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Self Determination: What’s in it for Me?

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Presentation on theme: "Self Determination: What’s in it for Me?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Self Determination: What’s in it for Me?
Kathi Mills, Cass- Midway School District Lori Wagner, Hannibal School District Sally Morgan Smith, North Kansas City School District Summer 2008

2 Learning Goals for Today
Increase knowledge about self-determination Increase skills needed to support students in leading their IEP meeting

3 If a student floated in a lifejacket for 12 years, would he/she be expected to swim if the jacket were jerked off?

4 How does it feel when you do not have power over your life?
pass out candy at beginning and come back in middle of presentation. TCandy activity. Pass out bowl and instruct participants to take candy every other person. See Slide 38…. Hold off …. Now the person who has candy will be given $1000 to support the person sitting next to you who did not receive any candy. Ask person who got candy how they feel about that? Ask person who did not get candy to describe how they feel. This is one example of how people with disabilities feel when they do not have control over their life and are able to make their own choices.

Self-Determination is a combination of skills, knowledge and beliefs that enable a person to engage in goal directed, self-regulated, autonomous behavior. An understanding of one’s strengths and limitations together with a belief in oneself as capable and effective are essential to self-determination. When acting on the basis of these skills and attitudes, individuals have greater ability to take control of their lives and assume the role of successful adults in our society. Consensus definition offered by Field, Martin, Miller, Ward, and Wehmeyer (1998)

6 Self-Determination 􀂄 Self-determination refers to an individual’s awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses, the ability to set goals and make choices, to be assertive at appropriate times, and to interact with others in a socially competent manner. 􀂄 A self-determined person is able to make independent decisions based on his or her ability to use resources, which includes collaborating and networking with others. 􀂄 The outcome for a self-determined person is the ability to realize his or her own potential, to become a productive member of a community, and to obtain his or her goals without infringing on the rights, responsibilities, and goals of others. (Serna & Lau-Smith, 1995)

7 Self Determination as a Functional Outcome
Enables students to become self-sufficient, self regulated learners. Empowers students to take greater control of their own learning. Increases student involvement in their educational programs. Some outcomes from teaching self determination include…

8 Self determination emerges…
By enhancing capacity using component elements of self-determined behavior (choice-making, problem- solving skills). By being in an environment that supports choice and student-involvement. By having frequent experiences that include choice and student involvement. By providing supports and accommodations.

9 Process=Outcomes OUTCOMES
Essential Characteristics of Self-Determined Behavior PROCESS Teach Component Elements of Self-Determined Behavior

10 Component Elements of Self-Determined Behavior
Choice-Making Skills Decision-Making Skills Problem-Solving Skills Goal-Setting and Attainment Skills Independence, Risk-Taking and Safety Skills Self-Observation and Self-Evaluation Skills Self-Reinforcement Skills Self-Instruction Skills Self-Advocacy and Leadership Skills Self-Awareness Self-Knowledge Internal Locus of Control Positive Attributions of Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy

11 SD+SA=E Overhead 8

12 Contents of a Self-Advocacy Statement
Statement of Disability Learning Style Accommodations Skills, Strengths and Challenges Supports needed

13 Self-Advocacy Template
I am: I learn best: To be successful I need: My strengths are: My challenges are: I need these supports: Show Disability 411 book

14 How self-determined are you?
*Consider the areas of focus for transition planning … *Step What are your strengths? *Step What are your challenges?. Discuss this as a group? How hard is this? Lfc Say: on your chart, identify your strengths and challenges in the academic area. What was easy or hard about that? The point is, that sometimes it is not easy to know what your strengths and challenges are unless you have put some thought into it, and it may be difficult to share this with a complete stranger. This is exactly what indiv. With disabilities are asked to do if they have not received some training in self-determination. We must teach them this

15 Self-determination Model
Overhead 10 Self-determination Model This model shows how a person develops self-determination- share student story Note: From Steps to Self-Determination: A Curriculum to Help Adolescents Achieve their Goals, by S. Field and A. Hoffman, 1996, Austin, TX: PRO-Ed, Inc. Copyright 1996 by PRO-Ed, Inc. Reprinted with permission.

