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Presentation on theme: "1 Causality Test Stimulus Test Related Outcomes Test 60 ” Test Response-Unit Test Table of Contents. Click me to begin Part 2Click me to begin Part 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Causality Test Stimulus Test Related Outcomes Test 60 ” Test Response-Unit Test Table of Contents. Click me to begin Part 2Click me to begin Part 2. Or you can review by clicking a test.

2 2 Sixty- Second Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than sixty seconds?

3 3 Rudolph the rat is in the Skinner Box. The trainer delivers a drop of water one day after Rudolph presses the lever. Before Rudolph has no drop of water Behavior Rudolph presses the lever After Rudolph has a drop of water one day later How about this contingency? Will the water reinforce the lever press? Not a chance.

4 4 The trainer changes the strategy; now Rudolph receives the water one hour after his lever press. Before Rudolph has no drop of water Behavior Rudolph presses the lever After Rudolph has a drop of water one hour later Is an hour delay better? Will the water reinforce the lever press? Still not a chance.

5 5 A two-month old baby smiles and her father gives her attention, one day later. Before Baby receives no attention Behavior Baby smiles After Baby receives attention one day later How about this contingency? Will the attention reinforce the smile? You guessed it, still not a chance.

6 6 For an outcome to reinforce or punish a response, It must pass the 60 second test; it must follow the behavior by no more than 60 seconds

7 7 This contingency is not correct. Before Bob does not have an A in psychology Before Bob does not have an A in psychology Behavior Bob studies right up to test-time Behavior Bob studies right up to test-time After Bob has an A in psychology After Bob has an A in psychology

8 8 Before Bob does not have an A in psychology Before Bob does not have an A in psychology Behavior Bob studies right up to test-time Behavior Bob studies right up to test-time After Bob has an A in psychology After Bob has an A in psychology Even the quickest of teachers will not have Bobby ’ s test graded within 60 seconds of the end of studying. So the delay from the studying until he sees his A is greater than 60 seconds.

9 9 Even though, when you do well on a test after studying you seem to study more in the future, this is not a direct- acting reinforcement contingency. Don ’ t give up on behavior analysis yet because, later on, you will learn about analogs to basic reinforcement contingencies. But now, you have to get the basics down for basic contingencies.

10 10 Click the button next to the contingency that passes the 60 second test. Before Bob has no tokens Before Bob has no tokens Behavior Bob reads EPB Monday night Behavior Bob reads EPB Monday night After Bob gets a token Tuesday After Bob gets a token Tuesday Before Bob has no tokens Before Bob has no tokens Behavior Bob answers questions in class Behavior Bob answers questions in class After Bob immediately gets a token After Bob immediately gets a token A B Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet

11 ” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an outcome that follows sooner. Click me to go back to the Question

12 12 No, the token is delivered a day after the reading behavior. Before Bob has no tokens Before Bob has no tokens Behavior Bob reads EPB Monday night Behavior Bob reads EPB Monday night After Bob gets a token Tuesday After Bob gets a token Tuesday Before Bob has no tokens Before Bob has no tokens Behavior Bob answers questions in class Behavior Bob answers questions in class After Bob immediately gets a token After Bob immediately gets a token A B

13 13 Correct. Before Bob has no tokens Before Bob has no tokens Behavior Bob reads EPB Monday night Behavior Bob reads EPB Monday night After Bob gets a token Tuesday After Bob gets a token Tuesday Before Bob has no tokens Before Bob has no tokens Behavior Bob answers questions in class Behavior Bob answers questions in class After Bob immediately gets a token After Bob immediately gets a token A B

14 14 Click the button next to the contingency that passes the 60 second test. Before Dale will have no ticket Before Dale will have no ticket Behavior Dale drives over the speed limit Behavior Dale drives over the speed limit After Dale will have a ticket in a few minutes After Dale will have a ticket in a few minutes Before Dale does not see the speedometer pass 55 Before Dale does not see the speedometer pass 55 Behavior Dale pushes the pedal Behavior Dale pushes the pedal After Dale does see the speedometer pass 55 After Dale does see the speedometer pass 55 A B

15 15 No, it takes more than 60 ” from the response to the outcome of a ticket Before Dale will have no ticket Before Dale will have no ticket Behavior Dale drives over the speed limit Behavior Dale drives over the speed limit After Dale will have a ticket in a few minutes. After Dale will have a ticket in a few minutes. Before Dale does not see the speedometer pass 55 Before Dale does not see the speedometer pass 55 Behavior Dale pushes the pedal Behavior Dale pushes the pedal After Dale does see the speedometer pass 55 After Dale does see the speedometer pass 55 A B

16 16 Before Dale will have no ticket Before Dale will have no ticket Behavior Dale drives over the speed limit Behavior Dale drives over the speed limit After Dale will have a ticket in a few minutes. After Dale will have a ticket in a few minutes. Before Dale does not see the speedometer pass 55 Before Dale does not see the speedometer pass 55 Behavior Dale pushes the pedal Behavior Dale pushes the pedal After Dale does see the speedometer pass 55 After Dale does see the speedometer pass 55 A B Correct, even though he may immediately know he will have a ticket, the outcome of actually receiving the ticket follows the response by more than 60 ”

17 17 Did you see the use of future tense? Don ’ t be caught making the mistake in thinking that it passes the test because he immediately knows he will have a ticket (he even knows it will cost money later too). Ask yourself when the observable outcome (ticket or money) is delivered, not when he “ knows ” when it will be delivered.

18 18 Causality Test Stimulus Test Related Outcomes Test 60 ” Test Response-Unit Test Table of Contents. Question 24 & 25 Questions Questions Questions Questions 26-28

19 19 Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition?

20 20 This seems like a vague concept, but a couple examples will help you understand. Before Teacher announces nap time Before Teacher announces nap time Behavior Bob calls the teacher a jerk Behavior Bob calls the teacher a jerk After Bob loses some tokens After Bob loses some tokens This contingency is not correct. The before condition is not related to the after condition.

