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1 Kathi Mills, Cass- Midway School District Lori Wagner, Hannibal School District Sally Morgan Smith, North Kansas City School District Summer 2008 Self.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Kathi Mills, Cass- Midway School District Lori Wagner, Hannibal School District Sally Morgan Smith, North Kansas City School District Summer 2008 Self."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Kathi Mills, Cass- Midway School District Lori Wagner, Hannibal School District Sally Morgan Smith, North Kansas City School District Summer 2008 Self Determination: What’s in it for Me?

2 2 Learning Goals for Today Increase knowledge about self- determination Increase skills needed to support students in leading their IEP meeting

3 If a student floated in a lifejacket for 12 years, would he/she be expected to swim if the jacket were jerked off?

4 4 How does it feel when you do not have power over your life?

5 5 Self-Determination is a combination of skills, knowledge and beliefs that enable a person to engage in goal directed, self- regulated, autonomous behavior. An understanding of one’s strengths and limitations together with a belief in oneself as capable and effective are essential to self-determination. When acting on the basis of these skills and attitudes, individuals have greater ability to take control of their lives and assume the role of successful adults in our society. Consensus definition offered by Field, Martin, Miller, Ward, and Wehmeyer (1998) WHAT IS SELF-DETERMINATION?

6 Self-Determination Self-determination refers to an individual’s awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses, the ability to set goals and make choices, to be assertive at appropriate times, and to interact with others in a socially competent manner. A self-determined person is able to make independent decisions based on his or her ability to use resources, which includes collaborating and networking with others. The outcome for a self-determined person is the ability to realize his or her own potential, to become a productive member of a community, and to obtain his or her goals without infringing on the rights, responsibilities, and goals of others. (Serna & Lau- Smith, 1995)

7 7 Enables students to become self-sufficient, self regulated learners. Empowers students to take greater control of their own learning. Increases student involvement in their educational programs. Self Determination as a Functional Outcome

8 8 By enhancing capacity using component elements of self-determined behavior (choice-making, problem- solving skills). By being in an environment that supports choice and student-involvement. By having frequent experiences that include choice and student involvement. By providing supports and accommodations. Self determination emerges…

9 9 PROCESS Teach Component Elements of Self- Determined Behavior OUTCOMES Essential Characteristics of Self- Determined Behavior Process=Outcomes

10 10 Choice-Making Skills Decision-Making Skills Problem-Solving Skills Goal-Setting and Attainment Skills Independence, Risk-Taking and Safety Skills Self-Observation and Self-Evaluation Skills Self-Reinforcement Skills Self-Instruction Skills Self-Advocacy and Leadership Skills Self-Awareness Self-Knowledge Internal Locus of Control Positive Attributions of Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy Component Elements of Self-Determined Behavior

11 11 Overhead 8 SD+SA=E

12 12 Contents of a Self-Advocacy Statement Statement of Disability Learning Style Accommodations Skills, Strengths and Challenges Supports needed

13 13 Self-Advocacy Template I am: I learn best: To be successful I need: My strengths are: My challenges are: I need these supports:

14 14 How self-determined are you? *Consider the areas of focus for transition planning … *Step What are your strengths? *Step What are your challenges?.

15 15 Self-determination Model Overhead 10 Note: From Steps to Self- Determination: A Curriculum to Help Adolescents Achieve their Goals, by S. Field and A. Hoffman, 1996, Austin, TX: PRO-Ed, Inc. Copyright 1996 by PRO- Ed, Inc. Reprinted with permission.

16 16 Curricular Practices Include choice making: 1.Choosing within an activity 2.Choosing between two or more activities 3.Deciding when to do an activity 4.Selecting the person with whom to participate in an activity 5.Deciding where to do an activity 6.Choosing to end an activity at a self- selected time Overhead 18 Elementary School Age Students Students with significant disabilities may need instruction in HOW to: 1.Make choices 2.Communicate preferences 3.Select from options (Field et al., 1998b, p. 49)

17 17 Curricular Practices 1.Generate personal or academic goals 2.Write goals, monitor their own performance on goals, and evaluate their own goals 3.Use contracts with students (social and behavioral) 4.Start to identify weaknesses and strengths in key skill areas 5.Discover own strengths and limitations (coupled with the supports needed to compensate and to celebrate uniqueness) 6.List problems, all possible choices, and benefits and costs of each choice 7.Involve students in brain- storming sessions (Field et al., 1998b, p. 49) Late Elementary School Age Students Overhead 19

18 18 Curricular Practices Teach students how to: 1.Know the difference between anger and assertiveness (verbal and nonverbal) 2.Role-play 3.Practice identifying long- and short-term goals 4.Seek all the information needed to make informed choices 5.Participate in IEP 6.Know their rights and responsibilities under IDEA related to transition planning 7.Advocate: assertive vs. aggressive 8.Communicate one-on-one, and in small and large groups 9.Negotiate, compromise, persuade, listen 10.Negotiate the “system” (Field et al., 1998b, p. 49) Overhead 20 Secondary School Age Students

19 19 IEP Goals and Objectives: Self-advocacy Goal: John will increase requests for accommodation needs during role-playing 9 out of 10 trials on 4 out of 5 consecutive days measured by a teacher-made checklist. Activities/Strategies (Action Plans) Request needed accommodations from all teachers Responsible party: John Timeline: 6/01/08 Call the dentist and make appointment Responsible party: John Timeline: 6/01/08

