Presentation on theme: "IP2013sLIDESlECTUREmb10 SUSTAINABLE REFURBISHMENT, RETROFIT, ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN HOUSING Sustainable development of local systems for a sustainable building."— Presentation transcript:
IP2013sLIDESlECTUREmb10 SUSTAINABLE REFURBISHMENT, RETROFIT, ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN HOUSING Sustainable development of local systems for a sustainable building refurbishment The Case of Emilia Romagna Region
Ferrari Mod. CALIFORNIA Parma Bacon Two symbols of.ER Productions
E.R. Balance among sectors Turnover, employment and activity ratios. Agriculture 18 % Industry 32 % Commerce and services 35 % New economy business 15 %
The Return on Equity ( ROE ) Macro Sector FCERITA Agriculture 0,1%-1,2%-0,2% Manufacturing 7,5%7,7%6,3% Building 7,6%9,5%12,0% Services 7,2%4,3%6,0%
Bottom up and Top Down Entrepreneurial Districts To understand the development model of ER and Italy based on Small and Medium Enterprises ( SMEs) we have to consider th two main process of entrepreneurial districts creation : The historical one that create ( as it happens mainly in the nothers regions of Italy ) entrepreneurial aggregation based on bottom up initiative in an integrated developemnt involving many dimension of local systems The intervention to establish industrial territorial concentrations funded on a top down process trigged by government support and facilities in a planned perspective ( mainly in south regions )
What model to support local system growth in a top down perspective ? Pole theory Rain system Structured interventions Based on a concentration of intervention that would produce in surrounding areas an induced entrepreneurial initiative Deriving from micro or small credits distributed to many initiatives diffused in the territory Connected to Local Territorial Agreements among stakeholders and Territorial Areas on main initiatives to be undertaken within each own role
Results and lessons from Top Down Interventions Pole theory Rain system Structured interventions Industrial poles becomed as cathedrals in the desert without any induced development There was no control on the employment of resources distributed among a large amount of entrepreneurial activities There is a serious difficulty in individuating local stackeholders
EMILIA ROMAGNA The district economy of Emilia Romagna
+ 80% of the employment is assured - 30 employees by enterprises with In Italy : + 75% of employment in enterprises with - 70 employees IN EMILIA ROMAGNA REGION
Bottom Up Development Modl in Mean features of Emilia Romagna economy High diversified social structure High diversified economic structure High networking activity
What’s the matter with italian S.M.E. and probably with the mediteranean way to the development ? Micro enterprise less than 10 employees Annual total turnover Eur Assets value Eur Small enterprise From 11 to 49 employees Annual turnover not exceeding Eur Assets value ( Tangible ) Eur Medium enterprise – employees – Annual total turnover Eur – Assets value Eur
Regardless of the measure, one result is striking and needs to be emphasized - not only are most enterprises in Europe small, but they also account for a significant amount of European work experience and economic activity.For example, in 2003 there were more than 19 million enterprises in Europe-19 (Table 3.1), providing a job for almost 140 million people. By contrast, there are only about large enterprises in existence, which account for only 0.2 % of all enterprises. So, the vast majority of enterprises in Europe-19 (99.8 %) are SMEs. Within the group of SMEs, the vast majority (over 90 %) are micro enterprises, employing fewer than 10 persons.
U.S. Statistics 2003 N° firms establishments employees Annual payroll ( x 1000$ )
The Added Value per Occupied Person
The organizational dimension is strictly connected to the problem of labour constraints.