21 21 While this incorrect example seems like a likely order of events, it is not a correct contingency. Before Teacher announces nap time Before Teacher announces nap time Behavior Bob calls the teacher a jerk Behavior Bob calls the teacher a jerk After Bob loses some tokens After Bob loses some tokens A common error students make when writing contingencies is to simply specify three events that occur over a period of time.

22 22 While this incorrect example seems like a likely order of events, it is not a correct contingency. Before Teacher announces nap time Before Teacher announces nap time Behavior Bob calls the teacher a jerk Behavior Bob calls the teacher a jerk After Bob loses some tokens After Bob loses some tokens Just because you ’ ve specified three conditions that occur in order, it does not necessarily represent a contingency.

23 23 Before Teacher announces nap time Before Teacher announces nap time Behavior Bob calls the teacher a jerk Behavior Bob calls the teacher a jerk After Bob loses some tokens After Bob loses some tokens This contingency is correct. The before condition is related to the after condition. Bob has all of his tokens

24 24 Before Teacher announces nap time Before Teacher announces nap time Behavior Bob calls the teacher a jerk Behavior Bob calls the teacher a jerk Bob has all of his tokens This is a sequence of conditions, but the before helps reflect the change caused by the behavior. After Bob loses some tokens After Bob loses some tokens

25 25 Does this pass the related-outcomes test? A. YesYes B. NoNo Before Mom makes liver for dinner Before Mom makes liver for dinner Behavior Bob gives his dinner to the dog Behavior Bob gives his dinner to the dog After Mom will not pay Bob ’ s allowance After Mom will not pay Bob ’ s allowance

26 26 Does this pass the related-outcomes test? A. Yes B. NoNo Before Mom makes liver for dinner Before Mom makes liver for dinner Behavior Bob gives his dinner to the dog Behavior Bob gives his dinner to the dog After Mom will not pay Bob ’ s allowance After Mom will not pay Bob ’ s allowance No, the before condition of mom making dinner is not related to the after of Bob losing his allowance

27 27 Does this pass the related-outcomes test? A. YesYes B. No Before Mom makes liver for dinner Before Mom makes liver for dinner Behavior Bob gives his dinner to the dog Behavior Bob gives his dinner to the dog After Mom will not pay Bob ’ s allowance After Mom will not pay Bob ’ s allowance Right! The before condition is not related to the after condition.

28 28 Before Mom makes liver for dinner Before Mom makes liver for dinner Behavior Bob gives his dinner to the dog Behavior Bob gives his dinner to the dog After Mom will not pay Bob ’ s allowance After Mom will not pay Bob ’ s allowance This contingency is not correct. The before condition is not related to the after condition.

29 29 Before Mom makes liver for dinner Before Mom makes liver for dinner Behavior Bob gives his dinner to the dog Behavior Bob gives his dinner to the dog After Mom will not pay Bob ’ s allowance After Mom will not pay Bob ’ s allowance Mom will pay Bob ’ s allowance This contingency is correct. The before condition is related to the after condition.

30 30 Before Mom makes liver for dinner Before Mom makes liver for dinner Behavior Bob gives his dinner to the dog Behavior Bob gives his dinner to the dog After Mom will not pay Bob ’ s allowance After Mom will not pay Bob ’ s allowance Mom will pay Bob ’ s allowance Now it is clear Bobby would have received his allowance, if he hadn ’ t fed his dinner to the dog.

31 31 When we talk about the outcomes of a behavioral contingency being related, we mean that the before condition is somehow changed by the behavior, resulting in the after condition. The behavior causes the after condition (the consequences) and the before condition can typically, but loosely, be considered the opposite of that after condition.

32 32 The before condition is the way things would have remained had the particular behavior not occurred. It is not simply anything that occurred right before the behavior; it must somehow be related to the after condition.

33 33 Here ’ s another illustration. Bobby Brat wants some of Nice Norman ’ s candy, so he say ’ s “ give me your lunch. ”

34 34 When Norman refuses, Bobby immediately picks up Norman ’ s lunch box and throws it.

35 35 Norman cries, and Bobby picks up all the candy. Norman cries, and Bobby picks up all the candy.

36 36 Does this pass the related-outcomes test? Are the before and after condition opposites? A. YesYes B. NoNo Before Bobby wants Norman ’ s candy Before Bobby wants Norman ’ s candy Behavior Bobby says, “ give me your lunch. ” Behavior Bobby says, “ give me your lunch. ” After Bobby has candy After Bobby has candy

37 37 Does this pass the related-outcomes test? Are the before and after condition opposites? A. Yes B. NoNo Before Bobby wants Norman ’ s candy Before Bobby wants Norman ’ s candy Behavior Bobby says, “ give me your lunch. ” Behavior Bobby says, “ give me your lunch. ” After Bobby eats Norman ’ s candy After Bobby eats Norman ’ s candy Wanting candy is not the opposite of having candy. Not wanting could be the opposite of wanting (but we make little use of the term wants as you ’ ll see later in the course).

38 38 Does this pass the related-outcomes test? Are the before and after condition opposites? A. YesYes B. No Before Bobby wants Norman ’ s candy Before Bobby wants Norman ’ s candy Behavior Bobby says, “ give me your lunch. ” Behavior Bobby says, “ give me your lunch. ” After Bobby has candy After Bobby has candy Right, wanting candy is not the opposite of having candy. Not wanting could be the opposite of wanting (but we make little use of the term wants as you ’ ll see later in the course).

39 39 Before ? Before ? A.Bobby demands candyBobby demands candy B.Bobby has no candyBobby has no candy C.Norman refuses to give candyNorman refuses to give candy Behavior Bobby throws the lunchbox Behavior Bobby throws the lunchbox After Bobby has candy After Bobby has candy Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet

40 40 2. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites.) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Click me to go back to the Question Click me to go back to the Question

41 41 Before ? Before ? Behavior Bobby throws the lunchbox Behavior Bobby throws the lunchbox After Bobby has candy After Bobby has candy A.Bobby demands candy B.Bobby has no candyBobby has no candy C.Norman refuses to give candyNorman refuses to give candy No, remember that the before and after conditions are usually opposites.

