Presentation on theme: "Self Determination: What’s in it for Me?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Self Determination: What’s in it for Me? Kathi Mills, Cass- Midway School DistrictLori Wagner, Hannibal School DistrictSally Morgan Smith, North Kansas City School DistrictSummer 2008
2 Learning Goals for Today Increase knowledge about self-determinationIncrease skills needed to support students in leading their IEP meeting
3 If a studentfloated in alifejacket for 12years, wouldhe/she beexpected to swimif the jacket werejerked off?
4 How does it feel when you do not have power over your life? pass out candy at beginning and come back in middle of presentation. TCandy activity. Pass out bowl and instruct participants to take candy every other person. See Slide 38…. Hold off …. Now the person who has candy will be given $1000 to support the person sitting next to you who did not receive any candy. Ask person who got candy how they feel about that? Ask person who did not get candy to describe how they feel. This is one example of how people with disabilities feel when they do not have control over their life and are able to make their own choices.
5 WHAT IS SELF-DETERMINATION? Self-Determination is a combination of skills, knowledge and beliefs that enable a person to engage in goal directed, self-regulated, autonomous behavior. An understanding of one’s strengths and limitations together with a belief in oneself as capable and effective are essential to self-determination. When acting on the basis of these skills and attitudes, individuals have greater ability to take control of their lives and assume the role of successful adults in our society.Consensus definition offered by Field, Martin, Miller, Ward, and Wehmeyer (1998)
6 Self-Determination Self-determination refers to an individual’s awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses, the ability to set goals and make choices, to be assertive at appropriate times, and to interact with others in a socially competent manner. A self-determined person is able to make independent decisions based on his or her ability to use resources, which includes collaborating and networking with others. The outcome for a self-determined person is the ability to realize his or her own potential, to become a productive member of a community, and to obtain his or her goals without infringing on the rights, responsibilities, and goals of others. (Serna & Lau-Smith, 1995)
7 Self Determination as a Functional Outcome Enables students to become self-sufficient, self regulated learners.Empowers students to take greater control of their own learning.Increases student involvement in their educational programs.Some outcomes from teaching self determination include…
8 Self determination emerges… By enhancing capacity using component elements of self-determined behavior (choice-making, problem- solving skills).By being in an environment that supports choice and student-involvement.By having frequent experiences that include choice and student involvement.By providing supports and accommodations.
9 Process=Outcomes OUTCOMES Essential Characteristics of Self-Determined BehaviorPROCESSTeach Component Elements of Self-Determined Behavior
10 Component Elements of Self-Determined Behavior Choice-Making SkillsDecision-Making SkillsProblem-Solving SkillsGoal-Setting and Attainment SkillsIndependence, Risk-Taking and Safety SkillsSelf-Observation and Self-Evaluation SkillsSelf-Reinforcement SkillsSelf-Instruction SkillsSelf-Advocacy and Leadership SkillsSelf-AwarenessSelf-KnowledgeInternal Locus of ControlPositive Attributions of Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy
12 Contents of a Self-Advocacy Statement Statement of DisabilityLearning StyleAccommodationsSkills, Strengths and ChallengesSupports needed
13 Self-Advocacy Template I am:I learn best:To be successfulI need:My strengths are:My challenges are:I need these supports:Show Disability 411 book
14 How self-determined are you? *Consider the areas of focus for transition planning …*Step What are your strengths?*Step What are your challenges?.Discuss this as a group? How hard is this? LfcSay: on your chart, identify your strengths and challenges in the academic area. What was easy or hard about that? The point is, that sometimes it is not easy to know what your strengths and challenges are unless you have put some thought into it, and it may be difficult to share this with a complete stranger. This is exactly what indiv. With disabilities are asked to do if they have not received some training in self-determination. We must teach them this
15 Self-determination Model Overhead 10Self-determination ModelThis model shows how a person develops self-determination- share student storyNote: From Steps to Self-Determination: A Curriculum to Help Adolescents Achieve their Goals, by S. Field and A. Hoffman, 1996, Austin, TX: PRO-Ed, Inc. Copyright 1996 by PRO-Ed, Inc. Reprinted with permission.