20 20 IEP Goals and Objectives: Self-Advocacy (cont.) Goal: John will increase participation in his IEP following the 11 steps of the self-directed IEP with 90% accuracy measured by self-monitoring checklist. Activities/Strategies (Action Plans) Meet with teachers and request progress reports Responsible party: John Timelines: 4 wks before IEP review date Make an appointment with guidance counselor to take an interest inventory Responsible party: John Timelines: 4 wks before IEP review date

21 21 What does the research say? Self-determination is essential for successful postsecondary transition outcomes Wehmeyer, Agran, & Hughes, 1998

22 22 Student-directed IEP

23 23 Possible Student Roles in Planning for IEP Meeting Participate in transition assessment* Work with case manager to write PLAAFP and to write, monitor, evaluate goals Write letter of invite to IEP Deliver IEP invitation. Identifies post school goals

24 24 Kidspiration ® Chart Overhead 33 I will work at the hospital as a nurse I will continue bowling with the Special Olympics I will live in an apartment with two roommates I will take courses at the community college

25 25 Overhead 34 Inspiration ® Chart

26 Possible Student Roles During IEP Meeting Attend IEP Introduces everyone Begins meeting by stating purpose State post-secondary goals Discuss present level of performance (Share results of interest inventories and review past goals/performance) Develop statement of transition service needs (course of study) – education plan and long term plan for adult life Develop annual IEP goals and action plans Ask questions for clarity and elicit feedback Deal with differences of opinions State what supports are needed Close meeting by thanking participants

27 Techniques to Help Students Actively Participate in IEP Meetings Ask students questions such as: What are your learning strengths? What are your areas of improvement? What are your goals for school? What are your career & employment interests How do you learn best? What are your hobbies? Be positive – focus on what the student can do Listen attentively & take notes Give students plenty of time to think & respond Use information that the student provides Summarize the student’s goals and plans Encourage the student to ask questions

28 The Dignity of Risk What if you never got to make a mistake. What if your money was always kept in an envelope where you couldn’t get at it. What if you were never given a chance to do well at something. What if you were always treated like a child. What if your chance to be with people different from you was with your own family. What if the job you did was not useful. What if you never got to make a decision. What if the only risky thing you could do was to act out. What if you couldn’t go outside because the last time you went it rained. What if you took the wrong bus once and now you can’t take another one.

29 The Dignity of Risk, cont What if you got into trouble and were sent away and you couldn’t come back because they always remember you’re “trouble.” What if you worked and got paid $.46 an hour. What if you had to wear your winter coat when it rained because it was all you had. What if you had no privacy. What if you could do part of the grocery shopping but weren’t allowed to do any because you weren’t able to do all of the shopping. What if you spent three hours every day just waiting. What if you grew old and never knew adulthood. What if you never got a chance. (From a parent whose son is in a support work program in Richmond, VA; published by The Arc.)

30 Note taking during the meeting (Have a worksheet available) What I did right… What I could improve on… What do you mean.. Discuss…. Review….. Summarize….

31 Possible Student Roles to Follow-Up the IEP Meeting Self-evaluate IEP meeting Self-monitor progress made on goals and action plans

32 32 Whose Meeting Is This Again? Special Ed Teacher: “Over on this page it tells you my goals and objectives that I want him to achieve. I want him to increase basic English skills to the seventh grade level, and he’s going to do this by……” Special Ed Teacher: “Okay Sam, this is your IEP, and I’m going to read a statement on just an overall view of where you are. You’re a senior and are working on completing credits toward graduation. He is attending alternative education classes, and is taking a correspondence class. His grade point average -- is that on his transcript?” Martin, Van Dycke

33 33

34 Curricula Abery, B., Arndt, K., Greger, P., et al. (1994). Self-determination for youth with disabilities: A family education curriculum. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Institute for Community Inclusion Halpern, A.S., Herr, C.M., Doren, B., & Wolf, N.H. (2000). Next S.T.E.P.: Student transition and educational planning (second edition). Austin, TX: PRO-ED. Hoffman, A. & Field, S. (2005). Steps to self-determination: A curriculum to help adolescents learn to achieve their goals (second edition). Austin, TX: PRO-ED. Marshall, L.H., Martin, J.E., Jerman, P., Hughes, W., & Maxson, L. (1999). Choosing personal goals. Part of the ChoiceMaker Instructional Series. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services. Marshall, L.H., Martin, J.E., Maxson, L, et al. (1999). Take action: Making goals happen. Part of the ChoiceMaker Self-Determination Curriculum. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services. Martin, J.E., Marshall, L.H., Maxson, L., & Jerman, P. (1996). Self-directed IEP (second edition). Part of the ChoiceMaker Instructional Series. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services. McGahee, M., Mason, C., Wallace, T., & Jones, B. (2001). Student-led IEPs: A guide for student involvement. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children. Morningstar, M. (1995). Rabideau, R.D. & Pierson, M.R. (2001). A self-advocacy handbook for students with special needs. DAC Educational Publications. Van Reusen, A., Bos, C., Schumaker, J., & Deshler, D. (1994). The self-advocacy strategy for education and transition planning. Lawrence, KS: Edge Enterprises. Wehmeyer, M. & Lawrence, M. Whose future is it, anyway? A student directed transition process.

35 35 Self Determination Resources Beach Center on Families and Disabilities, KU The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Self Determination Synthesis Project (SDSP) KU Transition Coalition A Student’s Guide to the IEP”

36 Acknowledgements CISE Training Module, “Self Determination,” Karen Allan & Marilyn Smith, Special School District of St Louis County, Missouri Marilyn Smith, Chuck Howard, & Linda Cantrell; Special School District


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