42 42 Before ? Before ? A.Bobby demands candyBobby demands candy B.Bobby has no candyBobby has no candy C.Norman refuses to give candy Behavior Bobby throws the lunchbox Behavior Bobby throws the lunchbox After Bobby has candy After Bobby has candy No, remember that the before and after conditions are usually opposites.

43 43 Before Bobby has no candy Before Bobby has no candy Behavior Bobby throws the lunchbox Behavior Bobby throws the lunchbox After Bobby has candy After Bobby has candy A.Bobby demands candyBobby demands candy B.Bobby has no candy C.Norman refuses to give candyNorman refuses to give candy Yes, has no candy reflects the change to the after condition. And, Bobby demands candy is not the opposite of Bobby has candy.

44 44 Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response?

45 45 Jaci has an entire research paper to write and she finishes the entire paper in three days of hard work.

46 46 What do you think of this contingency? Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Behavior Jaci writes an entire research paper Behavior Jaci writes an entire research paper After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment

47 47 Do you think Jaci (or anyone else) could write for 3 days without any interruptions greater than 60 seconds? Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Behavior Jaci writes an entire research paper Behavior Jaci writes an entire research paper After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment A. YesYes B. NoNo

48 48 Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Behavior Jaci writes an entire research paper Behavior Jaci writes an entire research paper After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment A. Yes B. NoNo Do you think Jaci (or anyone else) could write for 3 days without any interruptions greater than 60 seconds? No, even though we may say someone writes for three days does that really mean they continually wrote without any interruptions?—Of course not.

49 49 Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Behavior Jaci writes an entire research paper Behavior Jaci writes an entire research paper After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment A. YesYes B. No Do you think Jaci (or anyone else) could write for 3 days without any interruptions greater than 60 seconds? Correct!, even though we may say someone writes for three days we surely wouldn ’ t mean it is one continuous reinforceable response- unit.

50 50 Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Behavior Jaci writes an entire research paper Behavior Jaci writes an entire research paper After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment While writing an entire research paper, even the best of students will have to take a break from the glaring computer screen for at least a few minutes.

51 51 And if there ’ s a break in writing of more than 60 seconds, the outcome cannot reinforce that entire sequence of behavior. Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Behavior Jaci writes an entire research paper Behavior Jaci writes an entire research paper After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment

52 52 However, one day she gets a burst of energy and begins writing for 20 minutes without taking any breaks at all.

53 53 So it might be possible to write on a research paper for 20 minutes without any breaks. Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Behavior Jaci writes an entire research paper Behavior Jaci writes an entire research paper After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment

54 54 And the sense of accomplishment following the writing can reinforce that writing because there were no breaks more than 60 seconds. Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Behavior Jaci writes an entire paper on the research paper for 20 minutes Behavior Jaci writes an entire paper on the research paper for 20 minutes After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment

55 55 Even though the behavior lasts longer than 60 seconds, it is still a reinforceable response-unit because there are no breaks greater than 60 seconds during the response. Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Behavior Jaci writes an entire paper on the research paper for 20 minutes Behavior Jaci writes an entire paper on the research paper for 20 minutes After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment

56 56 Writing on a research paper for 20 minutes is a reinforceable response-unit because she did not take a break lasting more than 60 seconds. Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Before Jaci has no sense of accomplishment Behavior Jaci writes an entire paper on the research paper for 20 minutes Behavior Jaci writes an entire paper on the research paper for 20 minutes After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment After Jaci has a sense of accomplishment

57 57 Besides making the mistake of looking at large non- behaviors such as writing a whole paper, some also try to analyze the repetition of behavior over time—where there are breaks. Before No down payment for car Before No down payment for car Behavior Puts $100 in the bank each week for the whole summer Behavior Puts $100 in the bank each week for the whole summer After Down payment for car After Down payment for car A reinforceable response-unit is not a series of behaviors over time—even if it leads to a reinforcing outcome

58 58 Besides making the mistake of looking at large non- behaviors such as writing a whole paper, some also try to analyze the repetition of behavior over time—were there are breaks. Before No down payment for car Before No down payment for car Behavior Puts $100 in the bank each week for the whole summer Behavior Puts $100 in the bank each week for the whole summer After Down payment for car After Down payment for car A reinforceable response-unit is not a series of behaviors over time—even if it leads to a reinforcing outcome Today

59 59 Here is the correct contingency: Before $100 not in bank Before $100 not in bank Behavior Puts $100 in the bank today each week for the whole summer Behavior Puts $100 in the bank today each week for the whole summer After $100 in bank After $100 in bank

60 60 This test is designed to help ensure the behavior you are analyzing is actually one reinforceable response-unit.

61 61 When we talk about the reinforceable response-unit, we are only concerned with the behavior box; keep this in mind. Behavior Bob studies Behavior Bob studies

62 62 Often students confuse this test with the 60 second test. When checking the behavior listed in the behavior box, ask yourself “ Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? ”

63 63 If there are long breaks, you don ’ t have a true reinforceable response- unit, you actually have something else, an analog to a reinforceable response- unit (you ’ ll get to that starting in chapter 22).

64 64 Nice Norman is playing quietly by himself. He takes a truck from the toy box and pushes it around the floor for a few minutes, then he returns it to the box. Ten minutes later, Norman is back at the toy box searching for another toy.

65 65 Three times, he returns to the toy box; once to get an airplane, another time to get a Power Ranger, and finally he finds an engineer hat. Norman plays with each of them with 5 to 10 minute breaks in between, when he wonders around the room, looking for fun.

66 66 The teacher sees Norman playing quietly with the hat, and he goes up to Norman and gives him some candy.

