentation transcript:
Review of previous events and the period known as…………. “The Era of Good Feelings” 1817-1825
Presidents: 1789-1825 Federalist Party 1789-1797 ….GW (Virginia), Adams VP, TJ secState 1797-1801…..John Adams (Mass), TJ VP Democratic-Republican Party 1801-1809…..TJ (Virginia), Madison- SecState 1809-1817……Madison (Virginia), Monroe- SecState 1817-1825……Monroe (Virginia), JQA- SecState National Republican Party (only one) 1825-1829…..JQA (Mass), Henry Clay-SecState (Loser)
Some themes to review………… Evaluate the Contributions of the Federalists What does it mean to evaluate????
Evaluate the Contributions of the Federalists…………. PositivesNegatives Established viable govtPolitical Parties emerge Solid economic foundationAlien and Sedition Acts Order (Whiskey Rebels)Jay’s Treaty Avoided War (esp w France)Never settles impressment Created order on FrontierNever settles forts on frontier Est 2-term precedent “Peaceful Revolution” (1800) Pinkney’s Treaty Est. Judicial system (Marshall)
How did the Election of 1800 influence Future politics? Personalities become more important than issues The House of Reps sets a precedent for elections with less than majority The Peaceful Revolution- “the ballot, not the bullet” Amendment 12 creates VP as president’s running mate Judiciary Act of 1801 (Midnight Judges) Marbury v Madison (Judicial Review established) John Marshall appointed by lame duck Adams
How did Thomas Jefferson’s presidency uphold And promote the same Federalist policies He opposed before 1801? B.U.S. grew Marbury v Madison (during TJ’s term) Favored a larger protective tariff Attack on the Barbary Pirates Louisiana Purchase Embargo Acts
Significance of Louisiana Purchase………… Doubled American property Westward movement- cheap land, safety valve, “Empire of Liberty” Perpetuated TJ’s dream of agrarian America Stretched the Constitution with loose construction (by TJ) led to “Tertium Quids” Strengthened US claims to Oregon country Improved relations with France, tense w/Britain Nationalism, seeds of Manifest Destiny New states, aggravated slavery issue
John Pickering, District Court Judge: Impeached and Removed for Intoxication and Mental Instability, 1804
Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase Appointed by GW Impeached, but Not removed by A D-R Congress
Evaluate the Embargo Acts………… Kept us out of war Bought time to build Navy Increased power of the Federal Government Opposition to Embargo revived Federalists (esp in New England) Encouraged infant industries D-R used loose construction of Const
Causes of the War of 1812………. Freedom of the Seas (common cause of wars in USA) Impressment (8000 impressed b/n 1808-1811) Macon’s Bill #2- Napoleon draws US into war Indian Attacks…….British never left the forts and now Tecumseh defeated at Battle of Thames by Harrison Creeks def by Jackson @ Horseshoe Bend War Hawks elected in 1810…..”On to Canada” Henry Clay (Kentucky) John C. Calhoun (South Carolina) Daniel Webster (Massachusetts) Felix Grundy (Tennessee)
Battle of New Orleans By Johnny Horton In 1814 we took a little trip Along with Colonel Jackson down the mighty Mississip. We took a little bacon and we took a little beans And we caught the bloody British in the town of New Orleans. [Chorus:] We fired our guns and the British kept a'comin. There wasn't nigh as many as there was a while ago. We fired once more and they began to runnin' on Down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. We looked down the river and we see'd the British come. And there must have been a hundred of'em beatin' on the drum. They stepped so high and they made the bugles ring. We stood by our cotton bales and didn't say a thing. [Chorus]
Old Hickory said we could take 'em by surprise If we didn't fire our muskets 'til we looked 'em in the eye We held our fire 'til we see'd their faces well. Then we opened up with squirrel guns and really gave 'em... well [Chorus] Yeah, they ran through the briars and they ran through the brambles And they ran through the bushes where a rabbit couldn't go. They ran so fast that the hounds couldn't catch 'em Down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico.** We fired our cannon 'til the barrel melted down. So we grabbed an alligator and we fought another round. We filled his head with cannon balls, and powdered his behind And when we touched the powder off, the gator lost his mind. [Chorus] Yeah, they ran through the briars and they ran through the brambles And they ran through the bushes where a rabbit couldn't go. They ran so fast that the hounds couldn't catch 'em Down the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico.**
Effects of War of 1812……… New respect for US diplomatically War Heroes (esp. Andrew Jackson, also WH Harrison Industry stimulated (by embargo and war) Protectionism, Tariff of 1816 stop British “dumping”, protect infant industries Revealed sectional disunity…..The Hartford Convention End of the war= death of Federalist Party, begins “Era of Good Feelings” Emergence of Nationalistic Pride and American Culture JF Cooper, Last of the Mohicans, Leatherstocking Tales Noah Webster…….Dictionary uniforms spelling McGuffey’s Reader Hudson River School of Painting…….Landscapes…. Charles Burton, Parson Weems- story of GW
Stephen Decatur’s home Designed in 1819 by Benjamin Latrobe Decatur died in a duel in 1820
Features of the “Era of Good Feelings” Monroe visits Boston to warm welcome…… 1 Party Exists Henry Clay’s “American system” National Bank…………….2 nd Bank of the US established Protective Tariffs……….. Tariff of 1816 (stop dumping) Internal Improvements……….Erie Canal, National Road Panic of 1819- caused by overspeculation on West. Lands wildcat banks foreclosed, went bankrupt 1819 Missouri Compromise- MO=Slave, ME=Free “Firebell in Night”, “Wolf by the Ears” compromised on a moral issue 1819 Adams-Onis Treaty…Spain cedes Florida (due, in part to Jackson’s shenanigans) 1823 Monroe Doctrine= Latin America=US turf
Compare the Era of Good Feelings w/ Federalist Era……. Started out united, one party. Factionalized over time Domestic stability led to focus on economic growth Clay’s American System……Hamilton’s Plan American SystemHamilton’s Plan 2 nd Bank of US1 st Bank of US Protective TariffsRevenue Tariffs Internal ImprovementsFunding at par Monroe, like Washington was respected Virginia plantation owner who was a sound administrator, served 2 terms. Federal gov’t strengthened (by Ham &Army in Feds, Marshall in E.G.F.) Difference: Federalists stabilize economy, D-R face Panic of 1819 Federalists sketchy foreign policy (Jays, undecl w/Fr, Br violations D-R have foreign policy success w/ JQA (Adams-Onis, Monroe Doc)
SC Decisions of John Marshall (Fed, JQA appointee)……. They Strengthened Federal Government and Private Industry Marbury v Madison- est. Judicial Review McCulloch v Maryland- state cannot tax Federal entity- “the power to tax is the power to destroy” (Marshall) Cohens v Virginia- SC can review any state ruling Gibbons v Ogden- only Congress (not States) can regulate interstate commerce Fletcher v Peck- state cannot impose a contract on a private party Dartmouth College v Woodward- -private contracts protected from state interference From the grave, Hamilton smiles at Marshall’s decisions!!!!
These men dominated their professions like none other John Marshall, Chief Justice 1801-1835 Longest Chief Established Judicial cred
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