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GC #1: cognates Cognates are words that can be easily recognized because they either look or sound like words in the English language. However, there are.

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Presentation on theme: "GC #1: cognates Cognates are words that can be easily recognized because they either look or sound like words in the English language. However, there are."— Presentation transcript:

1 GC #1: cognates Cognates are words that can be easily recognized because they either look or sound like words in the English language. However, there are false cognates: Examples of cognates – La clase, febrero Examples of false cognates – Embarazada, sopa

2 GC #2: pronouns Yo-I Tú-you Él-he Ella-she Usted (Ud.)- you formal Nosotros we Vosotros You (Spain) Ellos (as)-they Ustedes (Uds.) You First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

3 GC # 3: ser (to be) Yo soy Tú eres Él es Ellas es Usted (Ud.) es Nosotros somos Os sois Ellos son Ellas son Ustedes son First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

4 GC #4: question formation Preguntas (con letra) ECDL To ask a question that may be answered yes or no, simply raise your voice at the end of the question. You may answer a question with the word no twice: once to mean no and again to mean not. Notice that all question words are written with an accent mark. Also all questions start with an upside question mark ¿ then close up the questions with ?

5 GC # 4: question formation ¿Qué dice el Wordle? ¿Qué? ¿Cómo? ¿Cuándo? What? How? When?

6 GC # 4: question formation ¿Quién? ¿Quiénes? ¿Cuánto? Who? Who all? Who are? How much?

7 GC # 4: question formation ¿Por qué? ¿De dónde? ¿Cuál? Why? Where from? Which? What?

8 GC #5: gender and adjective agreement Adj. describe nouns and must therefore match the gender and number of the noun. The masculine forms of most adj. end in –o. The feminine forms of most adj. End in –a. Adj. ending in consonants or “e” have the same masc. and fem. Forms and do not add an “a”.

9 GC #5: gender and adjective agreement One exception: Adj. ending in letters “or” or are adj. of nationality form the fem. By adding an “a” To make an adj. plural, add –s to the singular form. If it ends in a consonant, add –es. To describe a mixed group of men and women, use the masc. Plural form of the adj.

10 GC #5: gender and adjective agreement To describe a mixed group of men and women, use the masc. plural form of the adj. Examples: – El libro bueno – La comida buena – Los libros buenos – Las comidas buenas

11 GC #6: nouns and definite articles Definite articles are used to say “the”. They have different forms and must agree with the noun in gender and number.

12 GC # 6: definite articles (the) Masculino el los femenino la las singular plural

13 GC #7: gustar (to like) Use the verb gustar to say what people like. If the thing they like is singular, use gusta. If it's plural, use gustan. Use ¿qué? with gusta to ask what someone likes.

14 Ejemplos: ¿Te gusta la pizza? Do you like pizza? --Sí, y me gustan las verduras. --Yes, and I like vegetables. ¿Qué te gusta? What do you like? Me gustan los carros. I like cars.

15 GC # 7: gustar (to like) Me gusta Te gusta Le gusta Nos gusta Os gusta Les gusta First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

16 1.Notice that le can stand for you (usted), he, she or it; 2.and les can stand for you (ustedes) or they. 3.To ask who is being talked about, use a quién or a quiénes. 4.To clarify who is being talked about, use a + name(s).

17 Ejemplos: —¿A quién le gusta la pizza? —Who likes pizza? —A Juan le gusta la pizza. —¿A quiénes les gusta la pizza? —Who likes pizza? —A Juan y a Sara les gusta.

18 Put the word no before the pronoun to say don't or doesn't. —¿Te gusta la fruta? —No, no me gusta la fruta. To ask why, use ¿Por qué? Answer with porque (because). —¿Por qué te gusta el helado? —Me gusta porque es delicioso.

19 GC #8: Preposition “de” 1)De is used to show possession or relationship. Es el carro de Ernesto. It’s Ernesto’s car. Son los amigos de la profesora. They’re the teacher’s friends.

20 GC #8: Preposition “de” 2)In addition, de can be used to indicate what type of thing you’re describing. los libros de aventuras adventure books las películas de misterio mystery movies

21 GC #8: Preposition “de” 3)The word de is also used to say where someone is from. Julio es de Costa Rica. Julio is from Costa Rica. 4)The preposition de followed by el makes the contraction del. el correo electrónico del profesor the teacher’s address

22 GC #9: Gustar + infinitives 1)Infinitive – to + a verb, tells what’s happening without telling who performs the action or when the action takes place: 2)There are 3 types of infinitives in Spanish -ar-er-ir Hablar comer escribir

23 3) Use an infinitive after the verb “gustar” to say what people like to do. Me gusta patinar. I like to skate. ¿Te gusta cantar? Do you like to sing? Cantar  is a verb written in the infinitive. 4) Always use gusta with an infinitive never gustan.