67 67 Do you think the candy will reinforce all of Norman ’ s playing? A. YesYes B. NoNo

68 68 Do you think the candy will reinforce all of Norman ’ s playing? A. Yes B. NoNo It probably wouldn ’ t because of the numerous long breaks he took.

69 69 Do you think the candy will reinforce all of Norman ’ s playing? A. YesYes B. No Correct! It probably wouldn ’ t because of the numerous long breaks he took.

70 70 Just to make sure you are getting this concept down, here ’ s another scenario to test your behavior- analytic repertoire.

71 71 Jaci is craving a healthy pizza so she makes one from scratch.

72 72 She prepares the veggies and mixes the dough… Then stops to check her …

73 73 And 15 minutes later she puts on the veggies and low-fat cheese. Finally, with the pizza made, she puts it in the preheated oven.

74 74 Before Jaci doesn ’ t have prepared, uncooked pizza Before Jaci doesn ’ t have prepared, uncooked pizza Is this behavior a reinforceable response-unit? A.Correct reinforceable response-unitCorrect reinforceable response-unit B.Fails reinforceable response-unit testFails reinforceable response-unit test Behavior Jaci makes pizza from scratch Behavior Jaci makes pizza from scratch After Jaci has prepared, uncooked pizza After Jaci has prepared, uncooked pizza Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet

75 75 6. Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are then the behavior is not a response unit. Rewrite the behavior. Click me to go back to the Question

76 76 Before Jaci doesn ’ t have prepared, uncooked pizza Before Jaci doesn ’ t have prepared, uncooked pizza Behavior Jaci makes pizza from scratch Behavior Jaci makes pizza from scratch After Jaci has prepared, uncooked pizza After Jaci has prepared, uncooked pizza A.Correct reinforceable response-unit B.Fails reinforceable response-unit testFails reinforceable response-unit test No, there will be a break while she checks . Is this behavior a reinforceable response-unit?

77 77 Before Jaci doesn ’ t have prepared, uncooked pizza Before Jaci doesn ’ t have prepared, uncooked pizza Behavior Jaci makes pizza from scratch Behavior Jaci makes pizza from scratch After Jaci has prepared, uncooked pizza After Jaci has prepared, uncooked pizza A.Correct reinforceable response-unitCorrect reinforceable response-unit B.Fails reinforceable response-unit test Right on. It fails the response-unit test because she takes a break to check her . Is this behavior a reinforceable response-unit?

78 78 Before Jaci doesn ’ t see the pizza cooking Before Jaci doesn ’ t see the pizza cooking How about this behavior? A.Correct reinforceable response-unitCorrect reinforceable response-unit B.Fails reinforceable response-unit testFails reinforceable response-unit test Behavior Jaci puts pizza in the oven Behavior Jaci puts pizza in the oven After Jaci sees the pizza cooking After Jaci sees the pizza cooking Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet

79 79 6. Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are then the behavior is not a response unit. Rewrite the behavior. Click me to go back to the Question Click me to go back to the Question

80 80 Before Jaci doesn ’ t see the pizza cooking Before Jaci doesn ’ t see the pizza cooking How about this behavior? Behavior Jaci puts pizza in the oven Behavior Jaci puts pizza in the oven After Jaci sees the pizza cooking After Jaci sees the pizza cooking A.Correct reinforceable response-unitCorrect reinforceable response-unit B.Fails reinforceable response-unit test No, Jaci puts the pizza in the oven without a break.

81 81 Before Jaci doesn ’ t see the pizza cooking Before Jaci doesn ’ t see the pizza cooking How about this behavior? Behavior Jaci puts pizza in the oven Behavior Jaci puts pizza in the oven After Jaci sees the pizza cooking After Jaci sees the pizza cooking A.Correct reinforceable response-unit B.Fails reinforceable response-unit testFails reinforceable response-unit test You ’ re right. Putting the pizza in the oven is a single response without breaks.

82 82 Let ’ s try and clarify the difference between the 60 second test and the reinforceable response unit test.

83 83 Jaci is a high-paid administrator in a residential facility for the developmentally disabled population. It ’ s Monday and she goes to work for a full day, which includes a lunch break.

84 84 She stays after work to conduct a one hour training workshop for which she will receive extra money on her paycheck, as long as she hands in proof of completion (this takes no time at all—no breaks). Friday comes and she picks up her pay- check.

85 85 She then treats herself to an evening of shopping for new clothes before going home to sip some warm Earl Gray tea.

86 86 Before Jaci will have regular pay check on Friday Before Jaci will have regular pay check on Friday Behavior Jaci hands in proof of completing workshop Behavior Jaci hands in proof of completing workshop After Jaci will have extra money on Friday ’ s check After Jaci will have extra money on Friday ’ s check This contingency is a common student error: It fails the 60 second test, because the outcome follows the response by more than 60 seconds.

87 87 Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you ’ ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that ’ s bold. D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you ’ ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that ’ s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven ’ t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven ’ t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it ’ s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don ’ t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome ” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it ’ s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don ’ t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome ” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question

88 88 Before Jaci does not see her time card with 8 hours Before Jaci does not see her time card with 8 hours Behavior Jaci works all day Monday Behavior Jaci works all day Monday After Immediately after, Jaci sees her time card with 8 hours After Immediately after, Jaci sees her time card with 8 hours Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet This contingency passes the 60 second test, since the outcome does not follow the response by more than 60 seconds. However, it fails the reinforceable response unit test. There are breaks of greater than 60 seconds during the response.

89 89 Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you ’ ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that ’ s bold. D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you ’ ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that ’ s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven ’ t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven ’ t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it ’ s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don ’ t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome ” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it ’ s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don ’ t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome ” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question

90 90 Before Jaci has no tea Before Jaci has no tea Behavior Jaci makes tea Behavior Jaci makes tea After Jaci has tea After Jaci has tea Usually, just by looking at the description of the behavior in the behavior box, you can ’ t be sure if it passes the reinforceable response-unit test.