Management versus S.M.E. Traditional theories S.M.E. are … Undercapitalized Hardly to change their work methods Oriented to local market New Theories S.M.E. are … Supported by family estate Strongly innovative and flexible Easy moving in globalization flows
Let’s have a look to the directory of a Small and Medium Enterprises Associations of Forlì (Italy ) *) MAF RODA ITALIA S.P.A. Via Consolare, BERTINOROProduzione macchine per la lavorazione della frutta (18) *) MAGAZZINI DRUDI Via Guarnieri, CESENACommercio articoli casalinghi e idee regalo (8) *) MAR MOBILI ARR.TI RUBICONE SNCSede Legale: Via Verga, GATTEO Produzione mobili (22) *) MGM MONDO DEL VINO S.R.L. Sede Legale: Via Vassura, FORLI' Import/Export vino (5) *) MARTINI COSTRUZIONI NAUTICHE SRL Sede Legale: Via Tarcento, SAN GIORGIO DI CESENA Produzione di natanti da diporto in vetroresina (24) *) NALDONI VITTORIO Via Zignola, FORLI' Costruzione apparecchi riscaldamento a gas (17) *) RAMILLI GIOVANNI & C. S.N.C. Sede Legale: Via Emilia Ovest, SAVIGNANO SUL R. Costruzione, riparazione, installazione e noleggio impianti irrigazione (8) ( ) N° of employees at
The Results : Emilia Romagna Industrial Clusters AUTOMATED MACHINES Packaging, General use machinery HEATH AND MEDICAL RESEARCH Biomedical and orthopedic equipment Medical research LOGISTICS Infrastructures Value-added Services MOTOR INDUSTRY Motorcycles and motobikes Automotive industry FASHION Leather and textile fashion production FOOD INDUSTRY Food processing EXISTING CLUSTERS EMERGING CLUSTERS Publishing industry Culture and entertainement MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONICS Electric and electronic equipment
Education and Research Network PIACENZA PARMA REGGIO EMILIA MODENA FORLI’ BOLOGNA FERRARA RAVENNA RIMINI Bologna University Modena University Parma University La Cattolica University Ferrara University CNR National Research Council (800 Researchers and Technicians) 5 UNIVERSITIES with 130,000 students, 1,369 full professors, 1,717 associated professors, 1,830 researchers (Bologna University: the oldest of Europe) ENEA National Body for New Technologies, Energy and Environment (400 Researchers) 6,500RESEARCHERS AND PROFESSORS
ARTIFICIO (R&D for Art and Culture) CENTRO CERAMICO (Ceramic tyles) CERMET (Quality ) ECIPAR Emilia Romagna GEMINI ICIE (Cooperatiive Institute for Innovation) QUASCO (Building ) QUASAP (Quality & Service for Public Tenders) SCS (Services for Innovation) SPINNER Technology Transfer and NTBF PIACENZA PARMA REGGIO EMILIA MODENA FORLI’ BOLOGNA FERRARA RAVENNA RIMINI API SERVIZI CITER (Textile) CONSOBIOMED (Biomedical) DEMOCENTER (Industrial automation) TECNOERA (Textiles and Garments) R&S Engineering (Wood processing) CRITTdi Spilamberto CONSORZIO FERRARA INNOVAZIONE FERRARA RICERCHE SOPRIP SSICA (Food processing) TETA (Food) PARMA TECNINOVA AS ( Integrated services for) enterprises CENTRO SERVIZI PMI Reggio Emilia Innovazione COIMEX CRPA (Dairy and meat products) LAB. D’IMPRESA (Injection moulding) LEGNO-LEGNO (Wood) CRR Consorzio Reggio Ricerche POLO CERAMICO Agency CENTURIA (Agro-industry and environment ) CERCAL (Footwear ) CRPV (Vegetables and fruit products) CISE for Innovation & Economic Devolpment Consorzio Mobile 2000 CSR Research&Studies Technological Transfer Centres Network
An historical Reference to Local Bottom - Up Development 12 th – 18 th Cent. The original Hanseatic League was a mercantile alliance of about 80 trading cities and their merchant guilds. The League founded and governed a trade cartel amongst cities along the coast of Northern Europe and inland trade routes from the 12th through the mid-17th century. Their reach extended along the Baltic Sea
A jump to XXI Cent. The case of European Big Waterways
ElementsRheinPoVolga Length (km) Drainage Area (km2) Discharge (m3/s) Population Sea at Mouth NorthMediterraneanCaspian Ramsar Sites 1892
Different levels of performing structures
What About the Links with the territory ? Regions Provinces Municipalities Prefectures Chambers of Commerce Associations among local governments Public and private enterprises Associations of Employiers Citizen and customerAssociations Local Networks ………….
Networking What is this ?
The Differentiation of Network Links
Links Location around Waterways From linear approach to focal point action.
How to built a Network ? Top Down or Bottom Up ?
Clustering Versus Networking Approach CLUSTERING : From the top to the bottom ( Top Down Processes ) NETWORKING : From Bottom to the Top ( Bottom up Processes)
An Example of bottom up economy :the Focal Points on Volga River
Moving people and focal points
Micro business and bottom up economy
Poor but effective premises
New perspectives in sustainable refurbishment, retrofit, energy management in housing Bottom Up economy SME S Creation and improvement Involvement of Local Stakeholders