24 GC #10: Querer (to want) 1.Use a noun after querer to say what you want. 2.Use an infinitive after querer to say what you want to do. Examples: Quiero Taco Bell.I want Taco Bell. Quiero comer Taco Bell. I want to eat…

25 GC #10: Querer  to want quiero quieres Quiere queremos queréis quieren First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

26 GC #11: Pronouns after prepositions 1.Pronouns can have different forms even if they refer to the same person. Example: Yo soy Andrea. Me gusta el helado. 2 After preposition like a (to, at), de (of, from, about), and en (in, on, at), the subject pronouns yo and tú change to mí and ti. All other subject pronouns stay the same.

27 3.Con + the pronoun mí and ti make conmigo (with me) and contigo (with you). 4.To add people to the sentence, use the word a before the name. Example: A Lisa y a Teo les gusta cantar. A mí me gusta patinar.

28 GC #12: Present tense of regular –ar verbs 1.Every verb has a stem followed by an ending. The stem tells the verb’s meaning. An infinitive ending doesn’t name a subject. Stem Hablarending StemComer ending StemVivirending

29 2.To give the verb a subject, you conjugate it. To conjugate a regular -ar verb in the present tense, drop the -ar ending of the infinitive and add these endings. Each ending goes with a particular subject.

30 Cantar: to sing Yo canto Tú cantas Él canta Ella canta Ud. Canta Nosotros cantamos vosotros/as cantáis Ellos/as cantan Uds. cantan First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

31 Examples: --¿Cantan ustedes mucho? Do you sing a lot? --No, casi nunca cantamos. No, we hardly ever sing.

32 3.Since most of the time the ending of the verb tells the subject, the subject pronoun is normally left out. Use subject pronouns to add emphasis, or when it wouldn’t otherwise be clear who the subject is.

33 Examples: --¿Patinan ustedes mucho? Do you skate a lot? --Ellos patinan. Yo nunca pantino. They skate. I never skate.

34 GC #13: irregular verb ir The -ar verbs you have learned are called regular verbs because their conjugations all follow a predictable pattern. Some verbs such as ir (to go) are called irregular, because they do not follow a clear pattern.

35 GC #13: Ir  to go VoyVoy Vas VaVa Vamos vais Van First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

36 GC #13: jugar U  UE The verb jugar (to play a sport or game) has regular -ar endings, but the vowel u in the stem changes to ue in all but the nosotros and vosotros forms.

37 GC #13: Jugar: to play Juego Juegas Juega Jugamos Jugáis Juegan First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

38 The preposition a is used after ir to mean to. A is also used after jugar with a sport. When a is followed by el, the two words combine to form the contraction al. Use ¿adónde? to ask where to. Al  to the —¿Adónde van los domingos?

39 CONTRACTION: al = a + el 1.Juego al (a el) ajedrez. 2.Jugamos al béisbol. 3.Juegas al básquetbol. 4.Voy al (a el ) mercado. 5.Vamos al (a el ) cine. 6.Van al (a el) colegio.

40 GC #14: Weather Expressions ¿Qué tiempo hace? How is the weather? Hace mal tiempo. The weather is bad. Hace buen tiempo. The weather is good.

41 Hace fresco.It is cool. Hace calor.It is hot. Hacer frío.It is cold. Hace sol.It is sunny. Hace viento.It is windy. Llueve.It rains. Nieva.It snows.

42 GC #15: Indefinite Articles. 1.Indefinite articles are used to say “a”, “an”, and “some”. 2.Indefinite articles have four forms and must agree with the noun in gender and number.

43 GC #15: indefinite articles masculine un unos feminine una unas Sing. Plu.

44 GC #16: Present Tense -er verbs -o -es -e -emos -en First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

45 GC #16: P T -ir verbs -o -es -e -imos -en First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

46 GC #17: tener (to have) TengoTengo Tienes Tiene Tenemos Tienen First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

47 Tener idioms Tengo que + infinitive-to have to do something. Tener ganas de + inf. –to feel like doing something. Tener prisa– to be in a hurry Tener (mucha) hambre– to be very hungry

48 Tener mucha sed—to be very thirsty. Tener sueño– to be sleepy Tener miedo– to be afraid Tener calor– to be hot Tener frío– to be cold

49 GC #18: venir (to come) VengoVengo Vienes Viene Venimos Vienen First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

50 GC #19: hacer (do) Hago Haces Hace Hacemos Hacen First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

51 GC #19: poner (to put) Pongo Pones Pone Ponemos Ponen First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

52 GC #19: traer (to bring) Traigo Traes Trae Traemos Traen First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

53 GC #19: salir (to go out) Salgo Sales Sale Salimos Salen First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

54 GC #19: Saber (to know something ) SéSé Sabes Sabe Sabemos Saben First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