91 91 Before Jaci has no tea Before Jaci has no tea Behavior Jaci makes tea Behavior Jaci makes tea After Jaci has tea After Jaci has tea Many words used to describe behavior, by themselves, cannot show if there were interruptions of greater than 60 seconds. You need to look hard at the example or behavior itself to see if there are interruptions of greater than 60 seconds.

92 92 In the next example choose the scenario that describes the behavior that passes the reinforceable response- unit test.

93 93 Before Jaci has no tea Before Jaci has no tea Behavior Jaci makes tea Behavior Jaci makes tea After Jaci has tea After Jaci has tea Scenario #1: Jaci takes the hot water, pours it into a cup, and adds a tea bag.Scenario #1 Scenario #2: Jaci puts water on the stove to boil. She comes back later and takes the hot water, pours it into a cup, and adds a tea bag.Scenario #2 Left-click the scenario that passes the reinforceable response-unit test.

94 94 Before Jaci has no tea Before Jaci has no tea Behavior Jaci makes tea Behavior Jaci makes tea After Jaci has tea After Jaci has tea Scenario #1: Jaci takes the hot water, pours it into a cup, and adds a tea bag.Scenario #1 Scenario #2: Jaci puts water on the stove to boil. She comes back later and takes the hot water, pours it into a cup, and adds a tea bag. There ’ s a 60 second break between putting the water on the stove and combining the hot water with the tea bag.

95 95 Before Jaci has no tea Before Jaci has no tea Behavior Jaci makes tea Behavior Jaci makes tea After Jaci has tea After Jaci has tea Scenario #1: Jaci takes the hot water, pours it into a cup, and adds a tea bag. Scenario #2: Jaci puts water on the stove to boil. She comes back later and takes the hot water, pours it into a cup, and adds a tea bag.Scenario #2 Yes, there ’ s no break in scenario #1, but scenario #2 involves a break.

96 96 Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response?

97 97 Before Mom is not home Before Mom is not home Behavior Bob plays the golf game Behavior Bob plays the golf game After Mom is home After Mom is home Jimmy loves to play golf on his computer. He plays it so much, his Mom often comes home to see him playing in the middle of a game.

98 98 Before Mom is not home Before Mom is not home Behavior Bob plays the golf game Behavior Bob plays the golf game After Mom is home After Mom is home Jimmy loves to play golf on his computer. He plays it so much, his Mom often comes home to see him playing in the middle of a game. A.YesYes B.NoNo Does Bob ’ s playing golf cause or produce the outcome, Mom is home?

99 99 Before Mom is not home Before Mom is not home Behavior Bob plays the golf game Behavior Bob plays the golf game After Mom is home After Mom is home Jimmy loves to play golf on his computer. He plays it so much, his Mom often comes home to see him playing in the middle of a game. A.Yes B.NoNo Does Bob ’ s playing golf cause or produce the outcome, Mom is home? Mom comes home because her workday is over or any number of reasons. But Jimmy ’ s playing golf on the computer does not cause Mom to come home in a normal situation.

100 100 Before Mom is not home Before Mom is not home Behavior Bob plays the golf game Behavior Bob plays the golf game After Mom is home After Mom is home Jimmy loves to play golf on his computer. He plays it so much, his Mom often comes home to see him playing in the middle of a game. A.YesYes B.No Does Bob ’ s playing golf cause or produce the outcome, Mom is home? Yes, of course Jimmy ’ s playing golf on the computer does not cause Mom to come home in a normal situation. She just comes home because work is over.

101 101 Before Mom is not home Before Mom is not home Behavior Bob plays the golf game Behavior Bob plays the golf game After Mom is home After Mom is home The causality test only tests whether the behavior caused, produced or prevented the outcome in some way. The causality test does not test whether the before caused the behavior. So just look between the Behavior Box and After Box to check causality.

102 102 Before No sight of cool ball-in- flight Before No sight of cool ball-in- flight Behavior Bob uses the controller to swing the club Behavior Bob uses the controller to swing the club After Cool sight of ball-in-flight After Cool sight of ball-in-flight Here ’ s another example. A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails related-outcomes testFails related-outcomes test C.Fails causality testFails causality test

103 103 Before No sight of cool ball-in- flight Before No sight of cool ball-in- flight Behavior Bob uses the controller to swing the club Behavior Bob uses the controller to swing the club After Cool sight of ball-in-flight After Cool sight of ball-in-flight Here ’ s another example. A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails related-outcomes test C.Fails causality testFails causality test Sorry, the sight of the ball-in-flight is the opposite of no sight of the ball in flight, so the before and after are related.

104 104 Before No sight of cool ball-in- flight Before No sight of cool ball-in- flight Behavior Bob uses the controller to swing the club Behavior Bob uses the controller to swing the club After Cool sight of ball-in-flight After Cool sight of ball-in-flight Here ’ s another example. A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails related-outcomes testFails related-outcomes test C.Fails causality test Sorry, Bob using the control to swing results in the immediate sight of the ball-in-flight.

105 105 Before No sight of cool ball-in- flight Before No sight of cool ball-in- flight Behavior Bob uses the controller to swing the club Behavior Bob uses the controller to swing the club After Cool sight of ball-in-flight After Cool sight of ball-in-flight Here ’ s another example. A.Correct contingency B.Fails related-outcomes testFails related-outcomes test C.Fails causality testFails causality test Yes, this is correct. Notice one difference between the these two tests—the causality test is concerned with the Behavior and After condition…

106 106 The causality test may take a little practice. We need to have the behavior related to the outcome, either by causing it or preventing it.

107 107 Before Bob is losing at the roulette wheel Before Bob is losing at the roulette wheel Behavior Bob changes his bet Behavior Bob changes his bet After Paul wins at the slot machines After Paul wins at the slot machines Now, we can all see that Bob ’ s betting did not cause Paul to win at the slot machines. Sometimes, however, the distinction is not so obvious, and the result is superstitious behavior – Behavior that is accidentally reinforced by coincidental outcomes.