16 Elementary School Age Students
Overhead 18 Curricular Practices Elementary School Age Students Include choice making: Choosing within an activity Choosing between two or more activities Deciding when to do an activity Selecting the person with whom to participate in an activity Deciding where to do an activity Choosing to end an activity at a self-selected time Students with significant disabilities may need instruction in HOW to: Make choices Communicate preferences Select from options (Field et al., 1998b, p. 49)

17 Late Elementary School Age Students
Overhead 19 Curricular Practices Late Elementary School Age Students Generate personal or academic goals Write goals, monitor their own performance on goals, and evaluate their own goals Use contracts with students (social and behavioral) Start to identify weaknesses and strengths in key skill areas Discover own strengths and limitations (coupled with the supports needed to compensate and to celebrate uniqueness) List problems, all possible choices, and benefits and costs of each choice Involve students in brain-storming sessions (Field et al., 1998b, p. 49)

18 Secondary School Age Students
Overhead 20 Curricular Practices Secondary School Age Students Teach students how to: Know the difference between anger and assertiveness (verbal and nonverbal) Role-play Practice identifying long- and short-term goals Seek all the information needed to make informed choices Participate in IEP Know their rights and responsibilities under IDEA related to transition planning Advocate: assertive vs. aggressive Communicate one-on-one, and in small and large groups Negotiate, compromise, persuade, listen Negotiate the “system” (Field et al., 1998b, p. 49) Look at samples of curriculums and critique. Share the SD Handbook

19 IEP Goals and Objectives: Self-advocacy
Goal: John will increase requests for accommodation needs during role-playing 9 out of 10 trials on 4 out of 5 consecutive days measured by a teacher-made checklist. Activities/Strategies (Action Plans) Request needed accommodations from all teachers Responsible party: John Timeline: 6/01/08 Call the dentist and make appointment See sample goals

20 IEP Goals and Objectives: Self-Advocacy (cont.)
Goal: John will increase participation in his IEP following the 11 steps of the self-directed IEP with 90% accuracy measured by self-monitoring checklist. Activities/Strategies (Action Plans) Meet with teachers and request progress reports Responsible party: John Timelines: 4 wks before IEP review date Make an appointment with guidance counselor to take an interest inventory

21 What does the research say?
Self-determination is essential for successful postsecondary transition outcomes Wehmeyer, Agran, & Hughes, 1998 What does the research say are reasons for teaching self-determination this is especially true for college students with disabilities who need to self-disclose and self-advocate for accommodations. Indiv. With disabilities who are employed, may need the same self-advocacy skills to be successful. Missouri’s state performance plan will be assessing how districts are succeeding in helping students meet post school outcomes which, in my mind, is a big reason for teaching self-determination. A recent study that reviewed 58 studies to find Effects of Self-determination interventions on Academic Skills All populations of students responded positively to interventions regarding academic skills (LD, E/BD, MR/DD This study indicates that self-determination may be more effective for increasing productivity than quality of academic work. Self-determination interventions alone do not increase specific academic skills Self-management interventions were most commonly studied and have most documented effectiveness: would be good to imbed whenever possible Other studies in the past have a high correlation for improved quality of life and increased employment for individuals who are self-determined. Seasonal Partner: find three other people for other spots.

22 Student-directed IEP

23 Possible Student Roles in Planning for IEP Meeting
Participate in transition assessment* Work with case manager to write PLAAFP and to write, monitor, evaluate goals Write letter of invite to IEP Deliver IEP invitation. Identifies post school goals These are the steps that were identified as important to the self-directed IEP and the steps that data was collected on thru the pre-post surveys. So the pre-post was done by each teacher and they considered their caseload or class or whoever they intended to teach the self-directed IEP to. They wrote down the number of students and how many of them were currently doing each step. Then they provided instsruction and sometime after their IEP or before the school year (monitored thru role play) the teacher completed the post survey. Make sure to let the parents know when you teach self-directed IEP. They may not be in favor of relinquishing control – nor may the teacher be. T

24 Kidspiration® Chart I will take courses at the community college
Overhead 33 Kidspiration® Chart I will take courses at the community college I will work at the hospital as a nurse I will continue bowling with the Special Olympics I will live in an apartment with two roommates

25 Inspiration® Chart Overhead 34 Show slide show clip “Sample IEP”

26 Possible Student Roles During IEP Meeting
Attend IEP Introduces everyone Begins meeting by stating purpose State post-secondary goals Discuss present level of performance (Share results of interest inventories and review past goals/performance) Develop statement of transition service needs (course of study) – education plan and long term plan for adult life Develop annual IEP goals and action plans Ask questions for clarity and elicit feedback Deal with differences of opinions State what supports are needed Close meeting by thanking participants

27 Techniques to Help Students Actively Participate in IEP Meetings
􀂄 Ask students questions such as: 􀂅 What are your learning strengths? 􀂅 What are your areas of improvement? 􀂅 What are your goals for school? 􀂅 What are your career & employment interests 􀂅 How do you learn best? 􀂅 What are your hobbies? 􀂄 Be positive – focus on what the student can do 􀂄 Listen attentively & take notes 􀂄 Give students plenty of time to think & respond 􀂄 Use information that the student provides 􀂄 Summarize the student’s goals and plans 􀂄 Encourage the student to ask questions