55 GC #19: Ver (to see) VeoVeo Ves Ve Vemos Ven First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

56 GC #20: Stem-Changing Verbs e  ie DespertarseTo wake up SentirseTo feel MantenerseTo maintain/To stay in form CerrarTo close ComenzarTo start SentarseTo sit down

57 GC #20: Stem-Changing Verbs e  ie QuererTo want EmpezarTo begin EntenderTo understand PreferirTo prefer CalentarTo heat up PerderTo lose

58 GC #20: Stem-Changing Verbs e  i ServirTo serve PedirTo ask for VestirseTo get dressed SeguirTo follow ConseguirTo obtain

59 GC #20: Stem-Changing Verbs O  ue DormirTo sleep VolverTo return AlmorzarTo have lunch ProbarTo try (food) AcostarseTo go to bed

60 GC #20: Stem-Changing Verbs O  ue Encontrarse To find oneself with Doler To feel pain CostarTo cost DevolverTo return (something) ColgarTo hang (something) ContarTo count

61 GC #20: Stem-Changing Verbs U  ue Jugar to play

62 GC #20: possessive adj. My Your(s) His/her(s) Our(s) Their(s) First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

63 GC #20: possessive adj. Mi (s) Tu (s) Su (s) Nuestra(s) Nuestro(s) su(s) First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

64 GC #21: Estar + prepositions Estoy Estás Está Estamos Están First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

65 Prepositions The verb estar is also used with some prepositions to say where someone or something is in relation to someone or something else. Here are some prepositions made up of more than one word:

66 Prepositions Detrás de  behind Cerca de  close to, near Debajo de  underneath Al lado de  next to

67 Prepositions Delante de  in front of Lejos de  far from Encima de  on top, above

68 Ejemplo ¿En dónde esta tu departamento? Está detrás de un edificio grande.

69 Tocar Tocar is used to say what you have to do, what your duties are, or whose turn it is.

70 GC #23: tocar (to play/to touch) Me toca(n) Te toca(n) Le toca(n) Nos toca (n) Les toca(n) First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

71 ejemplos ¿Qué quehaceres te tocan en tu casa? ¿Qué te toca hacer hoy?

72 Parecer Parecer means to seem. It is used to give your opinion about something.

73 GC #23: Parecer Me parece(n) Te parece(n) Le parece(n) Nos parece(n) Les parece(n) First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

74 ejemplos ¿Qué te parecen tus clases? ¿Qué te parece hacer tarea?

75 GC # 24: Ser vs. Estar Ser and estar both mean to be.

76 Ser 1.Permanent characteristics. 2.Physical descriptions 3.Origin/natinality 4.Time expressions 5.Professions (jobs)

77 GC #24: Ser Soy-I am Eres- you are Es-he is, she is, you are - formal Somos- we are Son- they are; you all are First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

78 Estar 1.Estar 2.Location 3.Feelings 4.Weather expressions

79 GC #24: estar Estoy-I am estás- you are Está, he is, she is, you are - formal Estamos- we are Estás- they are; you all are First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

80 Pedir and servir 1.Pedir  to ask for; to order 2.Servir  to serve

81 Pedir and servir 1.Pedir  i 2.Servir  i

82 Pedir  to ask for; to order Pido pides Pide pedimos Piden First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

83 Servir  to serve sirvo sirves sirve servimos sirven First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

84 GC #25: direct object pronouns Verbs can be followed by direct objects, the person or thing receiving the action of the verb. Rafaela pone la mesa. Siempre pido la sopa. A direct object can be a noun or a pronoun. Use direct object pronouns to avoid repeating nouns that have already been mentioned. These pronouns must agree with the nouns they stand for.

85 Direct object pronouns

86 Servir  to serve Singular Lo- it, him La- it, her Plural Las Los- them - them

87 GC #25: direct object pronouns Direct object pronouns go before the conjugated verb. If there is an infinitive in the sentence, the pronouns go before the conjugated verb or are attached to the end of the infinitive. —¿Quién prepara los sándwiches? —Yo los preparo. —¿Quién va a preparar la cena? —Mi padre la va a preparar. —Mi padre va a prepararla.

88 GC #26: affirmative informal commands To tell someone you address as tú to do something, use an affirmative informal command. To form the affirmative informal command of regular or stem-changing verb, just drop the final s off the end of the tú form of the verb. (tú) hablas  hablayou speak  speak (tú) comes  comeyou eat  eat (tú) pides  pideyou ask (for)  ask (for)

89 GC #26: affirmative informal commands Pide un sandwich de pollo. Order a chicken sandwich. Lava los platos. Wash the dishes.

