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how to help someone who is choking how to treat a burn or scald

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1 how to help someone who is choking how to treat a burn or scald
Learning objectives You will learn: how to help someone who is choking how to treat a burn or scald how to help someone who is bleeding heavily from a wound how to treat a sprain or strain This resource is designed to allow for flexible planning for lessons between 20 and 90 minutes. Choking: minutes Treating a burn: 10 – 35 minutes Bleeding: 10 – 20 minutes Sprains/Strains: 5 minutes Plenary: minutes

2 a. how to help someone who is choking
Suddenly your friend starts choking on a piece of food… … struggling for breath… holding his throat… turning red in the face… a how to help someone who is choking Ask students: “What is choking?” Explain that choking occurs when the airway is blocked, or partially blocked. This could be by food or a small toy for example. “What would you do if you were on your own?”

3 answers when questioned
a. how to help someone who is choking First ask: “Are you choking?” mild choking severe choking both a how to help someone who is choking Ask the class to sort the boxes into the Venn diagram. In Slideshow view they could come to the board and draw arrows. In Normal view they could drag and drop them to the correct position. Click to the next slide for the correct answer. (Time needed: 10 minutes) answers when questioned unable to speak holding throat unable to cough difficulty breathing unable to breathe coughs red face Sort the boxes into the Venn diagram. See the next slide for answers…

4 answers when questioned
a. how to help someone who is choking First ask: “Are you choking?” mild choking severe choking coughs both unable to breathe red face answers when questioned unable to cough holding throat difficulty breathing unable to speak a how to help someone who is choking

5 a. how to help someone who is choking
If choking is mild, encourage the choking person to cough. This should clear the problem.

6 a. how to help someone who is choking
If your friend can’t speak or cough, the choking is severe. Your friend’s airway has been blocked by food. Unable to breathe, your friend may quickly pass out. You must act right away. Airway Food a to assess how serious a person’s choking is

7 a. how to help someone who is choking
When someone’s choking badly, you must do something. The video clip shows you what to do… a. how to help someone who is choking Students should watch the video clip and then replay it. (Time needed: 5 minutes) For an alternative video try the ‘Christmas Disaster’ video available here:

8 a. how to help someone who is choking
If someone is choking, hit them firmly on their back between the shoulder blades to dislodge the object. How does it work? This action creates a strong vibration and pressure in the airway, which is often enough to dislodge the blockage. Dislodging the object will allow them to breathe again. This animation shows how this works. a. how to help someone who is choking If necessary, call 999 or get someone else to do it.

9 a. how to help someone who is choking
Jon’s story My dad started choking at a BBQ. He was panicking - couldn't breathe or anything. At first I thought he was mucking around. I gave him a whack on the back or 'back blows' as they're called. The first one didn't work so I had to do it again. The second one worked. Dad coughed up a bit of sausage. It was such a relief, I was treated like a hero for the rest of the day - well, I got extra pudding anyway. a. how to help someone who is choking

10 The burn was huge and she was in tears. I knew I should do something…
b. how to treat a burn or scald Jay’s story “My mum was ironing T-shirts when I heard her scream. She’d caught her arm on the hot iron. The burn was huge and she was in tears. I knew I should do something… It left a scar. I wish I’d known what to do. I should’ve helped her, but I didn’t know how.” b. how to treat a burn or scald Explain that burns and scalds are treated in the same way. Watch the video clip to see what to do

11 C F E B D A Put the instructions in the right order…
b. how to treat a burn or scald Put the instructions in the right order… Pour cold water on the burn. Cover the burn with cling film or a plastic bag. Remove tight clothes or jewellery from around the burn... Keep pouring cold water for at least 10 minutes. Call 999 for an ambulance if the burn is very bad, or if in any doubt. … but don’t remove any clothing that’s stuck to the burn itself. b. how to treat a burn or scald Challenge each group of students to agree an order for the set of instructions and to jot the letters down on a slip of paper. A member of each group should hold up the slip when the order is agreed. Which group will be the quickest to find the correct sequence? When the class is ready, click the blank boxes to display the correct order. (Alternative activity. Time needed: 10 minutes.) Click to see the answer… C F E B D A

12 b. how to treat a burn or scald
Would you put it on a burn? Click yes or no! No! A doctor would have to scrape butter off the burn before treating it. Ouch! No! Cotton wool will stick to the burn. Never cover a burn with anything fluffy. Yes No 1. Butter 2. Cotton wool Yes! If you haven’t got water to cool a burn, a cold liquid, like milk will do Yes! Cling film won’t stick, so its great for covering burns to keep them clean. Yes! Use water to cool a burn for at least 10 minutes. b. how to treat a burn or scald Put the class into 5 groups. Give each either a picture of one of the items (provided in Treatment cards in lesson resources) or, if available, the actual object. Give the groups 5 minutes to discuss whether they would put it on a burn and to explain why. The groups then feed back to the class. Note – if you are using Microsoft PowerPoint 2000 or earlier, this animation may not function. Remove each layer manually to reveal the explanatory text. (Alternative activity. Time needed: 10 minutes.) Notes: Butter: fatty products do not have cooling qualities. Cotton wool: fluffy fibres will stick to the burn. Cling film: good to protect the burn as it is transparent and won't stick to the burn. Water: good to cool the burn down. Milk: if there is no water available, this could also cool the burn without causing damage. 3. Cold water 4. Cold milk 5. Cling film

