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English Varieties. Language Varieties 1. Regional varieties 2. Social varieties 3. Ethnic varieties.

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Presentation on theme: "English Varieties. Language Varieties 1. Regional varieties 2. Social varieties 3. Ethnic varieties."— Presentation transcript:

1 English Varieties

2 Language Varieties 1. Regional varieties 2. Social varieties 3. Ethnic varieties

3 A Handbook of Varieties of English

4 British English dialects

5 Pronunciation: North vs. South StandardNorth ‘foot’[fUt][fOt] ‘meat’[mit][met] ‘sun’[sön][sUn] ‘dance’[dans][dæns]

6 Dialect of East Anglia No agreement I go you go he go she come that say

7 Dialect of East Anglia Old plural forms house – housen mouse – meece

8 Dialect of East Anglia No plural –s after measurement nouns foot three mile

9 Dialect of East Anglia Case in pronouns I‘ll give he what for some day. Him left.

10 Dialect of East Anglia 5. He begunHe has begun He brokeHe has broke He drunkHe has drunk He doneHe has done He blewHe has blew He comeHe has come He choseHe has chose

11 Dialect of East Anglia 6. You done it, did you.

12 Dialect of East Anglia 7.I wuzweren’t you wuzweren’t hewuzweren’t wewuzweren’t youwuzweren’t theywuzweren’t

13 Dialect of East Anglia Negative in’t (cf. ain’t) I in’t a-comen. ‘I’m not coming.’ I in’t done it yet. ‘I haven’t done it yet.’

14 Dialect of East Anglia Multiple negation I couldn’t find hardly none on’em.

15 Dialect of East Anglia Subject pronouns in imperatives Go you on! Shut you up!

16 Dialect of East Anglia ‘What’ as a relative marker He’s the one what done it. A book what I read.

17 Dialect of East Anglia New conjunctions Go you and have a good wash time I git tea ready. There weren’t no laburnum, yet no lilac. The fruit and vegetables weren’t as big as last year, more weren’t the taters and onions.

18 Dialect of East Anglia Old progressive forms I’m a-runnen you’re a-runnen he’s a-runnen we’re a-runnen you’re a-runnen they’re a-runnen He wus a-hitten on it. ‘He was hitting it.’ I’m a-taken on em.‘I’m taking them.’

19 English Varieties

20 British English dialects

21 American English dialects

22 South-Eastern American English 1. Inflected ‘be’ (1)That’s how it bees. (2)It bes like that. 2. Omission of ‘be’ (1)She nice. (2)They acting silly. 3. ‘Be’ perfect (1)You’re been there. (2)I’m forgot the food yesterday.

23 South-Eastern American English 4. A-prefixing (1)They came a-lookin’ for the possum. (2)She was a-huntin’ and a-fishin’. (3)Rex was at/on fishin’. 5. Leveling of past-past participle (1)I went – I had went (2)He done the work – He have done the work (3)They drinked the beer- They have drinked the beer

24 South-Eastern American English 6.NP-REL/PP < coordinate/collective NP < lexical NP < pronominal NP (1)They barks (2)The dogs barks (3)People goes (4)Me and my dog likes to run (5)The dogs in the truck barks

25 South-Eastern American English 7.Double modals (1)He might could come. (2)He useto couldn’t count. 8.‘Aint’ is commonly used in place of ‘haven’t’ and ‘aren’t’ (1)She ain’t there. (2)She ain’t never done no work.

26 South-Eastern American English 10. Was – weren‘t (1)I wasI weren’t (2)You wasyou weren’t 11. ‘Y’all’ serves as a new plural pronoun 12. Regularization of ‘ himself ’ (1)He saw hisself in the mirror.

27 South-Eastern American English 13. Comparative forms of adjectives (1)(most) beautifulest (2)(most) awfulest (3)(more) older 11. The –ly marker of adverbs is often omitted. (1)I was exceptional scared. (2)I’m frightful bad at that. 12. Plural of quantified measure nouns (1)I caught 200 pound of flounder. (2)It’s four mile from here.