16 Elementary School Age Students Overhead 18Curricular PracticesElementary School Age StudentsInclude choice making:Choosing within an activityChoosing between two or more activitiesDeciding when to do an activitySelecting the person with whom to participate in an activityDeciding where to do an activityChoosing to end an activity at a self-selected timeStudents with significant disabilities may need instruction in HOW to:Make choicesCommunicate preferencesSelect from options(Field et al., 1998b, p. 49)
17 Late Elementary School Age Students Overhead 19Curricular PracticesLate Elementary School Age StudentsGenerate personal or academic goalsWrite goals, monitor their own performance on goals, and evaluate their own goalsUse contracts with students (social and behavioral)Start to identify weaknesses and strengths in key skill areasDiscover own strengths and limitations (coupled with the supports needed to compensate and to celebrate uniqueness)List problems, all possible choices, and benefits and costs of each choiceInvolve students in brain-storming sessions(Field et al., 1998b, p. 49)
18 Secondary School Age Students Overhead 20Curricular PracticesSecondary School Age StudentsTeach students how to:Know the difference between anger and assertiveness (verbal and nonverbal)Role-playPractice identifying long- and short-term goalsSeek all the information needed to make informed choicesParticipate in IEPKnow their rights and responsibilities under IDEA related to transition planningAdvocate: assertive vs. aggressiveCommunicate one-on-one, and in small and large groupsNegotiate, compromise, persuade, listenNegotiate the “system”(Field et al., 1998b, p. 49)Look at samples of curriculums and critique. Share the SD Handbook
19 IEP Goals and Objectives: Self-advocacy Goal: John will increase requests for accommodation needs during role-playing 9 out of 10 trials on 4 out of 5 consecutive days measured by a teacher-made checklist.Activities/Strategies (Action Plans)Request needed accommodationsfrom all teachersResponsible party: JohnTimeline: 6/01/08Call the dentist and makeappointmentSee sample goals
20 IEP Goals and Objectives: Self-Advocacy (cont.) Goal: John will increase participation in his IEP following the 11 steps of the self-directed IEP with 90% accuracy measured by self-monitoring checklist.Activities/Strategies (Action Plans)Meet with teachers and request progress reportsResponsible party: JohnTimelines: 4 wks before IEP review dateMake an appointment with guidance counselor to take an interest inventory
21 What does the research say? Self-determination is essential for successful postsecondary transition outcomesWehmeyer, Agran, & Hughes, 1998What does the research say are reasons for teaching self-determinationthis is especially true for college students with disabilities who need to self-disclose and self-advocate for accommodations.Indiv. With disabilities who are employed, may need the same self-advocacy skills to be successful.Missouri’s state performance plan will be assessing how districts are succeeding in helping students meet post school outcomes which, in my mind, is a big reason for teaching self-determination.A recent study that reviewed 58 studies to find Effects of Self-determination interventions on Academic SkillsAll populations of students responded positively to interventions regarding academic skills (LD, E/BD, MR/DDThis study indicates that self-determination may be more effective for increasing productivity than quality of academic work.Self-determination interventions alone do not increase specific academic skillsSelf-management interventions were most commonly studied and have most documented effectiveness: would be good to imbed whenever possibleOther studies in the past have a high correlation for improved quality of life and increased employment for individuals who are self-determined.Seasonal Partner: find three other people for other spots.
23 Possible Student Roles in Planning for IEP Meeting Participate in transition assessment*Work with case manager to write PLAAFP and to write, monitor, evaluate goalsWrite letter of invite to IEPDeliver IEP invitation.Identifies post school goalsThese are the steps that were identified as important to the self-directed IEP and the steps that data was collected on thru the pre-post surveys. So the pre-post was done by each teacher and they considered their caseload or class or whoever they intended to teach the self-directed IEP to. They wrote down the number of students and how many of them were currently doing each step. Then they provided instsruction and sometime after their IEP or before the school year (monitored thru role play) the teacher completed the post survey.Make sure to let the parents know when you teach self-directed IEP. They may not be in favor of relinquishing control – nor may the teacher be.T
24 Kidspiration® Chart I will take courses at the community college Overhead 33Kidspiration® ChartI will take courses at the community collegeI will work at the hospital as a nurseI will continue bowling with the Special OlympicsI will live in an apartment with two roommates
25 Inspiration® ChartOverhead 34Show slide show clip “Sample IEP”
26 Possible Student Roles During IEP Meeting Attend IEPIntroduces everyoneBegins meeting by stating purposeState post-secondary goalsDiscuss present level of performance (Share results of interest inventories and review past goals/performance)Develop statement of transition service needs (course of study) – education plan and long term plan for adult lifeDevelop annual IEP goals and action plansAsk questions for clarity and elicit feedbackDeal with differences of opinionsState what supports are neededClose meeting by thanking participants
27 Techniques to Help Students Actively Participate in IEP Meetings Ask students questionssuch as: What are your learningstrengths? What are your areas ofimprovement? What are your goals forschool? What are your career &employment interests How do you learn best? What are your hobbies? Be positive – focus onwhat the student can do Listen attentively & takenotes Give students plenty oftime to think & respond Use information that thestudent provides Summarize the student’sgoals and plans Encourage the student toask questions
28 The Dignity of Risk What if you never got to make a mistake. What if your money was always kept in an envelope where you couldn’t get at it. What if you were never given a chance to do well at something. What if you were always treated like a child. What if your chance to be with people different from you was with your ownfamily. What if the job you did was not useful. What if you never got to make a decision. What if the only risky thing you could do was to act out. What if you couldn’t go outside because the last time you went itrained. What if you took the wrong bus once and now you can’t take another one.