13 How could things have been different?
b. how to treat a burn or scald “If only I’d known what to do. I could’ve given my mum the right treatment! If only I could go back in time…” c. when to seek medical attention for a burn. Ask pairs of students to re-enact Jay’s story, but with a positive outcome. Choose several pairs to come to the front and share their performances. If a sink and roll of cling film are available, the actors could use these too. If a jug and bowl of water are available these could be used instead of a sink. Make sure students pour running water from the jug into the bowl over the burn. Other members of the class could play the role of an operator at ambulance control, taking the 999 call. What would they ask? e.g. “What caused the burn? How long ago did it happen? Is the victim talking? Have they eaten or drunk anything? Where are they burned? How big is the burn?” (Alternative activity. Time needed: 15 minutes) How could things have been different?

14 b. how to treat a burn or scald
The main points again: Cool the burn under cold running water for at least 10 minutes After the burn has been cooled, cover it with cling film or a clean plastic bag. If necessary, call 999 or get someone else to do it. Burns plenary Cooling the burn will reduce pain, swelling and the risk of scarring. The faster and longer a burn is cooled, the less the impact of the injury. Covering the burn with cling film or a clean plastic bag will help prevent infection by keeping the area clean. It’s an ideal covering because it doesn’t stick to the burn and reduces pain by keeping air from the skin’s surface. The burn may need urgent medical treatment. If you’re in any doubt, seek medical advice and always call 999 if a child has been burned. For an alternative video clip around bonfire night burns, show the clip here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mI_xodjQ00I

15 If someone is losing a lot of blood, you need to do something.
c. how to treat a big bleed “I dropped a glass and cut my arm really badly clearing it up. There was so much blood! It was all over the kitchen floor. I started to panic, but my girlfriend was there and she knew what to do…” If someone is losing a lot of blood, you need to do something. c. how to treat a big bleed Ask – what would young people do if they came across someone who was bleeding heavily from a wound? Watch video on next slide to get the answers.

16 How do you treat a big bleed? To answer this question…
c. how to treat a big bleed How do you treat a big bleed? To answer this question… > Watch the video clip. c. how to treat a big bleed When students have watched the video clip ask them to write a summary. They can then compare their summary with the next slide. Ask: what can you use to put pressure on a wound? Use anything available to you – it doesn’t need to be dressing pads from a first aid kit. You can use your hand, their hand, a t-shirt, a tea towel – anything that can be put over the wound to stop or slow down the flow of blood. Ask: What would you do if the bleeding soaks through the item I've used? Do not remove it but add more items (like t-shirts and tea towels) and maintain firm pressure. Call 999 as soon as possible, or get someone else to do it. (Time needed: 10 minutes) For an alternative video on bleeding, try: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8tTAli2xxSA

17 How do you treat a big bleed?
c. how to treat a big bleed How do you treat a big bleed? 1. Put pressure on the wound 2. Call 999 3. Keep pressure on the wound until help arrives c. how to treat a big bleed Get young people to create a radio advert designed to get across the three key steps you can take to help someone who is bleeding. Time needed: 10 minutes

18 d. how to treat sprains and strains
Karl’s story “I was about to score the first goal of the game when I tripped. It should have been embarrassing… but my ankle hurt too much for me to care!” “I’d sprained my ankle. My ankle was bruised and it swelled up. I could hardly move it. The coach told me that the soft parts of my ankle around the bones had been overstretched…” d. to recognise and treat sprains and strains

19 How can you tell if someone has a strain or sprain?
d. how to treat sprains and strains Strains and sprains are common injuries where there has been a sudden movement to part of the body. How can you tell if someone has a strain or sprain? How to treat a sprain or strain: Apply an ice pack to the injury An ice pack is ice or frozen vegetables wrapped in something such as a tea towel. Applying it to the injury will reduce the swelling and pain. If there is no improvement seek medical advice. d. to recognise and treat sprains and strains Ask: “How could you tell if someone had a strain or sprain?” (Pain, tenderness, difficulty moving the injured part swelling and bruising) (Alternative activity. Time needed: 5 minutes.)

20 What key things have you learned from this session?
Plenary What key things have you learned from this session? How confident do you feel that you would be able to help someone in an emergency?


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