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Chapter 6 THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION This chapter begins a new era in American history when people like Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, George Washington, Paul.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION This chapter begins a new era in American history when people like Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, George Washington, Paul."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION This chapter begins a new era in American history when people like Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, George Washington, Paul Revere, and Patrick Henry worked to end British oppression and create an independent American Republic. This new era is called the Revolutionary Era.

2 Big Ideas Laws are a reflection of the values and beliefs of society and provide stability and order. Literature can shape social change. Significant events and/or leaders can create turning points in history. Significant events within a nation can bring about a change in a nations laws and structure of government. Relationships between nations often lead to conflict. Guiding Questions 1. How did British economic policies lead to the American Revolution? 2. What roles did significant individuals play in the American Revolution?

3 PROCLAMATION OF 1763 Proclamation by King George III, stated colonists couldn't settle West of the Appalachians Mountains. Proclamation by King George III, stated colonists couldn't settle West of the Appalachians Mountains. CAUSES: CAUSES: Pontiac’s Rebellion & French and Indian War Pontiac’s Rebellion & French and Indian War Britain wanted peace (too expensive to fight Native Americans). Britain wanted peace (too expensive to fight Native Americans). EFFECTS: EFFECTS: Colonists were FURIOUS they felt they had the right to settle land and that this was just an attempt by the British to have more control over them. Colonists were FURIOUS they felt they had the right to settle land and that this was just an attempt by the British to have more control over them. Many colonists had no land or had already bought land as an investment. Many colonists had no land or had already bought land as an investment. Many IGNORED the law! Many IGNORED the law! British was angry that colonists wouldn’t help pay for their own defense. British was angry that colonists wouldn’t help pay for their own defense.

4 SUGAR ACT st taxation without representation!!!! 1 st taxation without representation!!!! Taxed imported sugar, molasses, and provided harsh punishments for smuggling to avoid paying it. Taxed imported sugar, molasses, and provided harsh punishments for smuggling to avoid paying it. CAUSES: CAUSES: Britain needed money to pay debts from the French & Indian War. Britain needed money to pay debts from the French & Indian War. EFFECTS: EFFECTS: Colonists said Britain couldn’t tax them since they had no representation in Parliament. Colonists said Britain couldn’t tax them since they had no representation in Parliament. NO taxation without representation!!! NO taxation without representation!!! Upset merchants since it affected them the most. Upset merchants since it affected them the most.

5 QUARTERING ACT 1765 NOT A TAX!!!! Required colonists to house troops in their homes and give them supplies. NOT A TAX!!!! Required colonists to house troops in their homes and give them supplies. CAUSES: CAUSES: Britain wanted troops to keep peace & enforce the Proclamation of 1763 but couldn’t pay because of debts from the French & Indian War. Britain wanted troops to keep peace & enforce the Proclamation of 1763 but couldn’t pay because of debts from the French & Indian War. EFFECTS: EFFECTS: Outraged colonists that they had to house and support troops they did not want in their homes. Outraged colonists that they had to house and support troops they did not want in their homes.

6 STAMP ACT 1765 Taxed all paper, documents, newspapers, books, playing cards, wills, deeds to property… everything made from paper. Taxed all paper, documents, newspapers, books, playing cards, wills, deeds to property… everything made from paper. Required stamp on all documents to prove tax was paid. Required stamp on all documents to prove tax was paid. Paid for with silver coins which were rare and very hard for colonists to get. Paid for with silver coins which were rare and very hard for colonists to get. Taxed all colonists since it wasn’t a tariff. Taxed all colonists since it wasn’t a tariff.

7 Stamp Act and Sugar Act Analogy Write an analogy that compares the stamp act to the sugar act

8 STAMP ACT 1765 CAUSES: CAUSES: Britain needed money to pay for French & Indian War. Britain needed money to pay for French & Indian War. EFFECTS: EFFECTS: PROTESTS, some violent (burning the paper, attacking officials). PROTESTS, some violent (burning the paper, attacking officials). BOYCOTT (refusal to buy) British goods. BOYCOTT (refusal to buy) British goods. Sam Adams forms the SONS OF LIBERTY (a secret society to oppose British policies). Sam Adams forms the SONS OF LIBERTY (a secret society to oppose British policies). Act was repealed (cancelled) finally in Act was repealed (cancelled) finally in Patrick Henry Patrick Henry Radical colonial leader who was very opposed to British taxes. Radical colonial leader who was very opposed to British taxes. Helped stage boycotts. Helped stage boycotts. Was a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. Was a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. Is famous for saying “Give me liberty or give me death!” Is famous for saying “Give me liberty or give me death!”

9 Analyze this picture Answer the questions, (1)Is there anything to be gained by protesting? Anything to be lost? (2) Would you join the protest? Justify your answer. (3) Does the government have the right to tax without consent of the people? Why or why not?