28 Are the non-standard varieties more advanced or more conservative?

29 Mechanisms of language change Simplifications 1. Omission of copula 2. Omission of –ly 3. Omission of plural –s after quantified Ns 4. Omission of agreement –s

30 Mechanisms of language change Analogical extensions/leveling 1. Loss of contrast: past and past PTC 2. was – weren’t 3. Plural –s for 3.person 4. Hisself for himself

31 Mechanisms of language change Expressivity 1. Double negation 2. Double modals 3. y’all 4. more ADJ –er/-est 4. ‘you’ in imperatives

32 British vs. American English BritishAmerican [SEdyUl][skEDUl] [Et][et] Gloss schedule garage lieutenant ate neither

33 British vs. American English Gloss leisure tomato missile fertile fragile BritishAmerican [mIsaIl][mIsl] [fErtaIl][fErtl] [fr{DaIl][fr{DIl]

34 British vs. American English 1.In American English, [t] has become a flap after stressed syllables, at the beginning of an unstressed syllable (e.g. butter). 2.In American English, [l] is stronger velarized at the end of a word (e.g. call). 3.In British English, [æ] has become [a] in many words. 4.Schwa is more centralized in American English (e.g. but).

35 British vs. American English 1.In American English, [t] has become a flap after stressed syllables, at the beginning of an unstressed syllable (e.g. butter). 2.In American English, [l] is stronger velarized at the end of a word (e.g. call). 3.In British English, [æ] has become [a] in many words. 4.Schwa is more centralized in American English (e.g. but).

36 British vs. American English 5.Most British dialects have lost postvocalic [r], while most American dialects have kept it (e.g. [ka] vs. [kar] ‘car’).

37 Rhotic and non-rhotic varieties in Britain

38 Labov 1972: rhotic varieties in NYC

39

40 Labov – Rhoticity in NYC

41 British vs. American English Plural of collective nouns British The hotel make a point of insulting their guests. The government are busy. American The hotel makes a point of insulting their guests. The government is busy.

42 British vs. American English Prepositions BritishAmerican be in hospitalbe in the hospital go to universitygo to the university be in the classbe in class

43 British vs. American English River names BritishAmerican River ThamesThames river

44 British vs. American English Get - gotten BritishAmericanI have got a pen. I have gotten a pen.

45 British vs. American English Future shall BritishAmerican I shall be there.I will be there.

46 British vs. American English Have-questions British Have you a room of your own? American Do you have a room of your own?

47 British vs. American English Subjunctive British The judge ordered that he should be held. American The judged ordered that he be held.

48 British vs. American English Do after auxiliary British Have you read the paper yet? No, but I shall do. American Have you read the paper yet? No, but I will.

49 British vs. American English Ditransitives BritishAmericanGive me it. Give it me.*Give it me.

50 British vs. American English Conjunctions British I’ll come immediately my class is over. American I’ll come as soon as my class is over.

51 British vs. American English BritishAmerican biscuit chips crisps to grill marrow monkey nuts porridge scone sultanas

52 British vs. American English BritishAmerican biscuitcookie chipsfrench fries crispspotato chips to grillto broil marrowsquash monkey nutspeanuts porridgeoat meal sconemuffin sultanasraisins

53 British vs. American English BritishAmerican jumper knickers nappy pants vest waistcoat

54 British vs. American English BritishAmerican jumpersweater knickers(woman’s) underpants nappydiaper pantsunderwear vestundershirt waistcoatvest

55 British vs. American English BritishAmerican high street lollipop man lorry motorway return ticket roundabout diversion

56 British vs. American English BritishAmerican high streetmain street lollipop manschool crossing guard lorrytruck motorwayturnpike return ticketround-trip ticket roundabouttraffic circle diversiondetour

57 British vs. American English BritishAmerican season-ticket holder no tipping verge wing zebra boot bonnet caravan

58 British vs. American English BritishAmerican season-ticket holdercommuter no tippingno dumping vergeshoulder of road wingfender zebrapedestrian crossing boottrunk (of car) bonnethood caravantrailer

59 British vs. American English BritishAmerican cot cupboard dummy dustbin garden off-license store redundancies slot machine sticking plaster ill

60 British vs. American English BritishAmerican cotcrib cupboardcloset dummypacifier dustbintrash can garden yard off-license storeliquor store redundancieslayoffs slot machinevending machine sticking plasterbandaid Illsick


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