29 The Dignity of Risk, cont What if you got into trouble and were sent away and you couldn’t come back because they always remember you’re “trouble.” What if you worked and got paid $.46 an hour. What if you had to wear your winter coat when it rained because it was all you had. What if you had no privacy. What if you could do part of the grocery shopping but weren’t allowed to do any because you weren’t able to do all of the shopping. What if you spent three hours every day just waiting. What if you grew old and never knew adulthood. What if you never got a chance.(From a parent whose son is in a support work program in Richmond, VA; published by The Arc.)
30 Note taking during the meeting (Have a worksheet available) What I did right…What I could improve on…What do you mean..Discuss….Review…..Summarize….
31 Possible Student Roles to Follow-Up the IEP Meeting Self-evaluate IEP meetingSelf-monitor progress made on goals and action plans
32 Whose Meeting Is This Again? Special Ed Teacher: “Over on this page it tells you my goals and objectives that I want him to achieve. I want him to increase basic English skills to the seventh grade level, and he’s going to do this by……”Special Ed Teacher: “Okay Sam, this is your IEP, and I’m going to read a statement on just an overall view of where you are. You’re a senior and are working on completing credits toward graduation. He is attending alternative education classes, and is taking a correspondence class. His grade point average -- is that on his transcript?”Martin, Van DyckeWe were further convinced when seeing the comments from Special ed teachers during a study conducted byJames Martin or Jamie Van DyckeUniversity of OklahomaZarrow Center for Learning EnrichmentCarpenter Hall Room 111Norman, OK 73019Phone:
34 Curricula Abery, B., Arndt, K., Greger, P., et al. (1994). Self-determination for youth with disabilities: Afamily education curriculum. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Institute for CommunityInclusion Halpern, A.S., Herr, C.M., Doren, B., & Wolf, N.H. (2000). Next S.T.E.P.: Student transition andeducational planning (second edition). Austin, TX: PRO-ED. Hoffman, A. & Field, S. (2005). Steps to self-determination: A curriculum to help adolescents learnto achieve their goals (second edition). Austin, TX: PRO-ED. Marshall, L.H., Martin, J.E., Jerman, P., Hughes, W., & Maxson, L. (1999). Choosing personalgoals. Part of the ChoiceMaker Instructional Series. Longmont, CO: Sopris West EducationalServices. Marshall, L.H., Martin, J.E., Maxson, L, et al. (1999). Take action: Making goals happen. Part ofthe ChoiceMaker Self-Determination Curriculum. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Martin, J.E., Marshall, L.H., Maxson, L., & Jerman, P. (1996). Self-directed IEP (second edition).Part of the ChoiceMaker Instructional Series. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services. McGahee, M., Mason, C., Wallace, T., & Jones, B. (2001). Student-led IEPs: A guide for studentinvolvement. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. Morningstar, M. (1995). Rabideau, R.D. & Pierson, M.R. (2001). A self-advocacy handbook for students with specialneeds. DAC Educational Publications. Van Reusen, A., Bos, C., Schumaker, J., & Deshler, D. (1994). The self-advocacy strategy foreducation and transition planning. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises. Wehmeyer, M. & Lawrence, M. Whose future is it, anyway? A student directed transition process.
35 Self Determination Resources Beach Center on Families and Disabilities, KUThe Council for Exceptional Children (CEC)Self Determination Synthesis Project (SDSP)KU Transition CoalitionA Student’s Guide to the IEP”I made two slides
36 AcknowledgementsCISE Training Module, “Self Determination,” Karen Allan & Marilyn Smith, 2004.Special School District of St Louis County, MissouriMarilyn Smith, Chuck Howard, & Linda Cantrell; Special School District