10 DECLARATORY ACT 1766 Law said Parliament had the supreme power to govern the colonies in any way it saw fit, regardless of their representative assemblies. Law said Parliament had the supreme power to govern the colonies in any way it saw fit, regardless of their representative assemblies. CAUSES: CAUSES: Britain was trying to find ways to keep power over the colonies. Britain was trying to find ways to keep power over the colonies. EFFECTS: EFFECTS: Tug of war between Britain and the colonies on who had control. Tug of war between Britain and the colonies on who had control.

11 TOWNSHEND ACTS 1767 Tariffs on glass, paper, lead, tea, etc. Tariffs on glass, paper, lead, tea, etc. Suspended New York’s Assembly until they agreed to house troops under the Quartering Act. Suspended New York’s Assembly until they agreed to house troops under the Quartering Act. Could be enforced by issuing search warrants (called writs of assistance) to look for smuggled goods. Could be enforced by issuing search warrants (called writs of assistance) to look for smuggled goods. CAUSES: CAUSES: Britain needed something to replace revenue (income) lost from Stamp Act and to pay for royal officials to be housed in colonies. Britain needed something to replace revenue (income) lost from Stamp Act and to pay for royal officials to be housed in colonies. EFFECTS: EFFECTS: Serious protests occurred. Serious protests occurred. Colonists thought Britain was going against natural rights. Colonists thought Britain was going against natural rights. More boycotts and Sons of Liberty Protests followed. More boycotts and Sons of Liberty Protests followed. Trade with Britain decreased as colonists started making own goods. Trade with Britain decreased as colonists started making own goods. Eventually boycotts were successful and all but tea tax was repealed. Eventually boycotts were successful and all but tea tax was repealed.

12 Based on this picture, who appears to be at fault for the Boston Massacre? 2. Why might colonial leaders interested in independence want to blame the massacre on the British?

13 Boston Massacre Tensions between colonists and soldiers was at an all time high in Tensions between colonists and soldiers was at an all time high in Soldiers were working for extra money in their spare time and were usually taking jobs away from colonists who needed them. Soldiers were working for extra money in their spare time and were usually taking jobs away from colonists who needed them. Colonists began to resent them. Colonists began to resent them. A group of soldiers was being taunted by a large crowd of colonists. The crowd was throwing bottles and rocks. A group of soldiers was being taunted by a large crowd of colonists. The crowd was throwing bottles and rocks. The soldiers got scared and opened fire into the crowd killing 5 people. The soldiers got scared and opened fire into the crowd killing 5 people. This turned into a HUGE event that became a rallying cry for freedom. People looked to this incident as proof of how evil Britain was. This turned into a HUGE event that became a rallying cry for freedom. People looked to this incident as proof of how evil Britain was. Paintings of the massacre were in all the newspapers, this propaganda helped sway public opinion and support towards the colonists and away from Britain. Paintings of the massacre were in all the newspapers, this propaganda helped sway public opinion and support towards the colonists and away from Britain.

14 Boston Massacre The soldiers were arrested and tried in court for murder The soldiers were arrested and tried in court for murder Crispus Attucks Crispus Attucks 1 of the men killed 1 of the men killed African American African American John Adams John Adams Lawyer who defended the British soldiers for the shootings, saying they acted in self defense. Lawyer who defended the British soldiers for the shootings, saying they acted in self defense. Sam Adams cousin. Sam Adams cousin. Believed strongly that the colonies were being taken advantage of by King George but was trying to work for a peaceful solution. Believed strongly that the colonies were being taken advantage of by King George but was trying to work for a peaceful solution.

15 Since the discussion, in your opinion, which side is to blame and use text evidence to justify your answer.

16 TEA ACT 1773 Gave British East India Co. control of tea trade and forced colonists to buy only this kind of tea. Gave British East India Co. control of tea trade and forced colonists to buy only this kind of tea. Before the new law, most tea was smuggled to get around paying taxes and now everyone would have to pay. Before the new law, most tea was smuggled to get around paying taxes and now everyone would have to pay. CAUSES: CAUSES: Britain wanted money and to show control over colonies. Britain wanted money and to show control over colonies. EFFECTS: EFFECTS: Committees of Correspondence (Sam Adams forms groups to discuss problem with Britain so no one forgets). Committees of Correspondence (Sam Adams forms groups to discuss problem with Britain so no one forgets). Boston Tea Party Boston Tea Party

17 Boston Tea Party, 1773 Groups of colonists dressed as natives board cargo ships in Boston Harbor. Groups of colonists dressed as natives board cargo ships in Boston Harbor. They take all the tea out of the ships and dump it into the Harbor. They take all the tea out of the ships and dump it into the Harbor. They did this in protest of the Tea Act. They did this in protest of the Tea Act. Colonists were hoping to get Britain to repeal the Tea Act… instead Britain passed the Intolerable Acts to punish the colony of Massachusetts Colonists were hoping to get Britain to repeal the Tea Act… instead Britain passed the Intolerable Acts to punish the colony of Massachusetts

