Presentation on theme: "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ADHD IN THE HOME4/30/02Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)Tips for Understanding and Managing ADHD in the HomePresented by: Brett L. Patterson, M.A.Brett L. Patterson, M.A.
2 Goals for This Presentation ADHD IN THE HOME4/30/02Goals for This PresentationProvide a basic understanding of what ADHD is, and what it is not.Attempt to answer any questions and dispel any myths that many people have regarding ADHD.Introduce some guiding principles for dealing with ADHD behaviors.Brett L. Patterson, M.A.
3 ADHD IN THE HOME4/30/02ADHD ExposedADHD is identifiable via behavioral, not physical characteristics, making it more likely to be misunderstood.Misperceptions:Behaviors that directly result from ADHD are not primarily attributable to poor parenting, lack of discipline, low motivation, or intentional “trouble making.”Not everything that fidgets and/or behaves defiantly is ADHD.Brett L. Patterson, M.A.
4 What Is ADHD? Neurobehavioral disorder marked by: InattentionDifficulties controlling impulsesExcessive motor activity (hyperactivity)Be aware…the mere presence of these behaviors does not mean the child has ADHD.
5 Indicators of ADHD as a Developmental Disorder (Barkley, 1995) Seen in early child developmentBehaviors clearly distinguish child from non-ADHD childrenOccurs across several situations (though not necessarily in all of them)Behaviors persistent over timeChild not able to perform at age-appropriate levelsNot accounted for by environment of social causesRelated to brain functionAssociated with other biological factors that can affect brain function (i.e. head injuries, genetics)
6 Things We Can See (aka, Common Complaints) Difficulties sustaining attentionDaydreamingChild doesn’t listenAlways losing thingsForgetfulEasily distractedNeeds constant supervisionChild doesn’t finish anything he/she starts
7 Common Complaints (cont’d) Problems with impulse controlImpatient/Difficulties waiting for thingsAlways interrupting othersBlurts out answersDoesn’t take turnsTries to take shortcuts on many tasks (including chores, homework, etc.)
8 Common Complaints (cont’d) HyperactivityAlways on the goSquirmy…can’t sit stillTalks too muchFrequently hums or makes odd noisesUnable to “put the brakes on” motor activityChild has two speeds; asleep and awake
9 What Do These Behaviors Have in Common? Problem isn’t as much sustaining attention as it is sustaining inhibition…this is the hallmark of ADHDInhibition: a mental process that restrains an action (behavior) or emotionProblems of inhibition are not a matter of choice, but are instead a result of what is (or is not) going on in the child’s brain
10 ADHD and the Human Brain Portions of brain’s frontal lobe are responsible for “Executive” functions:Consolidating information from other areas of the brain“Considers” potential consequences and implications of behaviorsPuts “brakes” on (inhibits) impulsive reactionsInitiates appropriate response to environment
11 ADHD and the Brain (cont’d) Research suggests that in in children with ADHD, these “executive” areas of the brain are under-activeIncreasing the activity level in these areas of the ADHD brain have been shown to decrease behavioral symptoms. This is the logic behind using Stimulant medications as a first line treatment for the disorder.
12 Common Stimulant Medications Methylphenidate (Ritalin)Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine)Amphetamine/ Dextroamphetamine (Adderall)Pemoline (Cylert)
13 Things That Look Like ADHD DepressionAnxietyHearing problemsVisual problemsSeizure disorderOppositional defiant disorderAutismLearning disabilitiesParenting problemsSubstance useMedication side-effectsLead poisoning
14 Ten Guiding Principles for Raising a Child with ADHD (Barkley, 1995) Give your child more immediate feedback and consequencesGive more frequent feedbackUse larger and more powerful consequencesUse incentives before punishmentStrive for consistency
15 Ten Guiding Principles for Raising a Child with ADHD (cont’d) Act, don’t yak!Plan ahead for problem situationsKeep a disability perspectiveDon’t personalize your child’s problems or the disorderPractice forgiveness
16 In Using These Principles, It Is Important That the Parent: Pause before reacting to the childUse the ensuing delay to remember all 10 guiding principles (post them around the house if necessary)Choose a response that is consistent with the principles
17 Additional Tips for Managing ADHD Behaviors Pay positive attention to your child…catch them being goodGive effective commandsShort, sweet, and straightforwardLimit the number of tasks to 1-2 per commandMaintain clear and consistent expectationsCommunicate realistic consequences for inability to meet expectations
18 Tips for Managing ADHD (Cont’d) Manage the child’s environmentLimit distracting influences during times when child is asked to be on task (i.e. homework)Maintain a regular and predictable daily scheduleWhen eliciting child’s input, limit (but don’t eliminate) the number of choices available to him/her to 2-3 options
19 Tips for Managing ADHD (Cont’d) Be patientBe persistentBe understanding*Most importantly, remember to differentiate the behaviors from the childBad behaviors are not synonymous with a bad child
20 Resources Available to Parents Children and Adults with ADD (CHADD): a family support organization that provides a variety of services. (www.chadd.org or the Central OK chapter phone number isThere is a plethora of readings available to those interested in obtaining more information on ADHD. One that I have found particularly useful in working with parents is Taking Charge of ADHD: The Complete Authoritative Guide for Parents, by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. (1995)