90 GC #26: affirmative informal commands Some verbs have irregular affirmative informal command forms. TenerTenhave VenirVencome HacerHazdo; make PonerPonput SalirSalgo out; leave IrVego SerSébe

91 GC #26: affirmative informal commands Here are some verbs you might use to ask someone to help you in the kitchen. They all have regular command forms. Note that calentar is an e→ ie stem-changing verb. Abrirabreopen up Cortarcortacut Mezclarmezclamix Calentarcalientaheat up Sacarsacatake out Añadirañadeadd

92 GC #27: Reflexive Pronouns A reflexive verb shows that the subject acts upon itself. In Spanish, reflexive verbs have -se attached to the verb. (lavarse, bañarse, ponerse, quitarse, etc.). Some verbs can be both regular and reflexive. Lavo los platos.I wash the dishes. Me lavo la cara.I wash my face.

93 GC #27: Reflexive Pronouns When you conjugate the reflexive verb, include the reflexive pronoun that agrees with the subject. Example: lavarse Yo me lavonosotros nos lavamos Tú te lavas Ud. Él, ella se lavaUds., ellos se lavan

94 GC #27: Reflexive Pronouns A reflexive pronouns can go before a conjugated verb or can be attached to the end of an infinitive: Example: Me voy a lavar la cara == voy a lavarme la cara. Both sentences mean: I am going to wash my face.

95 GC #27: Reflexive pronouns Me -I Te - you se – he, she, it, you formal Nos-we se- they You all First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

96 Reflexive pronouns Me despierto Te despiertas Se despierta Nos despertamos Se despiertan First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

97 Reflexive pronouns Me acuesto Te acuestas Se acuesta Nos acostamos Se acues tan First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

98 Reflexive pronouns: vestir Me visto Te vistes Se viste Nos vestimos Se visten First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

99 Reflexive pronouns Me mantengo Te mantienes Se mantiene Nos mantenemos Se mantienen First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

100 GC #28: Negative affirmative commands A negative command tells someone not to do something. To form the negative informal command of most -ar verbs, drop the final o of the yo form and add es. Yo fumoNo fumesDon’t smoke Yo trabajoNo trabajes Don’t work Yo hablono hables Don’t talk

101 GC #28: Negative affirmative commands To form the negative informal command of most -er and -ir verbs, drop the final o of the yo form and add as. Yo formn.i. commandtranslation Vengo No vengasdon’t come ComoNo comas don’t eat DuermoNo duermasdon’t sleep Pongono pongas don’t put

102 GC #28: Negative affirmative commands These verbs have irregular negative informal commands. Darno desDon’t give Irno vayasDon’t go Serno seasDon’t be

103 GC # 29: Demonstrative adj. and Comparatives. This, these: este, esta, estos, estas That, those: ese, esa, esos, esas

104 Estos pantalones estan pasados de moda.

105 GC # 29: Comparatives. Más + adj.: more…than Menos + adj.: less…than Tan + adj. + como: as…as

106 GC # 29: Irregular Comparatives. Mejor(es): better Peor(es): worse Menor(es): younger Mayor(es): older

107 GC # 29: Irregular Comparatives. Mejor(es): better Peor(es): worse Menor(es): younger Mayor(es): older

108 GC # 30-Preterite of –ar verbs -é -aste -ó -amos -aron First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

109 GC # 31-Preterite of “ir” to go Fui I went Fuiste You went Fue He,she, it went Fuimos We went Fueron They, you all went First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

110 GC # 32-Preterite of –er/-ir verbs -í -iste -ió -imos -ieron First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

111 GC # 33: conocer-to know someone Conozco conoces conoce conocemos conocen First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

112 Yo conozco a Laura. I know laura.

113 GC # 33: saber-to know-something SéSé sabes sabe sabemos saben First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

114 Yo sé hablar dos idomas. I know how to speak two languages.

115 GC # 34: present progressive –ar verbs Estoy cantando Estás cantando Está cantando Estamos cantando Están cantando First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

116 GC # 34: present progressive of –er verbs Estoy comiendo Estás comiendo Está comiendo Estamos comiendo Están comiendo First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

117 GC # 34: present progressive of –ir verbs Estoy viviendo Estás viviendo Está viviendo Estamos viviendo Están viviendo First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

118 GC # 34: present progressive of leer Estoy Leyendo Estás Leyendo Está Leyendo Estamos Leyendo Están leyendo First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

119 GC # 34: present progressive of dormir Estoy Durmiendo Estás Durmiendo Está Durmiendo Estamos durmiendo Están durmiendo First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

120 GC # 34: present progressive of servir Estoy Sirviendo Estás sirviendo Está sirviendo Estamos sirviendo Están sirviendo First person Second Person Third Person SingularPlural

121 La estoy haciendo Estoy haciendola


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