108 108 Before Bob is losing at the roulette wheel Before Bob is losing at the roulette wheel Behavior Bob crosses his fingers Behavior Bob crosses his fingers After Bob wins the next spin After Bob wins the next spin In this instance, it is likely that Bob will cross his fingers more often in the future because winning has immediately followed it in the past, but we still don ’ t have a behavioral contingency because Bob ’ s winning is not contingent on (it ’ s not caused by) his finger crossing.

109 109 Before Bob has a low video game score Before Bob has a low video game score Behavior Bob aims carefully Behavior Bob aims carefully After Bob has a high video game score After Bob has a high video game score There you go – causality. Bob ’ s carefully aiming causes him to have a high video game score.

110 110 Paul ’ s softball teammates get annoyed when he ’ s up to bat because he has an elaborate series of movements he goes through every time. Paul says this ritual brings him good luck, but it really doesn ’ t.

111 111 Before Paul has no home run Before Paul has no home run Behavior Paul looks at the ball as he swings hard in its path Behavior Paul looks at the ball as he swings hard in its path After Paul gets a home run After Paul gets a home run A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails causality testFails causality test C.Fails receiver testFails receiver test D.Fails action testFails action test

112 112 Before Paul has no home run Before Paul has no home run Behavior Paul looks at the ball as he swings hard in its path Behavior Paul looks at the ball as he swings hard in its path After Paul gets a home run After Paul gets a home run A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails causality test C.Fails receiver testFails receiver test D.Fails action testFails action test No, looking at the ball and swinging hard are the important behaviors that cause the home run.

113 113 Before Paul has no home run Before Paul has no home run Behavior Paul looks at the ball as he swings hard in its path Behavior Paul looks at the ball as he swings hard in its path After Paul gets a home run After Paul gets a home run A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails causality testFails causality test C.Fails receiver test D.Fails action testFails action test Paul receives the sight of a home run.

114 114 Before Paul has no home run Before Paul has no home run Behavior Paul looks at the ball as he swings hard in its path Behavior Paul looks at the ball as he swings hard in its path After Paul gets a home run After Paul gets a home run A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails causality testFails causality test C.Fails receiver testFails receiver test D.Fails action test Looking and swinging are active.

115 115 Before Paul has no home run Before Paul has no home run Behavior Paul looks at the ball as he swings hard in its path Behavior Paul looks at the ball as he swings hard in its path After Paul gets a home run After Paul gets a home run A.Correct contingency B.Fails causality testFails causality test C.Fails receiver testFails receiver test D.Fails action testFails action test Yes, looking at the ball and swinging hard are the important behaviors that cause the home run.

116 116 Before Paul has no home run Before Paul has no home run Behavior Paul performs his ritual Behavior Paul performs his ritual After Paul gets a home run After Paul gets a home run A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails causality testFails causality test C.Fails receiver testFails receiver test D.Fails related-outcomes testFails related-outcomes test Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet

117 117 Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you ’ ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that ’ s bold. D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you ’ ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that ’ s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven ’ t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven ’ t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it ’ s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don ’ t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome ” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it ’ s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don ’ t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome ” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question

118 118 Before Paul has no home run Before Paul has no home run Behavior Paul performs his ritual Behavior Paul performs his ritual After Paul gets a home run After Paul gets a home run A.Correct contingency B.Fails causality testFails causality test C.Fails receiver testFails receiver test D.Fails related-outcomes testFails related-outcomes test Strike. No, you should check the Pink Sheet. Click me to see the Pink Sheet

119 119 Before Paul has no home run Before Paul has no home run Behavior Paul performs his ritual Behavior Paul performs his ritual After Paul gets a home run After Paul gets a home run A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails causality testFails causality test C.Fails receiver test D.Fails related-outcomes testFails related-outcomes test Strike. No, Paul receives the home run.

120 120 Before Paul has no home run Before Paul has no home run Behavior Paul performs his ritual Behavior Paul performs his ritual After Paul gets a home run After Paul gets a home run A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails causality testFails causality test C.Fails receiver testFails receiver test D.Fails related-outcomes test Strike. Although getting a home run is unrelated to his ritual, the related outcomes test refers to the relation between the before and after conditions.

121 121 Before Paul has no home run Before Paul has no home run Behavior Paul performs his ritual Behavior Paul performs his ritual After Paul gets a home run After Paul gets a home run A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails causality test C.Fails receiver testFails receiver test D.Fails related-outcomes testFails related-outcomes test Correct. It passes the receiver test because he receives the sight of his hit go over the fence. And it passes the related-outcomes test because no homers is related to homers.

122 122 Warning: Don ’ t be a casualty of mispronouncing causality. It ’ s easy to misread causality as casualty, but then the “ casualty ” criterion doesn ’ t make a heck of a lot of sense.

123 123 Causality Test Stimulus Test Related Outcomes Test 60 ” Test Response-Unit Test Table of Contents.

124 124 Stimulus Test Is the before and after a stimulus, event or condition?

125 125 This contingency is not correct. Before Bob is having trouble with his assignment Before Bob is having trouble with his assignment Behavior Bob asks for help Behavior Bob asks for help After Bob does his assignment After Bob does his assignment The before and after conditions cannot be behavior of the person we are analyzing.

126 126 This contingency is correct. Before Bob is having trouble with his assignment Before Bob is having trouble with his assignment Behavior Bob asks for help Behavior Bob asks for help After Bob is not having trouble with his assignment After Bob is not having trouble with his assignment The after condition is now a stimulus, event or condition for the person we are analyzing, not a behavior of that person.

