Presentation on theme: "Ethics in Conducting Research By David Agnew Arkansas State University Slide presentation adapted from two slide presentations 1) Dr. Jim Dyer, University."— Presentation transcript:
Ethics in Conducting Research By David Agnew Arkansas State University Slide presentation adapted from two slide presentations 1) Dr. Jim Dyer, University of Florida 2) Dr. Gary Moore, North Carolina State University
What is meant by "ethical" research? 1. Integritas pribadi peneliti, adil, jujur 2. Hak privasi peserta (partisipan) 3. Pengungkapan metode 4. Alasan untuk penelitian 5. Kesediaan stakeholder 6. Menghormati integritas individu 7. Mengakui dukungan keuangan
Sumber untuk Etika Penelitian 1 st Each profession has a set of ethics – Even it it does not address research specifically it usually gives direction on human interactions. 2 nd Schools or institutions have a code of ethics – Usually involves completion of a form(s) – Involves a review by committee(s) 3 rd There are laws that outline what is acceptable and what is not. – Some rules do not apply when you are doing education about research (except the thesis or dissertations).
Melakukan Penelitian Melaporkan hasil penelitian Dua issu Utama, kepedulian umum: Prinsip-prinsip Etika yang dipedomani oleh Peneliti
Ethical Conduct at each Stage of Research 1. Pengumpulan Data – Procedures, confidentiality 2. Sharing of data – Sources of data, credit, etc. 3. Interpretation of the data – Bias, $$$, common good 4. Reporting the results – Omission, where, multiple outlets 5. Credit of authorship – who did what? 6. All of these require first a knowledge of appropriate procedure 1 st and 2 nd a willingness to follow procedure from both the standpoint of ethics and second sound research methodology.
Prinsip-prinsip Etika yang dipedomani oleh Peneliti As with many educated communities or disciplines principles emerge from experience, some of which are not positive. So what have we learned from history….?
Risiko Penelitian : 1. Bahaya fisik 2. Kerahasiaan (membocorkan informasi tentang partisipan) 3. Intrusion pada Privasi (melakukan sebagian dari penelitian dalam tatanan publik) 4. Emosional / Psikologis
Bagaimana meminimumkan Risiko? 1. Menyediakan “consent form” yang transparan 2. Gunakan kode angka bukan nama untuk mengidentifikasi orang-orang 3. Menghancurkan data mentah ketika studi berakhir
“Keadilan” Ilmu juga menuntut kepatuhan kepada berbagai persyaratan untuk subyek manusia dan hewan yang digunakan dalam penelitian. Side note:
Second Major Ethical Issue: Melaporkan Hasil Penelitian: – Tetulis – Orasi
Basically, there are three major types of scientific misconduct – fabrication; – falsification; – plagiarism; or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the research community for proposing, conducting, and reporting research. Scientific Misconduct: Perilaku salah ilmiah
Fabrication : Pembikinan - Pembuatan Inventing or making up data – Did anyone see Krippendorf’s Tribe? An anthropologist creates a fictitious lost New Guinea tribe using his family members to cover-up for his mis- use of grant moneys. – This does happen in Academia, but shouldn’t
Falsification : Pemalsuan 1. Pemalsuan data adalah perubahan selektif data yang dikumpulkan dalam melakukan penelitian ilmiah. 2. Pemalsuan juga termasuk selektif pengabaian / penghapusan / penyembunyian data yang bertentangan tanpa pembenaran ilmiah atau statistik.
Plagiarism : Plagiat - Penjiplakan As a general working definition, the Office of Research Integrity (a federal agency) considers plagiarism to include both the theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work. It does not include authorship or credit disputes.
Defined - The unacknolwedged use of another person’s words, ideas, or phrases. Can be deliberate or unintentional Plagiarism : Plagiat - Penjiplakan
What must be cited? – All information from outside sources - (Non- original material) Quotation Paraphrase Summary What needn’t be cited? – General knowledge Plagiarism : Plagiat - Penjiplakan
Contoh Plagiarism 1. Use of sources from the internet without proper documentation 2. Undocumented use of sources from other written materials, i.e. books, magazines, etc. 3. Use of other student’s work as one’s own
Citation : Kutipan - Sitiran 1. Quotation marks should be used to indicate the exact words of another. 2. Summarizing a passage or rearranging the order of a sentence and changing some of the words is paraphrasing. Each time a source is paraphrased, a credit for the source needs to be included in the text.
Contoh lain: Misconduct False citation – This is the deliberate citing of a source for information, when the source does not contain that information, with intention to mislead. Kutipan Salah -- sengaja mengutip dari sumber informasi, ketika sumber tersebut tidak mengandung informasi itu, dengan maksud untuk menyesatkan.
Misuses of the refereeing process 1. Misappropriation of ideas—stealing ideas from papers that one referees 2. Misappropriation of priority—publishing an idea first by delaying publication of papers that one referees Contoh lain: Misconduct
Issue tentang – Authorship 1. Conflicts often occur over authorship of research papers. 2. For graduate student research, it is common protocol to include the major professor and other committee members who made “substantial” contributions to the research in the list of authors of a paper/manuscript. 3. The graduate student’s name goes first, if he/she is doing the bulk of the work.
What is a “substantial” contribution? Authorship credit should be based on (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3.
1. Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, alone, does not justify authorship. 2. All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed. 3. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Authorship : ke-pengarang-an
Fairness – Keadilan - Kewajaran 1. Since professors are expected (really required) to publish, and typically have a substantial time investment in a graduate student research project, then students really should make a concerted effort to publish their research. 2. If the student doesn’t have an inclination to publish the research, then the professor should have the right to do so; of course giving major credit to the student.
Authorship : ke-pengarang-an Authorship MUST be given for contributions in any ONE of the following: 1. Idea 2. Formulating the problem or hypotheses 3. Rancangan Penelitian 4. Data collection and/or analysis 5. Interpretasi Hasil Penelitian 6. Writing a major portion of the paper
1. Exception: If hired to complete the activity, participation in that area does not constitute authorship. 2. Order of authors determined by amount of contributions. 3. Authorship should be agreed upon before the project is started. 4. All authors are responsible for all entries. Authorship : ke-pengarang-an