18 INTOLERABLE ACTS 1774 Also called the Coercive Acts Also called the Coercive Acts TO MAKE AN EXAMPLE out of Massachusetts and warn other colonies. TO MAKE AN EXAMPLE out of Massachusetts and warn other colonies. Closed the Port of Boston until colonists paid for destroyed tea. Closed the Port of Boston until colonists paid for destroyed tea. Got rid of many Committees of Correspondence. Got rid of many Committees of Correspondence. Let British officials accused of crimes stand trial in Britain. Let British officials accused of crimes stand trial in Britain. Let them house troops in colonies whenever and wherever they wanted to. Let them house troops in colonies whenever and wherever they wanted to.

19 INTOLERABLE ACTS 1774 CAUSES: CAUSES: Boston Tea Party Boston Tea Party EFFECTS: EFFECTS: First Continental Congress First Continental Congress

20 The Colonies Unite! To fight or not to fight? That was the question.

21 Loyalist or Patriot? Many of the colonists weren’t sure how to react to the taxation policies. Some were self-determined and wanted more voice in the government. Should they be loyal to the king (Loyalist), or should they support an independence movement (Patriot)?

22 The Patriots Unite In 1775 delegates from the colonies met in Philadelphia to discuss the situation. John Adams George Washington Thomas Jefferson Their meeting was called The First Continental Congress.

23 1 st Continental Congress Meeting held in Philadelphia in 1774 by all the colonies except Georgia, trying to decide what to do about problems with Britain. Meeting held in Philadelphia in 1774 by all the colonies except Georgia, trying to decide what to do about problems with Britain. Voted to stop all trade with Britain until they repealed the Intolerable Acts. Voted to stop all trade with Britain until they repealed the Intolerable Acts. Each colony agreed to start training militia troops in case they had to fight Britain. Each colony agreed to start training militia troops in case they had to fight Britain.

24 Patriot: “The colonies have flourished (grown), and we don’t need a mother any more. We would be better off if we made our own decisions.” Arguments of Loyalists and Patriots Loyalist: “Britain is our mother country. She protects us and our trade.”

25 Loyalist: “The colonists would lose a possible war and are greatly outnumbered.” Patriot: “We are determined to fight for our rights. It’s only common sense that we should form a new country. ” Arguments of Loyalists and Patriots

26 Midnight Ride Sam Adams had spies keeping watch on the British Sam Adams had spies keeping watch on the British The British moved to arrest colonial leaders in Lexington and attack and destroy a weapons depot in Concord… The British moved to arrest colonial leaders in Lexington and attack and destroy a weapons depot in Concord… As they moved their troops Paul Revere and 2 other men jumped on horseback riding throughout the night to warn colonists of the British troop’s arrival. As they moved their troops Paul Revere and 2 other men jumped on horseback riding throughout the night to warn colonists of the British troop’s arrival.

27 Midnight Ride

28 1 st Shots Fired By the rude bridge that arched the flood, Their flag to April's breeze unfurled, Here once the embattled farmers stood And fired the shot heard round the world. Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1863 This quote is talking about the firsts shots fired during the Revolutionary War… this took place in Lexington.

29 2 nd Continental Congress Most important accomplishment was creating the Declaration of Independence. Most important accomplishment was creating the Declaration of Independence. Delegates to the Second Continental Congress voted to organize a national army and appointed George Washington as its commander in chief. Delegates to the Second Continental Congress voted to organize a national army and appointed George Washington as its commander in chief.

30 Last attempt at peace… Olive Branch Petition Olive Branch Petition Colonial leaders wrote a petition to King George asking him to leave them alone and to restore peace. King George refused to listen to their pleas. Colonial leaders wrote a petition to King George asking him to leave them alone and to restore peace. King George refused to listen to their pleas. Common Sense Common Sense Written by Thomas Paine Written by Thomas Paine Argued that the only way to be a thriving, profitable group of colonies was to become independent from Britain. Argued that the only way to be a thriving, profitable group of colonies was to become independent from Britain. This book sold over 100,000 copies and was very influential in getting people to join the revolutionary leaders. This book sold over 100,000 copies and was very influential in getting people to join the revolutionary leaders.

31 Declaration of Independence Written by Thomas Jefferson Written by Thomas Jefferson "That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed." "That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed." Ensuring Unalienable (Natural) Rights. Ensuring Unalienable (Natural) Rights. Lists colonial grievances against King George III. Lists colonial grievances against King George III. Outlines what a government should be Outlines what a government should be


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