127 127 However, the before and after conditions can be behavior of someone else; which makes it a stimulus, event or condition to the behaver. Before Teacher doesn ’ t help Bob Before Teacher doesn ’ t help Bob Behavior Bob asks for help Behavior Bob asks for help After Teacher helps Bob After Teacher helps Bob

128 128 Here ’ s the same contingency written a little differently: Before Teacher doesn ’ t help Bob Before Teacher doesn ’ t help Bob Behavior Bob asks for help Behavior Bob asks for help After Teacher helps Bob After Teacher helps Bob Remember, receives is not behavior, so it ’ s fine in the before and after boxes. Bob receives no help from the teacher Bob receives help from the teacher

129 129 A. YesYes B. NoNo Do the before or after conditions circled above have a behavior of the behaver? Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again When Jimmy says Daddy correctly, Dad gives Jimmy a big smile. We want to analyze Jimmy ’ s saying Daddy (Hint: Jimmy ’ s the behaver).

130 130 A. YesYes B. No Do the before or after conditions above have a behavior of the behaver? Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again Sorry, says is behavior of the person we are analyzing, right? When Jimmy says Daddy correctly, Dad gives Jimmy a big smile. We want to analyze Jimmy ’ s saying Daddy.

131 131 A. Yes B. NoNo Do the before or after conditions above have a behavior of the behaver? (Jimmy) Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again Correct, says is Jimmy ’ s behavior. When Jimmy says Daddy correctly, Dad gives Jimmy a big smile. We want to analyze Jimmy ’ s saying Daddy.

132 132 A. YesYes B. NoNo So then does this pass the stimulus test? Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again When Jimmy says Daddy correctly, Dad gives Jimmy a big smile. We want to analyze Jimmy ’ s saying Daddy. Click me to see the stimulus test

133 Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus event or condition, and not a behavior of the behaver? If it isn ’ t then change the stimulus. (Hint: If the outcome is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don ’ t have a correct outcome. Exceptions: self- reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity.) Click me to go back to the question

134 134 A. Yes B. NoNo So then does this pass the stimulus test? Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again Because the before and after condition have Jimmy ’ s behavior, it fails the stimulus test. When Jimmy says Daddy correctly, Dad gives Jimmy a big smile. We want to analyze Jimmy ’ s saying Daddy.

135 135 A. YesYes B. No So then does this pass the stimulus test? Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again Yes, because the before and after condition have Jimmy ’ s behavior, it fails the stimulus test. When Jimmy says Daddy correctly, Dad gives Jimmy a big smile. We want to analyze Jimmy ’ s saying Daddy.

136 136 A. Action testAction test B. Specific behavior testSpecific behavior test C. Dead-man testDead-man test D. All of the aboveAll of the above What other tests does this contingency fail? Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again When Jimmy says Daddy correctly, Dad gives Jimmy a big smile. We want to analyze Jimmy ’ s saying Daddy.

137 137 A. Action test B. Specific behavior testSpecific behavior test C. Dead-man testDead-man test D. All of the aboveAll of the above What other tests does this contingency fail? Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again Yes, there ’ s no action in “ gets, ” but what about the other tests? When Jimmy says Daddy correctly, Dad gives Jimmy a big smile. We want to analyze Jimmy ’ s saying Daddy.

138 138 A. Action testAction test B. Specific behavior test C. Dead-man testDead-man test D. All of the aboveAll of the above What other tests does this contingency fail? Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again Yes, “ gets ” is not a concrete behavior, but what about the other tests? When Jimmy says Daddy correctly, Dad gives Jimmy a big smile. We want to analyze Jimmy ’ s saying Daddy.

139 139 A. Action testAction test B. Specific behavior testSpecific behavior test C. Dead-man test D. All of the aboveAll of the above What other tests does this contingency fail? Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again Yes, a dead man can “ get, ” but what about the other tests? When Jimmy says Daddy correctly, Dad gives Jimmy a big smile. We want to analyze Jimmy ’ s saying Daddy.

140 140 A. Action testAction test B. Specific behavior testSpecific behavior test C. Dead-man testDead-man test D. All of the above What other tests does this contingency fail? Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again Yes, “ gets ” fails each of these tests because it ’ s really the same as “ receives, ” which involves nothing on Jimmy ’ s part—it describes no muscular, glandular or electrical activity. When Jimmy says Daddy correctly, Dad gives Jimmy a big smile. We want to analyze Jimmy ’ s saying Daddy.

141 141 This example is kind of complex, let ’ s start with the before condition. Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again Jimmy ’ s is the behaver, so his behavior should be written in the behavior box, not the before condition, nor the after.

142 142 This example is kind of complex, let ’ s start with the before condition. Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly So let ’ s move the behavior here Jimmy ’ s is the behaver, so his behavior should be written in the behavior box, not the before condition.

143 143 Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again The after condition also has Jimmy ’ s behavior, which fails the stimulus test. Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly

144 144 Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Before Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad Behavior Jimmy gets a smile from Dad After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again After Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly again To find out what to write in the after box, you need to ask What happened immediately after Jimmy said “ Daddy ” ? Jimmy says “ Daddy ” correctly Jimmy has a smile from Dad Jimmy has no smile from Dad And immediately before, the opposite was the no- smile condition.

145 145 Remember the problem about Tommy and his mom at the donut shop? He didn ’ t stop screeching until he had a donut in his hands.

146 146. Analyze the next contingency with respect to Tommy ’ s behavior.

147 147 Before Tommy is pointing to the donut Before Tommy is pointing to the donut A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test C.Fails related-outcomes testFails related-outcomes test D.Fails stimulus testFails stimulus test Behavior Tommy screeches Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy isn ’ t pointing to the donut After Tommy isn ’ t pointing to the donut Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Even if the before or after has a passive verb, it may still be active. If the before or after condition passes the action test then the diagram fails the stimulus test. Analyze this contingency, if it fails a test which one is it?

148 148 Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you ’ ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that ’ s bold. D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you ’ ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that ’ s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven ’ t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven ’ t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it ’ s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don ’ t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome ” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it ’ s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don ’ t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome ” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question

149 149 Before Tommy is pointing to the donut Before Tommy is pointing to the donut Behavior Tommy screeches Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy isn ’ t pointing to the donut After Tommy isn ’ t pointing to the donut A.Correct contingency B.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test C.Fails related-outcomes testFails related-outcomes test D.Fails stimulus testFails stimulus test No, you should check the Pink Sheet. Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet

150 150 Before Tommy is pointing to the donut Before Tommy is pointing to the donut Behavior Tommy screeches Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy isn ’ t pointing to the donut After Tommy isn ’ t pointing to the donut A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails dead-man test C.Fails related-outcomes testFails related-outcomes test D.Fails stimulus testFails stimulus test No. Can a dead- man screech?