28 The Dignity of Risk 􀂄 What if you never got to make a mistake.
􀂄 What if your money was always kept in an envelope where you couldn’t get at it. 􀂄 What if you were never given a chance to do well at something. 􀂄 What if you were always treated like a child. 􀂄 What if your chance to be with people different from you was with your own family. 􀂄 What if the job you did was not useful. 􀂄 What if you never got to make a decision. 􀂄 What if the only risky thing you could do was to act out. 􀂄 What if you couldn’t go outside because the last time you went it rained. 􀂄 What if you took the wrong bus once and now you can’t take another one.

29 The Dignity of Risk, cont
􀂄 What if you got into trouble and were sent away and you couldn’t come back because they always remember you’re “trouble.” 􀂄 What if you worked and got paid $.46 an hour. 􀂄 What if you had to wear your winter coat when it rained because it was all you had. 􀂄 What if you had no privacy. 􀂄 What if you could do part of the grocery shopping but weren’t allowed to do any because you weren’t able to do all of the shopping. 􀂄 What if you spent three hours every day just waiting. 􀂄 What if you grew old and never knew adulthood. 􀂄 What if you never got a chance. (From a parent whose son is in a support work program in Richmond, VA; published by The Arc.)

30 Note taking during the meeting (Have a worksheet available)
What I did right… What I could improve on… What do you mean.. Discuss…. Review….. Summarize….

31 Possible Student Roles to Follow-Up the IEP Meeting
Self-evaluate IEP meeting Self-monitor progress made on goals and action plans

32 Whose Meeting Is This Again?
Special Ed Teacher: “Over on this page it tells you my goals and objectives that I want him to achieve. I want him to increase basic English skills to the seventh grade level, and he’s going to do this by……” Special Ed Teacher: “Okay Sam, this is your IEP, and I’m going to read a statement on just an overall view of where you are. You’re a senior and are working on completing credits toward graduation. He is attending alternative education classes, and is taking a correspondence class. His grade point average -- is that on his transcript?” Martin, Van Dycke We were further convinced when seeing the comments from Special ed teachers during a study conducted by James Martin or Jamie Van Dycke University of Oklahoma Zarrow Center for Learning Enrichment Carpenter Hall Room 111 Norman, OK 73019 Phone:

33 DCDT: Martin, Van Dycke, Gardner (2005)

34 Curricula 􀂄 Abery, B., Arndt, K., Greger, P., et al. (1994). Self-determination for youth with disabilities: A family education curriculum. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Institute for Community Inclusion 􀂄 Halpern, A.S., Herr, C.M., Doren, B., & Wolf, N.H. (2000). Next S.T.E.P.: Student transition and educational planning (second edition). Austin, TX: PRO-ED. 􀂄 Hoffman, A. & Field, S. (2005). Steps to self-determination: A curriculum to help adolescents learn to achieve their goals (second edition). Austin, TX: PRO-ED. 􀂄 Marshall, L.H., Martin, J.E., Jerman, P., Hughes, W., & Maxson, L. (1999). Choosing personal goals. Part of the ChoiceMaker Instructional Series. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services. 􀂄 Marshall, L.H., Martin, J.E., Maxson, L, et al. (1999). Take action: Making goals happen. Part of the ChoiceMaker Self-Determination Curriculum. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational 􀂄 Martin, J.E., Marshall, L.H., Maxson, L., & Jerman, P. (1996). Self-directed IEP (second edition). Part of the ChoiceMaker Instructional Series. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services. 􀂄 McGahee, M., Mason, C., Wallace, T., & Jones, B. (2001). Student-led IEPs: A guide for student involvement. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. 􀂄 Morningstar, M. (1995). 􀂄 Rabideau, R.D. & Pierson, M.R. (2001). A self-advocacy handbook for students with special needs. DAC Educational Publications. 􀂄 Van Reusen, A., Bos, C., Schumaker, J., & Deshler, D. (1994). The self-advocacy strategy for education and transition planning. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises. 􀂄 Wehmeyer, M. & Lawrence, M. Whose future is it, anyway? A student directed transition process.

35 Self Determination Resources
Beach Center on Families and Disabilities, KU The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Self Determination Synthesis Project (SDSP) KU Transition Coalition A Student’s Guide to the IEP” I made two slides

36 Acknowledgements CISE Training Module, “Self Determination,” Karen Allan & Marilyn Smith, 2004. Special School District of St Louis County, Missouri Marilyn Smith, Chuck Howard, & Linda Cantrell; Special School District

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