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“ The jigsaw effect….” Introducing a way forward in visual analysis. Dr Jens J. Hansen & Anna Jo Perry
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 2 6/04/2015 What are photographs? What do we use photographs for? Images of something; something that is or something that happened? Reality? “A simple truth revealing mechanism…” (Edwards, 1992) Something that is created by the photographer. “all images, despite their relationship to the world are socially and technically constructed “ (Becker, 1986). How we see things can be variously interpreted (John Berger, Ways of Seeing, 1975). Remembering Telling stories Thinking about events.
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 3 6/04/2015 Whatever the image and what ever the purpose for the image, in QL it is an information source that can be converted into data. How we do that, validly and reliably, is the research challenge. Spend a moment telling us about this next picture…..
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 4 6/04/2015
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 5 6/04/2015 Is this the same ? If it is, why is it the same? If it isn’t, why is it different? Does it matter? Why or why not?
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 6 6/04/2015
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 7 6/04/2015 The project: Detailing a teacher’s journey for 26 days Looking at the effects of a reflective journal on understanding events during the 26 days Looking at how photographs might fit into this and the logistics of dealing with them.
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 8 6/04/2015 Questions that arose: How do you look at a series of photographs in a consistent fashion? How might you use them for research? What are the logistical challenges? How do you incorporate them into a coding system? How do you code them in detail and with finesse? How do you retrieve what you’ve coded in order to code again? And later…. Should you undertake inter-observer checks? Why?
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 9 6/04/2015 The grid: The effects of using a grid 25 smaller pictures…greater specificity of information Clearer view of segments.
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 10 6/04/2015 Beginning the translation… Creating a ‘translation’ of the visual Using the grid heightens awareness of : Spaces Groupings Levels Body language Relationships, etc. Coding: thematic, interpretive – enables visual discourse and social analysis The blend of both allows us to interpret what’s going on in a manner consistent with QL research.
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 11 6/04/2015 Challenges of using software: Familiarity is a key factor Issues of photographs and storage Creating the grid and external units for analysis – i.e. superimposing a framework Data bites and links … this enables coding Photographs remain external to NVIVO 2, but internal with NVIVO 7. With NVIVO 8 the capacity to analyse film will become a feature.
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 12 6/04/2015 Stage 2: Inter-observer reliability Should we include others in order to check the ‘grunt’ of our interpretation. Why? There are problems in calibrating reliability reliably – just how useful is it to calculate this – with whom, when and why? After all, it’s the points of difference that matter, isn’t it? Not everyone sees the same…an example…
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 13 6/04/2015
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 14 6/04/2015
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 15 6/04/2015 Although each little picture can tell its own story….. They do make sense together; they comprise a gestalt. But we also need to interpret the big picture in order to better understand and appreciate the parts.
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 16 6/04/2015 Benefits: TTime saving? Debatable – the jury remains in deliberation EEnhanced analysis... 25 little photographs and one biggee… PPerspective enhancement…not everyone sees the same EEnriched critical self-reflection … when the stories of the actors within the pictures don’t match what you think you saw, you literally become jolted into confronting your own perceptions against their reported realities. That’s powerful critical reflection!
© Flexibleplus - Research & Development, Ph +64 9 411 7703 www.flexibleplus.com 17 6/04/2015 Conclusions: This approach, amongst other things, also offers additional lenses for critical self-reflection It facilitates a more detailed QL analyses for all stakeholders The subjects The teachers The researchers It appears to offer a ‘novel’ way of approaching visual analyses via computers. Watch this space…
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