151 151 Before Tommy is pointing to the donut Before Tommy is pointing to the donut Behavior Tommy screeches Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy isn ’ t pointing to the donut After Tommy isn ’ t pointing to the donut A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test C.Fails related-outcomes test D.Fails stimulus testFails stimulus test No, Tommy ’ s pointing is the opposite of not pointing.

152 152 Before Tommy is pointing to the donut Before Tommy is pointing to the donut Behavior Tommy screeches Behavior Tommy screeches After Tommy isn ’ t point to the donut After Tommy isn ’ t point to the donut A.Correct contingencyCorrect contingency B.Fails dead-man testFails dead-man test C.Fails causality testFails causality test D.Fails stimulus test Correct. Tommy ’ s behavior should not be in the Before or After conditions.

153 153 Before Clothes on the floor Before Clothes on the floor Behavior Jen yells Behavior Jen yells After Sue apologizes After Sue apologizes A.Correct afterCorrect after B.Fails causality testFails causality test C.Fails related-outcomes testFails related-outcomes test D.Fails stimulus testFails stimulus test Click me if you want to see the Pink Sheet Remember the problem with Jennifer ’ s roommate throwing clothes on the floor? Now we ’ ll analyze Jen ’ s behavior, so her behavior shouldn ’ t be in the before or after conditions, though Sue ’ s behavior can be in the before and after conditions.

154 154 Contingency-Diagramming Checklist A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. A. Whose behavior are you analyzing? _________________________ 1. Behaver Test Is the behavior in the behavior box performed by the person who you are analyzing? If not, redo the example. Before Behavior After D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you ’ ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that ’ s bold. D. What is the condition before the response? 10. Related Outcomes Test Is the before condition related to the after condition? (Often the relationship is one of opposites) If not, change one or both of the conditions. Use this checklist for every contingency diagram you do and you ’ ll save yourself some headaches and impress your TA during transparency time. Simply place the answer to each of the 10 questions for the corresponding blank in the contingency diagram above it. Turn the checklist over to determine which type of contingency you have. In learning these criteria for a test, you need only know each name and sentence that ’ s bold. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven ’ t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. B. What is the behavior being analyzed or diagrammed? 2. Deadman Test Can a dead man do it? If he can, then you haven ’ t properly specified the behavior. So roll over the dead man. 3. Action Test Does the behavior involve an action? (Hint: Learning, receiving, being, hearing, seeing, and feeling are not behavior). If not, then change the behavior. 4. Specific-Behavior Test Is it perfectly clear exactly what action is involved in the behavior? If not, then reword the behavior. 5. Reinforceable Response-Unit Test Are there any interruptions of greater than 60 seconds during the response? If there are, then the behavior is not a response-unit. Rewrite the behavior. C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it ’ s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don ’ t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome ” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first C. What is the outcome that follows the response? 6. Stimulus Test Is the before & after a stimulus, event or condition and not a behavior of the behaver? If it ’ s not a stimulus then change your condition. (Hint: If the before or after is another behavior of the behaver, you probably don ’ t have a correct condition. Exceptions: self-reinforcement, seeing, hearing, or the opportunity for activity. 7. Causality Test Is the outcome caused by the response? If not, change the outcome ” Test Does the outcome follow the response by more than 60 seconds? If so, find an immediate outcome. 9. Receiver Test Is the behaver the receiver of the outcome (after condition)? If not, rework the example. Hint: Make sure the diagram passes the behaver test first Back to the Question

155 155 A.Correct after B.Fails causality testFails causality test C.Fails related-outcomes testFails related-outcomes test D.Fails stimulus testFails stimulus test Before Clothes on the floor Before Clothes on the floor Behavior Jen yells Behavior Jen yells After Sue apologizes After Sue apologizes No, take a closer look at the before condition…

156 156 A.Correct afterCorrect after B.Fails causality test C.Fails related-outcomes testFails related-outcomes test D.Fails stimulus testFails stimulus test Before Clothes on the floor Before Clothes on the floor Behavior Jen yells Behavior Jen yells After Sue apologizes After Sue apologizes No, Jen ’ s yelling causes Sue to apologize.

157 157 A.Correct afterCorrect after B.Fails causality testFails causality test C.Fails related-outcomes test D.Fails stimulus testFails stimulus test Before Clothes on the floor Before Clothes on the floor Behavior Jen yells Behavior Jen yells After Sue apologizes After Sue apologizes Yes. Clothes on the floor is not related to Sue apologizes. It passes the causality test because Sue apologizing is contingent (caused by) Jen yelling. And since Jen is the behaver, we ’ re cool with the stimulus test.

158 158 A.Correct afterCorrect after B.Fails causality testFails causality test C.Fails related-outcomes testFails related-outcomes test D.Fails stimulus test Before Clothes on the floor Before Clothes on the floor Behavior Jen yells Behavior Jen yells After Sue apologizes After Sue apologizes Even though the condition is a behavior, it ’ s fine as long as it ’ s not a behavior of the person we are analyzing.

159 159 You ’ re finished. So now you can relax If you want to review any of the tests you can continue to the next slide and choose one. Or you can hit “ Esc ” to finish.

160 160 Causality Test Stimulus Test Related Outcomes Test 60 ” Test Response-Unit Test You ’ re finished. If you ’ d like to review any of the tests, just click on the test name below.

161 161 Action Items OwnerDue DateDescription Otto6/5/2002Stimulus test Jimmy and Daddy animation Otto6/5/2002Why do students pick causality for Tommy "eats" after he screeches Otto6/5/2002Need to state rule someplace about other people's behavior okay in after condition


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